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debt, together with a further surplus of 280,000 rix-dolls. of the previous year.

The estimate for 1840 is,

Derlitre Dollars.

Nett revenue from domains - - 1,113, lll
Mines, &c. - - - - - 126,000
Tolls at Stade, &c. - - - 400,000
Tolls on roads - - - - 230,000
Post-office - - - - 140,000
Lottery and sundries - - 256,455
Direct taxes - - - - 2,178,300
Indirect taxes - - - - 1,382,269
Sundries - - - - - 188,887

f,015,022 King's civil list deducted from the

proceeds of the crown lands - 513,888

6,518,911

The expenditure for the same year was estimated at 5,872,889 dollars, without including the civil list. In 1837 the expenditure was 5,830,590 dollars. The national debt is said, by Abbelohde, to amount to 15,091,283 doll. 20 gr. : according to later accounts, it is 19,266,000 dollars. Thus the revenue is in a flourishing state, but Hanover is one of the heaviest taxed countries of Germany, especially if the large income drawn from the crown lands be considered.

The kingdom of Hanover ranks as the fifth state of the German confederation, and has 1 vote in the smaller assembly, and 4 votes in the full assembly, of the diet at Frankfort.

Army. — The contingent of Hanover to the confederate army is 13,050 men, belonging to the 10th division; but the whole army consists of above 20,000 men, and bears a proportion to the whole pop. of 1 to 83.

Men. Horses. Military staff - - - 45 2ngineers - - - - 198 Artillery, 2 companies horse-art. . 2 battalions foot - - 1,568 275 1 company pioneers Cavalry, 5 regiments - - 3,540 2,445 Infantry, 16 regiments - - 5,5 total - - 20,501 2,720

There are 10 garrison towns, a cannon- o at Hanover, and a manufactory for small arms at Herzberg. The expense of maintaining the army is about 1,500,000 rix-dollars yearly. History. — The kingdom of Hanover is formed out of the duchies formerly possessed by several families of the junior branch of the house of Brunswick. The reigning family derives its origin from the union of the Marquis d'Este, in the 11th o with a wealthy princess of Bavaria, the issue of which received the surname Guelph, from his maternal ancestors, and inherited the dukedom of Bavaria. Henry the Proud, third in descent from him last mentioned, married Gertrude, the ruling princess of Brunswick: their son, well known in the history of the crusades as o Lion (born 1129), was the first Guelph duke of Brunswick. He married a daughter of Henry II., king of England; and from this marriage both the houses of Brunswick and Lüneburg are descended. The history of Hanover for the two centuries preceding the Lutheran reformation presents little interest, except in the connection of its rinces with the wars of the Guelphs and Ghibellines, n the latter end of the 14th century: little or nothing is known of its internal history. The Reformation numbered the princes of Brunswick among its most zealous supporters, and their subjects, during the thirty years' war, warmly seconded their anti-papal efforts. Ernest of Zell, the reigning duke, was one of the most eloquent defenders of Luther at the diet of Worms. His endeavours to improve the people | establishing clerical and general schools, when learning was esteemed only by the few, show him to have been a man of enlightened views. His grandson, Ernest Augustus, married Sophia, a grand-daughter of James I. of England (by his daughter Elizabeth, the wife of the electorpalatine); and on this marriage was founded the claim of the elder branch of the house of Brunswick to the English crown, acknowledged by parliament in 1701. George Louis was the issue of this marriage, and became king of England in 1714; from which time till 1837, at the death of "William IV., both England and Hanover have had the same sovereign. The salic law then conferred the Hanoverian crown on Ernest, Duke of Cumberland, fifth, but eldest surviving son of George III. The important constitutional changes during the last thi years have been mentioned elsewhere. As respects other features of its history during the reigns of rge I. and II., the territory of the electors of Hanover was increased by the conquest and purchase of many adjoining districts; Bremenverden and Wildeshausen in

1719, the Hadeln-land in 1731, &c. Geo.III. added inohenstein and the bishopric of Osnabrück, which, by the treaty of Westphalia, was held ". his house as a secularised bishopric alternately with a Rom. Cath. prelate. In 1804, Prussia took possession of Hanover, but ceded it in the same year to the French, who constituted it a part of the kingdom of Westphalia, established in 1808. At the peace of 1813, the King of Great Britain reclaimed his rightful dominions, which were much enlarged by the stipulations of the treaty of Vienna, and formed into a o: On the definitive settlement of the kingdom, the district of Lauenburg was ceded by Hanover, which obtained in return the bishopric of Hildesheim, the principality of East Friesland, the districts of Lingen, Harlingen, &c. A treaty of mutual inheritance has long existed between Hanover and Brunswick, which was formally renewed in 1836, and by which the Hanoverian crown i. declared to descend to the dukes of Brunswick, on the extinction of male heirs of the line of Hanover. HANoven, a city of W. Germany, cap. of the above kingdom, on the Loire, a branch of the Weser, 84 m, S. Hamburg, 62 m. S.E. Bremen, 35 m. W. Brunswick. Lat. 52° 22′ 26° N., long. 9° 44' 40” E. Pop. (1835, 24,000. It is built in an extensive sandy plain, and is divided by the river (over which are several bridges), into an old and new town, each of which is governed by a o magistrate. The old town, on the right bank, has crooked and narrow streets, and is ill built and dirty: the streets of the new town are more regular, and are Hå. with handsome houses, particularly George Street and Frederick Street, *"; on a fine esplanade; the latter is adorned with the handsome monumental rotunda of Leibnitz, and the column, 156 ft. high, sacred to the memory of the Hanoverians who fell in the battle of Waterloo. The chief public buildings are the royal lace, of good exterior architecture, and splendidly tted up within, especially the Ritter-saal, or knights’ hall; the opera-house attached to the ace; the viceroy's palace; the house of assembly of the states (Landständehaus); the mint; the arsenal ; the Guterb-schule (trade school); the royal stables, where the well known breed of black and cream-coloured Hanoverian horses is kept ; and the town-hall and record-office, containing a library of 80,000 printed books, besides about 2,000 valuable MSS., chiefly given by Leibnitz, who was a reat benefactor to this town. Besides this, there are i. seven other public libraries attached to various national establishments. (P'on Reden, ii. 463.) There are 7 churches, 4 Lutheran, 2 Calvinist, and 1 Rom. Catholic: of these the handsomest are the court and city church in the new town, and the Schloss-kirche, which contains the remains of the Electress Sophia and her son George I., King of England. Outside the town are 2 suburbs, Linden and Gartengemeinde, in the latter of which are upwards of 500 houses, with gardens, &c. About 3 m. distant is Mount Brillant, the king's country residence, and formerly the seat of Count Walmsden. who enriched it with a gallery of fine pictures. About 1 m. distant is the old palace of Herrnhausen, once the favourite residence of George I. and George II. : it is heavy and tasteless, and appears to be § to decay. The gardens, which are laid out in the old French style, formerly contained a fine collection of rare plants : but they were dispersed during the late war. Hanover has several establishments for education, among which are the Georgianum, founded in 1776, for educating 40 sons of the nobility free of expense, the lyceum, the normal school (the earliest of its kind, founded in 1754), several elementary schools, and a girls' school of industry. Among the charitable institutions are a large almshouse, an orphan asylum, and several hospitals, one of which has been only lately erected. There are also, a Bible Society founded in 1806, a Soc. of Nat. Hist, an Hist. Soc., an Art. Union, which annually exhibits specimens of Hanovorian artists, and a trade union. The manufactures consist mostly of oil-cloth, gold and silver articles, with beer, leather, tobacco, chicory, &c.; but they are of trifiing importance. The transit trade with Bremen and the interior of Germany is very considerable: there is an exchange, a chamber of commerce, and a Berghandburg, or market for mining produce. Commercial activity, however, prevails more among the Dutch and foreign German merchants settled in the town, than amongst the Hanoverians. Some of the bankers are considerable italists. The town is not considered healthy : N. and E. winds are prevalent, and much rain falls. Longevity is said to be rare. The foundation of Hanover, though attributed to the eleventh century, is most probably of still earlier date. In 1303 it is mentioned as having some trade in cloth, skins, and salt. Little more is known of it till 1536, when its inhabitants distinguished themselves by their zeal in the Reformation. It escaped the ão. of the thirty years' war, and even refused admission to the victorious troops of Tilly in 1625. The old royal palace was built early in the 17th century, and in 1641 it became the residence of the Duke Christian Louis, since which it has always been the capital of the electorate and kingdom, and has made great advances in size and splendour. The ramparts being found useless as a means of defence, were in 1780 converted into a handsome esplanade, and planted with trees. (Berghaus ; Stein ; Jon Reden.) HARBOROUGH (MARKET), a market town and chapelry of England, par. Gt. Bowden, co. Leicester, hund. Gartree, on the N. bank of the Welland, which divides it from Northamptonshire, and 14 m. S. E. Leicester. Pop. of town in 1831, 2,272. It consists of a well-built street, crossed by several others of inferior character; and near the middle of the town is a handsome town-hall, with shops below, and a justice-room above, in which the county magistrates transact their business. The church is fine and spacious, and its octangular spire is one of the most elegant in England. The dissenters have 3 places of worship, attached to which, as well as to the church, are Sunday schools, giving instruction altogether to about 500 children. Considerable trade takes place on the market-days and at the October fairs ; which, not less now than in the time of Camden, are famous for the show of beasts. Silk and shalloon weaving, and the manufacture of carpets are carried on here, but not extensively. One mill is returned as working 2 cmgines, and employing 103 hands. (Parl. Rep.) Market-llarborough is one of the polling-places for the S. division of the co., and is the chief town of a poor law union, comprising 41 pars; or townships. Markets on Tuesday; fairs Jan. 6., Feb. 16., April 29., and July 31., Oct. 19. and 8 following days, for cattle, leather, cheese, &c. Other fairs are held on the "Tuesdays after March 2.., after Midlent Sunday, and before Nov. 22. and IDec. 8. IIARLINGEN, a sea-port town of Holland, prov. Friesland, on the Vliestrome, or entrance to the Zuyder Zee, opposite the Texel, and at the mouth of the canal of Leewarden, 15 m. W. by S. that town. Pop. nearly 8,000. It is pretty well fortified, and is strong by its position, the surrounding country being readily laid under water. Streets regular, well built, clean, and intersected with canals bordered with trees. Chief edifices, the Admiralty, a large par. church, and the town-hall. It has a good harbour; but the entrance to it is blocked up with sand-banks, so as not to admit large vessels. It has manufactures of sail-cloth, salt, hollands, paper, bricks, and lime, with building docks, and a brisk trade in corn, butter, cheese, flax, hemp, glue, pitch and tar;

&c. It is the seat of the naval office for the prov. ; and suffered severely from a violent storm in 1825. H.A. in ROW- -THE-Ill I.I., a village and par. of

England, co. Middlesex, hund. Gore, 10 m. N.W. by W. London. Area of par., 13,600 acres. Pop., in 1831, 3,861. The hill on which the village stands rises singly out of an extensive and fertile vale ; it is considerabl

depressed in the centre, but has two very conspicuous eminences at the extremes. On the more N. of these stands the church, with its tower and lofty steeple, a prominent feature throughout Middlesex and some of the adjoining counties. Part of this building is Norman, belonging to the 11th century; but the main fabric, with the tower, belongs to the 14th century. The living is a vicarage, in the gift of Lord Northwick. Immediately below the church lies the village, chiefly consisting of one street running down the slope of ...}. The best houses are mostly occupied either by assistant-masters, or others, who accommodate the scholars attending the free school, to which Harrow is wholly indebted for its celebrity. This school was founded, in 1571, by Mr. John Lyon, a wealthy yeoman of the neighbouring hamlet of Preston, and received a royal charter, by the terms of which the management of the property and the appointment of the master were committed to six trustees as a body corporate. The school-buildings are of brick, and have no claim to particular mention. The head Înaster's house has a Gothic porch, and is a sine old mansion. The primary object of this establishment was the gratuitous instruction of the poor children of Harrow, without limitation of number ; but the founder expressly directs “ that the master may receive, over and above the youth belonging to the par., as many fo**t i". as can be well taught and accommodated, for such stipends and wages as he can get, so that he take pains with all indifferently, as well of the par. as soreigners, as well of poor as of rich.” This liberality of the founder, and the judicious choice by the trustees of able and learned men as its masters, have chiefly conduced to its present very high reputation as a school for the English aristocracy; but, at the same time, there can be no doubt that the founder's intentions, as respects the poor of the par. itself, have been wholly frustrated. A classical education is quite unsuitable to the pop. of a village, and hence the school has been little used of late years by the parishioners. A petition of the latter to the Court of Chancery, in 1810, for the reformation of these abuses, was unsuccessful. (See Wesey's Chancery Reports, xvii. 498.) The revenues strictly applicable to the school amount to nearly 900l. a year, in the

hands of trustees, usually noblemen or gentlemen living in or near the par. The education furnished was exclusively classical till within the last few years, when Drs. Butler and Longley ventured to introduce a little modern history and arithmetic, neither of which, however, is considered at all important: beyond these trifling attempts at reform, we are not aware that any deviation has been made from the beaten path of the old grammar-schools. The routine of grammars, classes, hours, &c. very much resembles that pursued at Eton, owing, no doubt, to the appointment of several headmasters from that school : the Eton grammar is used, verse-making supersedes the more useful study of prose composition, learning-by-heart is a favourite employment ; and the pernicious private-tuition system, the chief object of which is to save the master's labour, and fill the tutor's pocket, prevails at Harrow no less than at Eton and Westminster. The masters originally were two only, the master, and the usher or under-master both of whom were permitted to take “foreigners” as boarders ; but as the school increased, further assistance became from time to time necessary, and there are now six assistant masters, paid either by the high or lower master, according to the school in which they teach ; and besides these there is a mathematical teacher. Ali the masters receive boarders; but the head-master does not furnish tuition, and hence arises the difference in the terms; for at a tutor's house they amount to 130l., whereas at the head-master's they are little more than 100t. All, however, are compelled to procure tuition, which is a part of the system. At least 60l. a year must be added to complete the necessary annual expenses of boys educated at this school. The governors have given |. for verses, and Sir R. Peel (an old Harrovian) has lately established a prize for Latin prose composition, besides which the head-master has voluntarily given rewards for composition. The speech-days, on which these papers are read or *..." are the first Wednesdays in June and July. The University scholarships attached to Harrow-school are four, established by the founder, of 50 guineas each, either to Oxford or Cambridge, and two of the same value, founded by the late Mr. Sayer, to Caius College, Cambridge,_all tenable for four years: they are gained by an impartial examination. The number of boys lo. the school fluctuates at present between 350 and 420. Among the many public characters educated in this school may be mentioned Sir William Jones, Spencer Percival, Dr. Parr, Lord Byron, Marquis of Hastings, and Sir Robert Peel. Harrow had formerly a weekly market. which is now decayed; but a pleasure fair is still held on the first Monday in o Bentley Priory, a fine seat belonging to the Marquis of Abercorn, is within this par. : it occupies the site of a monastery, dissolved at the Reformation. HARROWGATE, a village of England, celebrated for its mineral waters, co. York, W. riding, wap. Clare, forming with Bilton a o of the par. of Knaresborough, 178 m. N. London, 14 m. N. Leeds, and 20 m. W. by S. York. Area of chapelry 4,800 acres. Pop. of ditto, in 1831, 2,812. The village ss divided into High and Low Harrowgate. High Harrowgate is built on an elevated plain, which less than 100 years ago was properly described by Smollett as “a wild common, bare and bleak, without tree or shrub, or the least signs of cultivation.” At the close of last century, however, Lord Loughborough made large plantations; houses have since been built in different directions; and the situation is now extremely pleasant, commanding a most extensive view of the distant country, finely varied by towns, villages, fields, and woods. The cathedral of York is distinctly seen at the distance of 20 m., and the view W. is terminated by the mountains of Craven, and E. by the Hamilton Hills and Yorkshire wolds. The air is pure and bracing, and the climate dry and salubrious. Low Harrowgate is situated in a valley, and has many handsome stone buildings, erected either for hotels or private lodging-houses for visitors. An almost continuous series of these houses unites the }}|..." and lower parts of the village. The church of High Harrowgate is a well-built structure, erected in 1749 by subscription: that in the lower village was built in 1824. There are besides two chapels for Independents, and one for Wesleyan Methodists. A bath hospital was erected in 1826, which has been lately enlarged: it accommodates about 40 patients, who have the benefit of the waters free of charge. The springs of Harrowgate are both chalybeate and sulphureous. The chalybeate springs rise in both villages, the sulphur springs only in Low Harrowgate. The following analysis gives a tolerably correct idea of their chemical composition. [See top of next page.] The chalybeate waters are principally tonic and alterative, the sulphureous waters strongly purgative. The latter are also used externally in rheumatism and scorbutic cases. The wells are covered with elegant cupolas, and surrounded by promenades, for the accom ation of those who come to drink the waters. Races are held in summer on the high o to the W., where also is 3 3

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a high tower or observatory, from the to a very extensive (Allen's Hist. of routgate Waters.) HART FOR D, a town or city of the U. S., Connecticut, of which it is joint cap, with Newhaven, co. Hartford, on the W. bank of the Connecticut river, 50 m. from its mouth, and 32 m. N.N. E. Newhaven ; lat. 41° 46' N., long. 72° 50' W. Pop. (1830) 7,074. It is o situated, the river being navigable for to up to this point. It is generally well built, particularly the main street, and is connected with E. Hartford, on the other side of the river, by a bridge of 6 arches, 974 ft. long. It has a handsome state-house, 3 banks, including a branch of the U. S. Bank, an arsenal, academy, museum, college, 9 places of worship, and an asylum for deaf and dumb. The last named, the first institution of the kind established in America, was founded in 1817; and in 1819 was presented with a grant of 23,000 acres of land by congress ; besides which it is F. of other donations and sources of revenue. It s open to patients from the whole union, at a charge of only 115 dollars a year, and many are provided for and educated gratuitously. It occupies a large and commodious brick building, on an eminence about 3 m. W. of the city; is surrounded by grounds between 7 and 8 acres in extent, and has attached to it some workshops, in which the male pupils are taught mechanical trades. In 1830, 318 persons had been received in it. A little S. of the town is an asylum for the insane, a spacious stone edifice, with extensive grounds. Wash. ington Episcopal College, established 1826, is another of the public institutions at Hartford. It has a president, 8 professors, generally from 80 to 100 students, and a library of 6,200 vols. Hartford is the seat of the state assembly for Connecticut, alternately with Newhaven. It has manufactures of leather, shoes, woollen and cotton s, saddlery, brass work, carriages, &c.; many printng houses, a large inland trade, and daily communication with New York by steam-boats and stage-coaches. In 1837, a railroad betwen Hartford and Newhaven was in progress. (American Encyc. and Almanack, &c.) HARTLAND, a market town and par. of England, co., Devon, hund. same name, 44 m. W.N. W. Exeter, and 190 m. W. London. Area of par. 11,030 acres; pop., in 1831, 2,143. It is situated in a bleak district close to the borders of Cornwall, and 2 m. from the Bristol Channel, with which it is connected by a steep road that leads down to a quay lying under the cliffs, and much frequented by fishermen. The church, which stands on the cliffs, about a mile from the town, is a large building, and serves as a landmark to mariners. The inhabs. are employed in fishing and agriculture: the herring fishery on the coast is of some consequence, and the market is well attended. The town became a seaport by an act made in the reign of Elizabeth, and is #. by a portreeve. In a fine valley near it is Hartland Abbey, formerly a monastery of Black Canons, but now converted into a modern mansion. N.W. of the town is Hartland Point, a very high cliff, forming the W. boundary of Bideford Bay; and near it is a ridge of rocks, on which the sea breaks very heavily. Markets on Sat.: sairs, Easter Wed. and Sept. 25., sor cattle. H A RTLEPOOL, a town, par., and sea-port of England, co. Durham, ward Stockton, at the mouth of the Tees, 17 m. S. E. Durham, 16 m. S. by E. Sunderland. Area of par., 840 acres. Pop. of do., in 1831, 1,250. The town stands on a peninsula, connected with the mainland by a narrow neck at the N. end, which at high water assumes a crescent shape, stretching S. and S.W., forming a natural harbour, secure from the E. wind. The cliffs towards the sea N. are bold and abrupt, and their summits command a magnificent view of the sea, and the coasts both of Durham and Yorkshire. The town, which occupies the S.W. portion of the ninsula, consists at F'. of a principal street, Southgate, another behind t rising gradually from the old harbour to the moor. and several streets crossing them.

of which is rospect of the surrounding country. orkshire; Dr. Hunter on the Har

A few other houses have

been erected for the convenience of bathers. It was formerly fortified, as the old Durham gate and the ruins of walls abundantly testify. The church stands on a rising ground at the E end of Southgate, and appears to have been built at different periods. Hartlepool is a chapelry, dependent on Hart, the next par. ; but it was separated a few years ago. The free school was founded by John Crookes, in 1742, for the education of 30 §. The school-house was built in 1790, and the present annual value of the property is 281. At no great distance from town are two strongly fortified batteries, S. of which is the chalybeate spring. The old harbour is now choked up, and wholly useless, except to the fishermen. The present harbour, which lies S. of the town, is small, but has recently been much improved by the erection of a pier, 150 yards long, floodgates, &c., affording secure shelter for the smaller class of vessels. Fishing was until lately the chief occupation of the people, who are described as free, honest, industrious, and much attached to their town ; since the opening, however, of the S. Durham coal-field, and the }. railway, Hartlepool has had a considerable share in the coal trade; and there can be little doubt that its prospects are improving. Hartlepool was governed by a mayor, aldermen, and common council, under two charters, granted by King John in 1200, and by Queen Elizabeth in 1593; but the power of the corporation was destroyed by the Municipal Reform Act in 1834. The local act by which the town is regulated is 53 Geo. III., c. 35. Markets on Saturday: fairs, May 14. Aug. 21. Oct. 9. and Nov. 27. Hartlepool is a very old town, and during the 13th and 14th centuries was a place of considerable importance. In the reign of Edward III. it furnished five ships to the royal navy, and was the second town of the county palatime of Durham ; in later times, however, until very lately, it has been in a languishing condition. (Surtees's Hist. of Durham ; Priv. Inform.) HARW ICH, a market town, parl, bor., and sea-port of England, co. Essex, hund, Tendring, on a point of land at the S.E. extremity of the aestuary of the Stour, 66 m. E.N.E. London, 93 m. S.E. lbswich : lat. 51° 56' 39” N., long. 19 17’ 8” E. The bor. includes the parishes of St. Nicholas and Dover-court. Area, 2,060 acres. Pop. in 1831, 4,297. There are three o streets, and several smaller ; the houses are of brick, and the town is well paved, and lighted with gas. The church, a large brick structure, with stone buttresses and steeple, was erected in 1821, on the site of an older building. The living is a perpetual curacy. The grammar-school was founded in 1730, for 32 boys, and the mastership has usually been given to the curate, with a house, and salary of 40l. a year. The principal public buildings are the town-hall, gaol, and custom-house. The old gates and fortifications were demolished during the late civil war, and there are very few traces of them. The harbour of Harwich is the best on the E. coast of England ; the access to it is, however, a good deal encumbered with rocks, but ships properly navigated need apprehend no danger ; there is water to float the largest men-ofwar, and the harbour is at once capacious, safe, and commodious. It is said that 100 ships-of-war, and above 300 colliers, have been anchored here at the same moment. The excellence of the harbour, and its convenient situation, made Harwich be selected as the station whence the packets usually sailed with the mails for Hamburg and Helvoetsluys. The town is defended by a battery and by Landguard Fort, on the opposide side of the aestuary. The entrance to the harbour is indicated by two lighthouses with fixed lights, and is well buoyed. The sea has made great encroachments on the peninsula on which Harwich is built ; and the battery, which, when constructed, about 30 years since, had a considerable space of ground between it and the sea, is now partially undermined. (I well's Geology, i, 40. 3d ed.) “The prosperity of Harwich has very much declined of late years. During the late war with France it was in a very flourishing condition, owing |''. to the influx of strangers, who entered and quitted the kingdom at this place on their way to Hamburg and Helvoetsluys; partly to the convenience of its spacious harbour, its thriving fisheries, extensive government works, and the large garrisons kept up here and at Landguard Fort. Some of these advantages continued to a certain extent whilst the government packets to Holland, Germany, and Sweden were stationed here ; but since their removal (consequent on the general adoption of steam mail packets), a great diminution has taken place, and the fishery has almost ceased. The effect of this is shown by the number of empty houses in the town, and by the depreciation in value of those which are still occupied. A manufacture of cement is carried on here ; shipbuilding is also carried on by a private individual who rents the government dockyard, and the town derives some benefit from the visiters who frequent it in the bathing seasons. "I'here is, under these circumstances, little probability of any increase in the size of the town.” (Mun. Bound. Rep.) . There belonged to the port of Harwich, in 1836, 89 ships, of the burden of 5,572 tons. Harwich was formerly governed by a mayor, 8 aldermen, and 24 head burgesses, under the authority of a charter granted by James I. But under the Municipal Reform Act it is governed by a mayor, 4 aldermen, and 12 councillors. Corporation revenue, in 1839, 665l. , Harwich returned 2 mems. to the H. of C. in the reign of Edward III. : but the privilege was very soon withdrawn, and not restored till the 12th of James I. The franchise was vested in the resident members of the corporation, and it was, in fact, a nomination bor., in the patronage of the existing government. Under the Reform Act, it still returns 2 mems., and its limits continue unaltered. Registered electors, in 1838-39, 167. The boundaries of the mun. and parl. bor, are co-extensive, and include the par. The town is said to be of Roman origin, and in the time of the Saxons was used as a fortress. The earls of Norfolk were the lords of the manor, and through their agency its chief mun. and parl. privileges were originally obtained. HARZ (Silva Hercynia, Tac...), a mountain-chain of Germany, on the S.W. frontier of Hanover, connected by low hills with the Thuringer-wald, a W. offset from the Feahtelgebrige, the great centre of the German mountain-system. (See GERMANY.) It extends farther N. than any other chain, and immediately at its foot commences the great plain which stretches N. to the Baltic and from the N. Sea to the Wolga. It is a mass of mountain-land rather than a succession of ridges, and has no summits so high as Snowdon in N. Wales; its length is about 60 m., and average breadth 24 m. : area, 1,350 sq. m. Mansfeld and Seesen are considered as the limits of the Harz ; and it is divided into two sections by the watershed of the Weser and Elbe, which takes a direction from S.S. W. to N.N.E., and cuts the range at the Brocken (3,489 ft.). The higher summits are N.W. of the Brocken, and this section is, therefore, called the Upper Harz. It contains the chief mineral wealth of the range, and its forests consist of pines and other resinous trees. Its chief summits are the Heinrichshöhe, 3,409 ft., and the Königsberg, 3,307 ft. The lower Harz, which lies E. of the Brocken, is much less elevated, and its sides, covered with oaks, beeches, and other deciduous trees, are remarkable for beautiful scenery. The hills flanking its range, and beyond its strict limits, are called the Wor-harz. The geological composition of the Harz is granitic, overlaid by graiiwacké and clayslate, in which the mineral wealth is wholly found. The Wor-harz is composed of the flötz, or old red-sandstone formation. The mineral products of the Harz are considerable; and it is said to furnish annually 30,000 quintals of lead, 1,700 quintals of copper, 85 quintals of silver, and a very large quantity of iron. (See HANover.) These returns appear, however, to be quite insignificant, if we may rely on the accounts given of the capabilities of the Harz. (Bruguiere ; Contiers. Ler.) HASLEMERE, a bor., market town, and chapelry of England, par. Chiddingsold, in the S. W. angle of co. Surrey, hund. Godalming, 40 m. S.W. London, and 17 m. N. Chichester. Pop., in 1831, 849 (being a decrease of 42 since 1821). The town, only partly paved, and not lighted, stands on the side of a steep hill, and consists of a wide main street, crossed by two others, at the intersection of which is an ancient-looking town-hall. The houses are generally old and ill built, interspersed here and there with handsome residences. The church is ancient, with a low square tower: the Independents have a chapel; and there is a good national school. This place once possessed rather extensive manufactures of silk and crape; but these have disappeared: but it has still some large paper-mills about 1 m. distant. Its importance has greatly diminished since the alteration of the London and Portsmouth road, which withdrew from it the traffic incidental to a great thoroughfare. Markets (ill provided and thinly attended) on Tucsóays; fairs for cattle, May 13. and Sept. 26. This small and unimportant town sent 2 mems. to the H. of C. from the 27th of Elizabeth down to the passing of the Reform Act, by which it was disfranchised. The electors were the burgage-holders : but it was, in fact, a mere nomination bor. of the Earl of Lonsdale, the chief proprietor. HASLING DEN, a market-town and chapelry of England, par. Whalley, co. Lancaster, hund. Blackburn, 160 m. N. N.W. London, and 7 m. S.E. Blackburn. Area of chap. 4,420 acres; pop., in 1831, 7,776. The town is K. situated on the slope and at the foot of a hill. sost part of the houses are of stone; and it has the appearance of industry and prosperity. The church is modern, with an old tower. The dissenters have several places of worship, and in the Sunday schools are taught about 1,700 children. A free school, having a scanty endowment for 10 children, furnishes instruction to about 50. The increase of the town (which in 1831 had doubled itself since 1801) is attributable to the introduction of the cotton manufacture, which now employs the bulk of the working classes almost to the exclusion of the woollen

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manufacture, which a few years ago was the staple of the town. The mills, &c. of Haslingden are not distinguished in the returns of Whalley par. ; but about 4,000 people of both sexes are said to be employed in manufacturing industry. Haslingden is the chief town of a poor law union, comprising Il parishes. The surrounding country abounds in good building stone, and slate is quarried about 1 m. S. of the town. HASSELT, a town of Belgium, prov. Limburg, cap. arrond... on the Demer, 144 m. Wow!. Maestricht. Pop... with commune (1837), 7,316. It is well built, and was surrounded with walls in 1282. It is the residence of the chief courts and civil authorities for the Belgian div. of the prov., and has several churches and hospitals, a college, prison, numerous distilleries, a large salt refinery, with other manufacturing establishments, and a considerable trade in spirits, tobacco, and madder, and two weekly markets. (Pandermaelen, Prov. Limbourg, &c.) HASTINGS, a cinque port, parl. bor., and town of England, co. Sussex, rape same name, 54 m. S.S. E. London, and 32 m. E. Brighton ; lat. 50° 52' N., and long. 0° 37' E. Pop. of town and port, in 1831, 10,097. It is pleasantly situated in a vale, surrounded on every side, except towards the sea, by hills and cliffs, the latter of which abut E. of the town, close on the shore, those on the W. sloping more towards the interior; and it owes chiefly to its | climate, consequent on this sheltered go its high rank among the watering-places of the . coast of England. Less than a century ago, it consisted of two chief streets, lined with ancient-looking houses ; but within the present century many handsome streets and squares have been built, for the accommodation of visiters, and the appearance of the beach has been much improved by the removal of some old tenements which obstructed the sea-view. The two par. churches are ancient structures; but an elegant new church stands in Pelham Crescent, erected at the expense of the Earl of Chichester: there are also places of worship for Wesleyan Methodists, Independents, and other dissenters. There is a handsome town-hall. A grammarschool, founded in 1619, is attended by upwards of 100 boys; and there is a free school for 70 boys and S0 girls, with an endowment for apprenticing them : the various Sunday schools surnish instruction to about 900 children. The chief public buildings are the town-hall and customhouse: there are also extensive baths, well-assorted libraries, a handsome assembly-room, a theatre, a literary institution, and a savings' bank. Races were established in 1827. The suburbs are very beautiful, furnishing delightsul drives and walks ; and at the distance of 11 m. W. is the village of St. Leonard's, built according to the plans of Mr. D. Burton, and comprising a fine church, a large market-place, and many handsome houses and villas, occupied during the season by people of property and fashion. The trade of Hastings seems, from the charters, to have been once very extensive ; and its port or stade was o §. by a pier destroyed by a storm in the reign of Elizabeth, and not rebuilt. Considerable quantities of fish are taken, and sent to the London market; a good deal of boat-building is also carried on, and lime is extensively produced in the neighbourhood. The mun.gov. of the town, which was yested in a mayor and 12 other jurats, and regulated by the gov. charter of the cinque ports (20 Charles II.), and by one peculiar to itself (30 Eliz.), is now, under the Mun. Reform Act, committed to a mayor, 5 other aldermen, and 18 councillors, the town being divided into three wards. Petty and quarter sessions are held here, at the latter of which the recorder presides. Hastings has sent 2 mems. to the H. of C. since the 43d of Edward III., the franchise till the Reform Act, having been vested in all resident freemen (made so by birth or election) not receiving alms: the number of electors being small, it had for many years been a mere nomination bor, in the patronage of the gov. for the time being. The present parl. bor. comprises the town and É'. the liberty of the Sluice, and a detached part of the par. of St. Leonard's. Reg. electors, in 1838-39, 953. astings is a place of high o: having already, in the time of Athelstan, attained such i rtance as to be made the residence of a mint-master. On the edge of the W. cliff are the walls of an ancient castle. apparently of great strength, and the traces of walls icate the town to have been fortified: on a hill E. are banks and trenches, supposed to have been constructed by William the Norman during his contest with Harold II., which terminated the Saxon dynasty. Its subsequent history is closely connected with that of the cinque ports, among which it ranked first. These trading towns, which were selected from their proximity to France, and early su. periority in navigation, to assist in protecting the realm against invasion, were vested with chartered privileges from a ver to 5. The ports are, Hastings, Romney, Hythe, Dover, Sandwich, Winchelsea, and Rye : Deal was afterwards incorporated, and made subject in some particulars to Sandwich. In early times they furnished among them '...} all the shipping required 3 4

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by the state, and even after the formation of a national navy, were compelled to assist it with their vessels. In the time of Edward I. they were required to provide, fully equipped, at their own cost, 57 ships, 21 of which were furnished by llastings. In return for these services, which have long i to be rendered, except formally at coronations, these corporate towns, together with 22 others subordinate to them, enjoyed the privilege of exemption from storvice on county juries and in the militia, and the power of minal and civil jurisdiction, even in capital cases, in courts peculiar, held under the authorit of the lord warden. These exclusive privileges were suffered to continue, much to the injury of the communit at large, and even of the towns themselves, till the Pars. and Mun. Itesorm Acts reduced them, with the reservation of the sessions-court and the exemption from serving on county juries, to the level of other towns possessing a really equal importance. (Dallaway's Susser ; Parl. Rep ye.). HATFI E1.1), a town and par. of England, co. Hertford, hund. Broadwater. Area of par. 12,700 acres : pop. of do., in 1831, 3,593. The town is situated near the sea, 18 m. N. N.W. London, and 7 m. E. St. Albans, This place was granted in the 10th century to the Abbey of Ely; and on the conversion of the latter into a bishopric, the manor-house became a palace of the bishops, whence it has been called Bishops Hatfield. Queen Elizabeth, who had resided in the bishop's palace for some time previously to her accession to the throne, and was very much attached to the place, prevailed on the bishop of Ely to alienate it to the crown, in exchange for other property. In the succeeding reign, James I. ged the manor of Hatfield with his minister, obert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, for the manor and lark of Theobalds. Its new master erected the present magnificent qualirangular mansion, one of the finest mens of the baronial buildings of that age. A few rs since it was imaterially injured by sire; but it has in restored, with great taste, quite in the old style. The town is small, and unimportant ; it has a handsome church, with an embattled tower, and a burialplace of the Salisbury family. (Chauncey's Hertfordshire.) V A N N A H, or HA A (Span. Hubana, the harbour”), a large and flourishing marit. and commer. cial city, the cap. of the isl. of Cuba, and, perhaps, next to New York, the greatest emporium in the W. hemisphere. It stands on the N.W. coast of the island, and on the W. side of one of the sinest harbours in the world: lat. 23° 8' 15” N., long. 82° 22' 45° W. The pop, of the city and suburbs, at the undermentioned pe

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To the pop. in 1827 must be added the hospitals and prisons, the garrison, and strangers, making the whole about 112,000; and the total pop. probably not far short of, if it do not exceed, 135,000. (11ttmboldt, Essai Politique, &c.; Turnbull's Cuba, p.205.)

From its position, which commands both inlets to the Gulph of Mexico, its great strength, and :llent harbour, the ilavannah is, in a political point of view, by far the most important marit, station in the W. Indies. For a long period it engrossed almost the whole foreign trade of Cuba; but since the relaxation of the old colonial system, various ports (such, for instance, as that of Matanzas), that were hardly known 30 years ago, have become places of great commercial importance. The rapid extension of the commerce of the Havannah is, therefore, entirely to be ascribed to the freedom it now enjoys, and to the great increase of wealth and pop. in the city, and generally throughout the island. The port of Havannah is the finest in the W. Indies, and one of the best anywhere to be met with. The entrance is narrow, but the water is deep, without bar or obstruction of any sort, and within, it expands into a magnificent bay, capable of accommodating 1,000 large ships; vessels of the greatest draught of water coming close to time quays. The city lies along the entrance to and on the W. side of the b: the suburb Regla is on the opposite side. The Morro and Punta castles, the sormer on the E. and the latter on the W. side of the entrance of the harbour, are strongly fortified, as is the entire city ; the citadel is also a fortress of great strength ; and fortifications have been erected on such of the neighbouring heights as command the city or port. The city-proper, which stands upon level ground, is about 2,100 yds. in length by 1,200 broad, and, even in sity, contained less than half the total pop. It is separated on the W. by a ditch and glacis from its subin us of Salud Guadalupe, Jesus. Maria, Cerro, and llor coil. \, tiliu the walls, the streets are narrow,

HAVE IN E OR D-WES's".

crooked, and mostly unpaved; but in the suburbs, larticularly Salud, they are wider and better laid out. The Havannah was formerly very much exposed, in the aotumn, to the ravages of the yellow fever, owing partly to the filth of the city, the want of common sewers, and the contiguity of marshes; but of late years, the cleanliness and police of all parts of the town have been very materially improved, and fever is much less provalent and fatal. The houses, within the walls, are all of stone ; without, they are of various materials. The public elifices, such as the cathedral, government house, admiralty, arsenal, general post-office, and royal tobacco factory, are less remarkable for beauty than solidity of construction. Besides the cathedral, which contains the ashes of Columbus, removed thither from St. Domingo in 1796, there are 9 par. churches, 6 others connected with hospitals and military orders, 5 chapels or hermitages, l l convents, a university, 2 colleges, a boxtanic garden, anatomical museum and lecture-rooms, an academy of painting, a school of navigation, and above 70 ordinary ". for both sexes. The charitable institutions consist of the Casa Real de Bengficencia, a penitentiary or magdalen asylum, a foundling asylum, and 7 hospitals, one of which comprises a lunatic asylum. The Casa /?, al also has within its walls two other lunatic asylums, with about 180 patients, an hospital for the aged and infirm, boys' and girls' schools, &c. The revenues of this institution, derived from landed and household property, donations, subscriptions, government grants, taxes on the flour imported at the Havannah and Matanzas, on public billiard tables, landing-places, a poll tax, and various other sources, amount to from 55,000 to 60,000 dollars a year, the whole of which sum is annually expended on objects of the charity. There are 3 theatres, an amphitheatre for bull-sights, and several handsome public promenades. The arsenal and dockyard are at the S. extremity of the city. In the latter, 49 ships of the line, 22 frigates, 7 packet ships, and many war brigs and schooners have been built. The saw-mills there are turned by water from an aqueduct, which also supplies the shipping in the port.

At the village of Casa 13!, , on the opposite side of ...the harbour, there are also some wharfs and shipyards, at which vessels of all classes may be laid up, fitted out, or repaired. This village is notorious as the resort of the slavers frequenting the Havannah, at which port a considerable number of the slaves brought into Cuba are landed. For accounts of the principal articles of import and export at the Havannah, the amount of duties levied on Spanish and foreign trading vessels, &c., see CUBA. The following table shows the quantities of sugar and coffee exported from the llavannah in 1838 and 39, specifying the countries to which these staples were principally sent:—

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- 1,201,086 The quintal of 4 arrobas contains 1013 lbs. English ; the arroba of wine or spirits = nearly 4-1 English galls.; the samega = nearly 3 bushels; and the vara = 925 English yard: the dollar is worth about 4s. 6d. The markets of the city are well furnished ; in the year 1819, the consumption of meat, maize, manioc, vegetables, brandy, milk, eggs, forage, and snuff amounted to 4,480,000 piastres, and provisions were brought daily from the country by 2,000 beasts of burden. A railway connecting the Havannah with Guines, a town 45 m. inland, was completed in 1839. The Havannah is an episcopal see, the seat of the provincial government, and the residence of all the colonial authorities, except the judges of the supreme court of justice, which sits at Puerto Principe. *. principal nations of Europe and America hav nsuls resident at this city. It has an extensive manufacture of cigars, for which it is widely celebrated ; its other manufactures, of coarse woollens, straw hats, &c., are comparatively uninportant. This city was founded in 1511, by Diego Velasquez ; it was taken by a French pirate in 1563; afterwards by the English, French, and buccaneers ; and again by the English in 1762, by whom it was restored to Spain at the peace of 17.3. (Humboldt's Essai Politique star I Isle de Cuba : Twombull's Cuba , 1°uri. Reports.) H A V E 1: FO1: D-W EST (called by the Welsh Hurt

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