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itself in S. Wales, locally in the co. Pembroke, of which it is the cap., on the Cleddy, near where it falls into a creek stretching from the N. side of Milford Haven, 205 m. W. by N. London, and 28 m. W. by S. Caermarthen. The co. of the town, which extends over a considerable district, had, in 1831, a pop. of 3,915; but in consequence of additions made by the $o Act, the pop. of the present parl. bor. amounted, in 1831, to about 4,560. This town “is disposed in a very picturesque manner on the sides and at the bottom of very steep hills: the river Cleddy passes through its E. part, terminating in the creek. '. position gives it an irregular appearance ; and the narrowness of the streets and want of proper pitching and paving, deprive it of an air of respectability
which the number of good shops and houses would other
wise secure it.” (Bound. and M. Bound. Reps.) It has lately been paved and lighted with gas. igh Street and Market Street, however, notwithstanding the imso in paving, are still dangerously steep. The andsomest of the churches is St. Mary’s, a cathedrallike structure of pointed architecture, surmounted by a large square tower. St. Martin's is an extensive and lofty structure, apparently an appendage to the castle, and has a tower an pire. Outside the town, at the top of the hill, is St.”Thomas's, said to have been built in 1225; and there is a low turreted church at Prendergast. There are several chapels for Methodists, Presbyterians, Baptists, and the Society of Friends. A charity school, for clothing and educating 24 boys and 12 girls, was founded in 1684; and a free grammar-school was established in 1614, and endowed with lands (now let for 90l. yearly), for the gratuitous education of the sons of poor burgesses. The town-hall is a respectable building, but placed so as to obstruct the view of St. Mary’s church. A market-house, built by the corporation, was opened in 1825. A good and well-conducted modern gaol stands on the green, near St. Thomas's church. Overhanging the town is the ruined Fo of an old castle; and within the precincts of an old priory of Black Canons, some ruins of which are yet standing, a dockyard and quays have been constructed for the convenience of the shipping. “Haverford-west is principally occupied by shopkeepers, mechanics, and persons of moderate independent fortunes, for whom à. of the place is an attraction. Provisions are cheap; house-rent is, however, not very low, as compared with this part of Wales; perhaps it would be more accurate to state that the houses of gentlemen here are on avery respectable scale; so that though houses are found to have large rents, they are not, properly speaking, dear. Workmen's wages are low ; those of good mechanics averaging from 14s. to 20s. weekly. The lower orders use culm or coal mixed with clay for firing ; and this is brought from a distance of about 3 m.; coals of the better sort being brought by water from Newport and Liverpool. Vessels of 100 tons can come up to the town at spring tides ; but at neaps, vessels much exceeding 30 tons cannot come up. Hard coal, for malting, is exported to the S. coast of Fngland, and even to London; shop goods are brought by water ; and about half a dozen timber-ships unlade here in the year. Butter and oats are exported ; but the most important native commodity is the cattle, a great quantity of which is sold for the English market. The custom-house is subordinate to that at Milford Haven. On the whole, the place is o increasing and improving.” (Parl. Bound. Rep.) A large paper-mill is the only manufactory of importance within the town, the traffic of which has much decreased since the Irish steam-packets have run from Bristol instead of Milford Haven. Haverford-west was first chartered in the reign of Richard II. ; but its governing charter, down to the passing of the Municipal Reform Act in 1835, was that granted in 7 James I." The bor. is now governed by a mayor, 3 other aldermen, and 12 councillors: corporation revenue in 1838, 554t. Haverford-west has sent 1 mem. to the H. of C. since the 17th of Henry VIII. Previously to the Reform Act, the right of voting was vested in the inhab. of the town and co. paying scot and lot, and in the burgesses, who became so by birth, servitude, or election. The Boundary Act enlarged the limits of the arl. bor., by adding to the old bor., or town and co. of layerford-west, portions of the o of Prendergast and Ugmaston: the towns of Fishguard and Narberth were then also made contributory boroughs. Registered electors in the three boroughs, in 1838-39, 718. The assizes and quarter and petty sessions are held here. Markets on Tuesday and Saturday; fairs for horses and live stock, May 12., June 12., July is., Sept. 23., Oct. 18. This town was anciently the cap. of the Flemish possessions in Pembrokeshire. Its castle was erected by Gilbert de Clare, first Earl of Pembroke, in the 14th century. HAVRE (LE) (formerly Havre-de-Grace), a sortified town, and the principal commercial port on the W. coast of France, dép. Scine-Inférieure, cap. arrond., on the N. bank of the aestuary of the Seine, at its mouth in the English Channel, 42 m. W. Rouen, and 109 m. W.N.W. Paris. Lat. 499 29° 14' N., long. Jo 6’ 38° W. Pop.
(1836) 25,618, to which number may be added 5,000 more for the pop. of the shipping constantly in the port. It is built on a low alluvial tract of ground formerly covered by the sea, and is divided into 2 unequal parts by its outer port and basins, which stretch into the town and insulate the quarter of St. Francis. A noble main street, the Rue de Paris, wide, clean, and lined with good houses and numerous shops, completely traverses the town S. to N., from the Place de la Bourse, on one of the quays, to the Ingouville gate : this is the chief seat of commercial activity; the other streets present nothing remarkable. There are 9 quays, which, with the High Street, form the favourite promenades. The fortifications, begun by Louis XII., continued by many succeeding sovereigns, and perfected b Napoleon, are: about 34 m. in circuit, and consist of bastioned ramparts surrounded by trenches. The tower of Francis I., a heavy round edifice of freestone, built by that monarch, nearly 70 st. in height, and 85 in diameter, guards the entrance to the harbour on one side, and a small battery, mounting 6 pieces of cannon, on the other. The citadel constructed by Richelieu in 1564, comprises the barracks, military arsenal, residence of the governor, &c., Havre has few other public buildings worth notice; the chief are — the church of Notre Dame, a singular edifice of the 16th century, the marine arsenal, new theatre, commenced 1817, exchange, custom-house, entrepôt-général, royal tobacco-manufactory, and a public library, with 15,000 vols. It has numerous public fountains, . is well o with water, conveyed by pipes from the vicinity. he port, which is the best and most accessible on the coast, consists of 3 basins separated from each other, and from the outer port, by 4 locks, and capable of accommodating about 450 ships. A large body of water being retained by a sluice, and discharged at ebb tide, clears the entrance of the harbour, and prevents accumulations of filth. 2 lighthouses, 50 feet high, 325 feet opart, and exhibiting powerful fixed lights, stand on Cape de la Hève, a promontory about 24 m. N. N.W. Havre, and 300 feet above the level of the sea ; and there is also a brilliant harbour-light at the entrance of the port, on the extremity of the western jetty. , Havre has 2 roadsteads; the great, or outer, is about a league from the port, and the little, or inner roadstead, about half a league. They are separated by the sand-bank called l'Eclat, between which, and the bank called Les Hauts de la Rade, is the W. passage to the port. In the great road there are from 6 to 7, fathoms water at ebb : and in the little, from 3 to 34. Large ships always lie in the former. The rise of the tide is from 22 to 27 feet, and by taking advantage of it, the largest class of merchantmen enter the port. The water in the harbour does not begin perceptibly to subside till about 3 hours after high water, — a peculiarity ascribed to the current down the Seine, across the entrance to the harbour, being sufficiently powerful to dam up for a while the water in the latter. Large fleets taking advantage of this circumstance, are able to leave the port in a single tide, and get to sea, even though the wind should be unfavourable. (Annuaire du Commerce Marit.; Coulier sur les Phares...} It was a saying of Napoleon, that “ Paris, Rouen, Le Havre, ne forment qu'une seule ville, dont la Seine est Ia grande rue.” Havre being, in fact, the sea-port of Paris, most of the colonial and other foreign products destined for its corsumption are imported thither. Nearly double the quantity of goods, estimated by weight, is imported annually at Marseilles ; but the total value of the imports at Havre amounts very nearly to that of those at the former port. The chief imports are cotton, sugar, coffee, rice, indigo, tobacco, hides, dyewoods, spices, drugs, timber, iron, tin, dried fish, &c.; grain and flour are sometimes o and sometimes exported. The chief exports are silk, woollen and cotton stuffs, lace, gloves, trinkets, perfumery, Burgundy, Champagne, and other wines, brandy, glass, surniture, books, &c. The value of the imported goods in 1836 (including those warehoused at the end of 1835) amounted to 194,824,874 francs. The following is a
It thus appears that Havre received 7-10ths of the cotton imported into France in 1835, more than half the tobacco, and wood for cabinet work, half the potash and indigo, more than 2-5ths of the rice and dye-woods, and more than a third part of the sugar and coffee. As re
spects cotton, Havre is to France what Liverpool is to England. We subjoin a table, exhibiting the quantities of some of the principal articles imported into Havre
during each of the seven years ending 1837 : —
Most of the goods imported at Havre are destined for the internal consumption of France. The coasting trade has increased very largely of late years, as is proved by the great increase of French wines, soaps, and other produce imported at Paris stom Ilavre, instead of being sent to the cap. by land. The coasting vessels transfer their cargoes to large barges, called chalands, which are towed by steam as far as Rouen, and by horses for the rest of the way to Paris. Independent of the cabotage, or coasting trade, there entered the port, in 1839, from foreign parts, 753 sailing vessels, with cargoes of the total burden of 191,339 tons, of which 429 vessels, of the total burden of 105,202 tons, were French. Including native and foreign sailing vessels in ballast, and coasting vessels, the entries in 1838 were 4,388, total burden 580,983 tons. The entries of steamers during the same ear were 55S, total burden 101,561 tons. The latter ply }. Havre and London, and the principal ports of Great Britain, Holland, Lisbon, Hamburg, Elsineur, Copenhagen, Petersburg, &c.; and lines of Sailing packets are established between it and New York, Bahia, Vera Cruz, New Orleans, &c.; some of the steamers ascend the Seine to Paris. The entrances to the basins are, however, too narrow to admit of the passage of large steamers, which are obliged to remain in the outer port, imperfectly sheltered from high winds. In fact, the port of Havre is at present inadequate to the growing importance of its trade ; and in the financial estimates (projet de loi sur les ports) presented to the chambers in 1839, the French government demanded 6 millions of francs for its augmentation and improvement. There belonged to Havre on the 81st Dec., 1838, 436 vessels, of the aggregate burden of 80,000 tons. I)uring the same year 48 ships of from 400 to 600 tons each, manned by 1500 prime seamen, engaged in the whale-fishery, belonged to this port; but this extension of the trade is principally to be ascribed to the encouragement given by the law of 1829; the ships being, in fact, fitted out quite as much in the view of catching the bounty as of catching whales. The customs' duties at Havré produced, in 1837, 18,123,993 fr. ; in 1833 they amounted to 24,873,126 fr. ; the reduction having been occasioned by the formation of warehousing establishments at Paris, and other places, for the reception of goods that had previously been warehoused here. The town has manufactures of chemical products, furniture for the colonies, earthenware ch, oil, and tobacco, besides good building docks, rope-walks, breweries, &c.; and many females are occupied with making lace. On a height immediately N. of llavre is its well built and pleasant suburb of Ingouville. In that yillage is the Hospice d'Hanre, founded by Henry II. in 1554, and removed to Ingouville in 1669, at which establishment it is estinated that about 120 sick persons, and upwards of 500 aged, orphan, or infirm, are annually provided for. (Hugo, art. Seine Inférieure ; Encyc. des Gens du Mande : official Tables ; Commercial Dict.) HAW1CK, a bor. of barony, and eminent manufacturing town of Scotland, co. Roxburgh, on level ground; on the banks of the Teviot, 45 m. S. E. Edinburgh, and 43 m. N. by E. Carlisle. A small mountain stream, called the Slitterig, falls into the Teviot", towards the extremity of the town. The country round is mountainous and pastoral, except the narrow valley through which the two rivers flow. The town was originally confined to the bank of the Teviot, and to the parish of its own name, but its boundaries now extend to the opposite side of the river, in the parish of Wilton. Pop., in 1801, 2,145 ; in 1838, 5,998. Hawick consists chiefly of a single street, m. in length, which forms the line of the public road ; but there are several suburban streets, of which the largest and the most elegant is the Crescent, built on the right bank
of the river. The town, the houses of which are of stone, and slated, has a substantial thriving appearance: and the transparent waters of the Teviot and Slitterig flowing over a pebbly bed, with the mountains which so closely environ it, give it a high degree of picturesque beauty. The streets are paved, and lighted with gas. Being a border town, and consequently of old exposed to attacks, from the English, the houses were anciently built with stone walls, and vaulted below, without any door to the street, but having an archway, giving access to a court-yard behind, from which alone entrance to the house was obtained." Öfthese structures a few specimens yet remain. The present, head inn is called “The Tower,” because it was originally built as a fortress, having been the residence of the feudal superior cf the burgh. There are two bridges over the Teviot ; and two over the Slitterig, one of the latter being supposed to be of Roman origin. The only public buildings are the subscription rooms (used for public meetings, &c.), the town-house, the parish church, with a small square spire, and three dissenting meeting-houses. Of these latter, two belong to the Associate Synod, and one to the Relief. The Quakers, though a small body, have a place of worship. There is also a small congregation of Indeondents. Between a third and a half of the pop. are issenters. (Fifth Report of Church Commission, 1839.) The means of education are most ample. In addition to the parochial school there are no fewer than 13 private seminaries, some of them exclusively for females; and the aggregate number of scholars is rather above 800, a greater number, as compared with the pop., than will perhaps be sound in any other bor. in Scotland. This, too, is exclusive of children who attend Sunday schools. There are several subscription libraries in the town, the oldest of which, containing 3,500 vols., was established so far back as 1762. A Mechanics' Institution was founded in 1824. (New Stat. Acc. of Scot. § Roxburgh, p. 412–414. ; Educational England; Scotland, Parl. Paper.) There are two printing presses, and three reading rooms. Notwithstanding its inland situation, its distance (50 m.) from any sea-port, its want of railways, canals, or navigable rivers, Hawick has attained to great eminence in manufactures. It has pretty large establishments for the manufacture of thongs, gloves, candles, machinery for tanning of leather, and other branches; but the woollen manufacture is that for which the town is chiefly distinguished, a department of industry which undoubtedl owes its origin to the command of water-power ...}. the Teviot and Slitterig afford, and to the wool-growing district in the middle of which Hawick is situated. The manufacture of carpets was established in 1752; the inkle (a species of tape) manufacture in 1783, and that of cloth in 1787. But these have very generally given way to the manufacture of stockings and under-clothing, introduced in 1771 ; and it was from Ilawick that a knowledge of this branch of manufacture spread, and was introduced into Wooler, Selkirk, and other towns both in the N. of England and S. of Scotland. But comparatively trifling progress was made in the manufacture till the introduction of machinery, which took place about the beginning of this century, since which the business has been steadily advancing. Within the last few years great additions have been made to the mills previously established ; while several new mills have been erected on a large scale. There are at present (1840) 11 extensive factories, of which one only is driven by steam, And the others by water. There are, besides, various buildings of considerable extent for the operation of stocking-frames. The following table, constructed from returns made by some of the leading manufacturers of Hawick, will give a tolerably correct idea of the state of the manufactures during 1838-39 : – Value of floating capital employed in manufactures, (buildings and other articles of ixed capital excluded) Arnaunt o fictured, &clusive of 48,726. usant it yarn manufactured, (exclusive 9. sold to manufacturers o } 854,462 it's.
Consumption of wool Quantity of soap consumed unber of stockings made Articles of under-clothing Number of work-people Number of stocking-frames Number of weaving-looms - This is exclusive of flannels, plaiding, blankets, shawls, tartans, druggets, and cloths of various descriptions, the aggregate value of which may amount to from 30,000l. to 40,000l. a year. The hosiery includes every species of texture, even the finest. The number of work-people so above does not include either the females engaged in sewing stockings (these being employed not by the manufacturers but by the stocking-makers), nor the weavers and stocking-makers in the neighbouring towns and parishes, who work for the Hawick manufacturers. Besides, the number of persons employed in the factories, as returned by the Factory Inspectors, is not a third part of those to whom manufactures give direct employment. The stocking-maker, for example, works on his own frame in his own house, and is paid by the piece, and so of others. The total amount of power employed, including one steam engine, is equal to 160 horse-power. Coal cannot be got nearer than 40 m., viz. either from Etals in Northumberland, Langholm in Dumfriesshire, or Dalkeith in Mid-Lothian. Yet, in the face of the formidable difficulties of the distance from sea and from coals, the woollen manufacture has been prosecuted in Hawick with a degree of activity, enterprise, and success quite peculiar, and highly honourable to the character of the manufacturers. hey in most cases are their own salesmen ; and no class of commercial men carry on business with greater liberality, activity, and perseverance. There are three branch banks in the bor. Hawick has been a bor. of barony from an early date. But its present charter was granted by William Douglas, of Drumlanrig, in 1537, and confirmed by Queen Ma in 1515. The charter is peculiarly liberal for the age in which it was granted, extending to all the burgesses, without distinction, the right of electing the municipal authorities. The senior magistrate has, since 1835, been a justice of the peace er qfficio. The landed property of the burgh amounts to 1,000 acres, and the gross annual revenue to upwards of 4701. The feudal superiority of the bor. descended to the barons of Buccleugh till 1747, when, all hereditary jurisdictions being abolished by act of parliament, the Duke of Buccleugh received 400l. in compensation for the regality. From its situation near the English border, Hawick was exposed to that continual hostility and commotion which for centuries distinguished that portion of the empire. It was burnt down in 1418. It suffered severely in 1544, when the whole district of Teviotdale was laid waste by the English. To prevent its occupation by the troops of the Earl of Surrey, in 1570, the inhabitants themselves tore the thatch from the roofs of the houses, and set fire to it on the streets, by which, with the exception of the Black Tower, now the “ Tower Inn,” the whole town was completely consumed. The inhabs. of Hawick mustered strong in the battle of Flodden, and were there nearly . ; but the survivors succeeded in rescuing their standard, which is still carefully preserved. The people of Hawick are still, distinguished by the free spirit of their ancestors. “We doubt much if a community could be found elsewhere more jealous than they are of what they conceive to be their own rights; more keen and indefatigable in the working out of what they reckon to be their own interests; and more determined in asserting, at all hazards, what they deem to be essential to their own independence. Anything like a spirit of vassalage to . man, or any class of men, how elevated soever in rank, is what they cannot brook ; and any attempt, from whatever quarter, to interfere with their ancient or established privileges, is sure to be strongly and almost universally resisted. . There are, moreover, few places where less attention is paid to the ordinary distinctions of rank, or where all classes are more disposed to associate together on the footing of o (New St. Acc. of Scot. § Rorburgh, p.388-89.) he truth is, they have always been a free people in the midst of a feudal and comparatively ão population. Principles and worth, not mere rank, are valuable in their estimation. Since the passing of the Reform Act they vote with the county constituency; and, with few exceptions, their suffrages are given in favour of the liberal candidates. The greater portion of the population are descended from ancestors belon o to the burgh ; and as there are thus many !...i. s of the same name (there being at present no fewer than six heads of families in the town of the name of Walter Wilson), sobriqucts, or conventional designations, have prevailed among them from the earliest record. So inveterate is the practice, that the sobriquet, instead of the real name, was, at no distant period, generally inserted in the parochial register of deaths. Even at present, so general is the practice, that many persons are better known by their fictitious name than by any other. The town has frequently suffered from inundations.
There is an artificial mound of earth situated at the W. extremity of the town, called “ the Moat,” used, in ancient times, for meetings both judicial and deliberative. Branxholm Castle, the ancient seat of the Scots of Buccleuch, and celebrated in The Lay of the Last Minstrel, is situated within 2 m. of the town. Several eminent persons have been born in or connected with Hawick. Gawin Douglas, asterwards bishop of Dunkeld, and the translator of Virgil's AFneid, was rector of Hawick in 1496; Dr. John Leyden, the celebrated poet and linguist, who died in Java in 1811, was born in the yo of the town ; Dr. Thomas Somerville, minister of Jedburgh, and author of a History of Queen Anne, and other works, was born in the burgh ; the Rev. Mr. Young, author of Essays on Government, was a dissenting clergyman here; and Mr. Robert Wilson, author of the History of Hawick, a native of the burgh, died here in 1837.
HAYE (LA), a small town of France, dép. Indreet-Loire, cap. cant., on the Creuse, 30 m. S. Tours, worthy of notice only as the native place of Descartes, born here on the 31st of March, 1596. The house in which he first saw the light has been carefully preserved, and is the subject of an almost religious care and veneration.
HAYTI, or HAITI (Carib. the morentainous corontry), the original and now revived name of one of the W. India islands, being, next to Cuba, the largest of the Greater Antilles, and forming, inclusive of the adjacent islands of Tortuga, Gonaive, &c., an independent state. Columbus gave it the name of Hispaniola, and it was frequently also called St. Domingo, from the city of that name on its S.E. coast. The French bestowed on it the deserved epithet of la Reine des Antilles. It lies between lat. 17o 40' and 190 58' N., and long. 689 24' and 74° 35' W.; having N. the Atlantic, E. the Mona Passage, separating it from Porto Rico, from which it is 76 m. distant, S. the Caribbean Sea, and W. the Windward o which lies between it and Cuba and Jamaica, its N.W. point being 48 m. E. of the former, and its S.W. 112 m. E. of the latter. Its shape is somewhat triangular, the apex directed eastward ; but it has several considerable peninsulas and promontories, which render its outline very irregular. Greatest length, W. to E., about 400 m.; its breadth varies from 40 m., near its E. o, to 155 m., about its centre. Area, according to M. Lindenau (Humboldt, Polit. Essay), 2,450 sq. marine leagues, or nearly 29,500 sq. m. Eng. Pop. estimated at from 600,000 to 700,000, about a tenth part only being white or coloured.
Physical Geography:- The surface of Hayti is, as its name implies, generally mountainous; but there are some extensive plains, o in the E. The mountain system is complicated, and it is difficult to give a clear idea of it without the aid of a map. A great mountain knot, the Cibao, occupies the centre of the country, from which two parallel chains, o E. and W., extend through the island in its entire length. The loftiest summits of the Cibao are considerably more than 6,000 ft. in height. In the S.W. is an additional mountain chain, which stretches W. to the extremity of the long and narrow peninsula terminating in Cape Tiburon. Between this peninsula and the N.W. promontory of the island is the spacious bay of Gonaive, including the lsland of the same name, and having at its head Port Républicain (or Port-au-Prince). Tortuga is opposite the o promontory. The shores of Hayti are in ;. bold, except on the E., where low and swampy ands prevail. They are almost every where surrounded by small uninhabited islands and dangerous reefs, but they have, notwithstanding, many excellent harbours, especially along the N. and W. coasts. The largest plain, called by the Spaniards Los Llanos, in the S.E., extends along the coast for 80 m., with a breadth varying from 20 to 25 m. It is said to be well adapted to culture of most tropical products, but has always consisted chiefly of wide savannahs, used for pasture lands. N. of it, enclosed between two mountain ranges, is the more productive plain of Vega Reale, little inferior in size to the foregoing. In the W. half of the island are the large plains of Artibonite and the Cul-de-Sac. The last named, E. of Port-au-Prince, is from 30 to 40 m. long, by about 9 broad, and was formerly one entire sugar-garden, though now almost wholly waste. There are several plains of less extent. Hayti is in most parts |...}. watered ; it has numerous rivers, the largest
ing the Yaque, Yuna, Nieve, and Artibonite, which disembogue on the N., E., S., and W. coasts. These are navigable for a great part of their course; they are generally deep, and two or three of them are, near their mouths, as wide as the Thames at Vauxhall. Three lakes of considerable size exist at no great distance from the S. coast of Henriquillo; the largest is about 50 m. in circuit, and has salt water, while the adjacent lake of Azney is fresh.
The climate of the low lands is very unhealthy to Europeans; and Mackenzie says that “the yellow fever would ellectually secure the island, in case of external , if the policy of abandoming the coasts and d ng the towns were acted on.” (Notes on Haiti, - The excessive heats of the plains, &c. are, however, tempered by fresh sea breezes at night. The temperature, of course, decreases with the elevation, and in the mountains the cold is osten piercing. The year, as elsewhere between the to is divided between the wet and dry seasons. The change of the seasons is accompanied by stormy weather; but hurrivanes are not so frequent as in most of the other Antilles, nor are earthquakes common, though in 1770 a couvulsion of that kind destroyed Port-au-Prince. Little is known of the geology: a limestone somewhat analogous to that of Cuba, containing vestiges of marine shells, is a prevalent formation. The soil is almost universally a deep vegetable mould, the fertility of which is searcely equallel. The mountains, even to their summits, are, according to Mackenzie, capable of cultivation. "I'lle greater part of the island is covered with dense forests of mahogany, iron-wood, logwood, cedars, and other large and useful trees, or an impenetrable underThe plantain, potato, vanilla, manioc, &c. are us; as is the palmetto or cabbage-tree. The latter is “truly the prop of the E. Haytian, who eats the upper portion of it, builds and covers his house with its various parts, and fashions his furniture out of its trunk.” Of several kinds of quadrupeds sound by the first European settlers, the agouti is the only one remaining. Parrots, and other birds of brilliant pluimage, waterfowl, &c., are very abundant ; the alligator, cayman, ignana, turtles, &c. abound in the larger rivers; several kinds of serpents are met with, and the crustacca and testacca afford a plentiful supply of food to the inhab. of the coasts. Hayti produces gold, silver, copper, tin, iron of good quality, rock-salt, &c. The principal copper mine yields, an ore containing a considerable admixture of gold, and the sands of man of the rivers contain a good deal of gold dust, small quantities of which are collected : the working of gold mines has, however, entirely ceased. . The mines of Cibao, which have long been unproductive, are said by Robertson to have yielded for many years a revenue of 460,000 pesos (nearly 100,000l.) annually ; , but it deserves to be remarked, that notwithstanding the excessive destruction of the original inhabs. in the working of these and other mines, the Spaniards derived so little advantage from them, that . Sir Francis Drake made a descent on the island in 1558, the inhabs. were so wretchedly poor as to be compelled to use pieces of leather as a substitute for money ! (Edtrards, i. 110., ed. 1819.) History and Resources. – In order to understand the progressive changes which have taken place in the condition of Hayti and its inhabitants, it is necessary to premise a short sketch of their history. The island was discovered by Columbus, on the 5th of Dec. 1495, at which time it is said to have been divided into five states. Having taken possession of it in the name of Spain, Columbus founded the town of La Isabella on the N. coast, and established in it, under his brother Diego, the first colony planted by Europeans in the New World. The city of St. Domingo, which sub
epoch of its discovery by the Spaniards, above 1,000,000 inhabs. of the Carrib tribe of Indians. But, incredible as it m ppear, in consequence of their wholesale butchery by the Spaniards, and of the severe drudgery they were compelled to undergo in the mines, the natives were reduced to about 60,000 in the short space of 15 years : (Robertson's America, i. 185., cl. 1777.) The aboriginal inhabs, were soon, in fact, wholly o and their lace was at first very inadequately ol. ied by Indians 3ahama islands, and adventurers from Spain and other European countries, and in the following century by the importation of vast numbers of negroes from Asrica. The Spaniards retained possession of the whole island till 1665, when the French obtained a footing on its W. coasts, and laid the foundations of that colony that afterwards became so flourishing. In 16:11, Spain ceded to France half the island ; and in 1776 the bossessions of the latter were still farther augmented. t was not, however, till 1722, when the monopoly of trading companies was put an end to, that the o part of the island began rapidly to advance in pop. and wealth. From 1776 to 1789 the colony had attained the acme of its prosperity: and its produce and commerce were then equal or superior to those of all the other W. India islands. Unhappily, however, this prosperity was as brief as it was signal; and the ruin that has over
whelmed the colony may be said to be complete. To attempt to give any intelligible sketch, how slight soever, of the events by which this destruction was brought about, and by which the blacks of Hayti have emancipated themselves from the dominion of the whites, and founded an o: state, would far exceed our limits. At the epoch of the French revolution, the megroes in the French part of St. Domingo were estimated at from 480,000 to 5th),000. That a good deal of dissatisfaction existed amongst them is certain ; but there was no disposition to revolt, and the rash and injudicious proceedings of the mother country, the debates and proceedings of the colonial assembly, and the deep-rooted animosities of the whites and mulattoes, were the prominent causes of the revolution. The proscriptions, ruin, bloodshed, and atrocities by which it was accornpanied and brought about, are, perhaps, hardly to be paralleled. In 1800, Hayti was proclaimed independent; and its independence was consolidated by the final expulsion of the French in 1803. This was effected by Dessalines, who erected the French or W. part of the island into an empire, of which he became emperor, with the title of James I. His despotism and cruelty having rendered him universally detested, Dessalines was slain in an insurrection in 1806, and Hayti was divided among several chieftains, the principal of whom were Christophe in the N.W., and Petion in the S.W. In 1811, the former made himself be proclaimed king, under the title of Henry I. : Petion continued to act as president of a republic till his decease in 1818, when he was succeeded by Boyer. The
latter, after the suicide of Christophe, in 1820, took pos
on of his dominions, and the Spanish portion of the and having, in 1821, voluntarily placed itself under his government, he became master of the whole of Hayti. Previously to the revolution, the pop. and the extent and distribution of cultivated lands, &c. in the French
sequently #." its name to the entire island, was founded division of the island were thus estimated (Edwards's in 1498. The island is believed to have contained, at the Hist. Survey): — | Population, 1790. Plantations, &c. Pr - Chief Towns. | wide. Boo sugar. coffee. Cotton. Indigo. various. Northern - 11.9%; 288 2,009 66 215 Cap Français. Wve-term - 12, 98 357 so-1 489 545 Port au. I*rotice. Southern - - 6,037 148 214 2-4 I 19 Aux Cayes. ... [Too * 134,429 795 5,117 | 789 5, 16t) 677
mechanics in towns, perhaps 50,000.
The whole extent of land under cultivation in the three provs. was 763,923 carreaur, equal to 2,280,480 English acres, about two thirds of which were situated in the mountains. The French, who justly considered this their most valuable colony, cultivated its territory with the greatest care. Every plantation was laid out with the utmost neatness, and so arranged as to bring every portion the soil into use in its proper order of succession. Aral irrigation was effected on a large scale, and the remains of the aqueducts in the plain of Cayes are really magnificent. The growth of sugar engaged the largest-share of attention; the immense fertility of the soil making the average produce about 2,712 lbs. an acre, or nearly two thirds more than the general yield of the land in canes in Jamaica. (Edwards, p. 135.) The coffee plantations were also exceedingly productive, and those of cotton, indigo, and cocoa had pogun to be prolific sources of wealth to individuals, and of revenue to the state. Besides these staples, large quantities of Indian corn, rice, pulse, and almost every escription of vegetables require! for the | consumption of the inhabs, were grown. "he live stock in the Fo colony consisted of about 40,000 horses,
pean troops and seafaring people, of free people of colour amounting to about 24,000, and domestic slaves and negro
50,000 mules, and 250,000 cattle and sheep. The Spaniards never paid much attention to the culture of their portion of the island. The example of the French, indeed, stimulated them to grow tobacco, sugar, cocoa, and some of the other staple products of the Antilles; but their chief source of wealth consisted in the herds of cattle they reared on their extensive savannahs. With these they supplied their French neighbours, whose demands were large; besides which, they exported a good many to Jamaica and Cuba. Hides were also one of their chief articles of export, and, according to Edwards, many cattle were slaughtered for their hides only. The occasional cutting of mahogany, cedar, and other kinds of timber, dye-woods, &c., made up nearly all the rest of their resources. It is stated that the French purchased annually upwards of 25,000 head of hornca cattle, and about 2,500 mules and horses; and that the Spaniards also transmitted upwards of half a million of dollars in specie. during the year, for the purchase of goods, agricultural implements, and negroes. Large silipments of mahogany and dye-woods found their way to Spain and different parts of Europe, the U. States, and Jamaica,
One of the first effects of the revolution which abolished the slavery of the blacks was an enormous decrease in the amount of agricultural produce. From 1794, the year in which the slaves were declared free by the National Convention of France, to 1796, the value of the exported produce had sunk to 8,600,720 livres, being only about 5 per cent. of what it had been in 1789; and seven years afterwards, the country had become almost a desert, not only from the waste of civil war, but also from the indolence of the black pop. The famous Toussaint L'Ouverture adopted coercive measures torestore agriculture; and it is, we believe, idle to suppose that any other will ever be effectual in such a “...o. impel the negro to labour. By an edict issued in 1800, Toussaint obliged every Haytian not a proprietor of land (with a few exceptions) to hire himself as an agricultural labourer to some proprietor, without the power subsequently to withdraw himself from his service. The labouring classes were thus again rendered slaves in fact, though not in appearance. The use of the whip was abolished ; but, on the other hand, the sabre, musket, and bayonet, in the hands of a military police, were employed to keep the peasantry at work. This object was enforced with the most rigid severity ; the hours of labour were to continue from sunrise to sunset, with a few intervals; and both the cultivator and !." rietor were visited with heavy pains and so ; the former if he refused to work, and the latter f he did not oblige the former to do so. By such means, with a labouring pop. not exceeding 200,000, according to Humboldt, the exports in the most productive year during the short sway of Toussaint were raised to the following annount :
stigar - - 53,400,000 lbs. Cocoa - - 234,600 lbs. Cuttee - - 34,570,000 — Indigo - - 37,600 Cotton - - 4,050,000 - || Molasses - - 9,128 hlids.
This compulsory system was followed both by Dessalines, who at one period raised the value of the exports to 59,181,800 livres, or to a third part what it was in 1789 ; and by Christoho, an able, though a brutal and i.e. tyrant. Petion, on the contrary, abandoned the coercive plan ; and, in consequence, while the N.W. part of the island had the appearance of industry and cultivation, the S.W. displayed little more than occasional spots of culture. Boyer, during the first few years of his rule, continued the lax system of his predecessor, and the total value of the exports of the entire island amounted, in 1825, to no more than 5,793,758 dollars (4s.2d. each) : The state of agriculture at that period was most deplorable: every branch requiring systematic industry had fallen into decay; the sugar plantations had become almost annihilated ; the plain of Cul-de-Sac, o an immense sugar-garden, had on it only four plantations of any extent; little or no sugar was made, the juice being either used as syrup for domestic purposes, or distilled into tasia, the favourite liquor of the natives; coffee, in the W. part of the island, was grown only around Cayes, and in some small patches in the mountains; and in the former locality at least two thirds of what was raised was lost for
want of hands to gather the produce : all other products were obtained in small quantities only; maize, the only species of corn, grown, was frequently scarce, and some: times imported from the U. States, whence also a good many of the horses required were obtained. The following extracts from Mr. Mackenzie's report (1827-28), though referring more especially to one district, give a good idea of the general state of agriculture in Hayti: – “According to Moreau St. Mery, in 1789, the plain of Cayes, one of the finest in the island, contained at that period 100 flourishing sugar plantations, which were calculated to yield annually from 130,000 to 150,000 casks of muscovado sugar, the weight of which is unfortunately not stated in pounds, so that the absolute amount cannot be given. “At present, the whole of these 100 plantations are still partially planted in canes, of which, however, no care whatever is taken. About 75 of them have either water or cattle mills for grinding the cane, with boilinghouses; but generally of a most wretched construction, and in miserable condition. The boiling-houses in general are formed by a shed made against the old walls, which, during the revolution, it required too much labour to destroy. The canes produced on the remaining 25 plantations are transported to those that have mills, and one fourth of the syrup or molasses produced is allowed for the use of the mill. The whole of these estates are, more or less, in a dismembered condition, from the small grants made by the government to the military of from 5 to 30 carreaux, and from similar sales having been effected by many of the large proprietors. "The parties purchasing are called “concessionnaires, and generally plant small patches of cane, which they grind at the estate to which the land formerly belonged, or at some other neighbouring property. The land is never manured, . scarcely ever weeded, and only a part of each year's produce is converted into molasses. This arises principally from idleness, to which may be added the depredations of cattle, owing to bad fences, and the almost total impossibility of repairing sugar-works, from a want of workmen, and the bad faith of all parties concerned. “About 2,000 hlids. of raw sugar, of 1,000 lbs. each, may be considered the average *. produced by those estates; but it fluctuates very much. Few of the plantations make more than from 3 to 4 has. of syrup per week, and that generally at distant periods, very few having the power, from want of man labour, of grinding canes two or three weeks in succession. Nearly the whole of the molasses are purchased by the distillers (the proprietors being generally too poor to erect distilleries on their own plantations), and principally converted into tafia, an inferior spirit, 4,500 fibds. of which, with 600 hhds. of rum, of 60 gallons each, were made in 1826. The whole of those spirits are consumed either in the immediate neighbourhood, or sent into the interior, or coastwise to Port-au-Prince and other ports. None of them are exported for foreign use. “The very little field labour effected is generally performed by elderly people, principally old Guinea negroes. No measures of the government can induce the young creoles to labour, or depart from their habitual licentiousness and vagrancy. . The few young females that live on the plantations seldom assist in any labour whatever, but live in a constant state of idleness, and debauchery. This is tolerated by the soldiery and military police, whose licentiousness is gratified by this means. “The value of land is very small, varying from 24 to 100 dollars per carreau or l’8125 acre. In some cases, 200 dollars have been given. Rent also varies. It is, however, rare that estates are farmed out in the neighbourhood of Cayes. Small properties of from 5 to 10 carreaux, with a few negro huts, are let at an annual rent of from 40 to 100 dollars. Larger ones of 100 or 200 carreaux, from 400 to 800 dollars per annum. Money is lent at 75 per cent. per annum.” (Parl. Report on Hayti, published 1829.) The following table, showing the amount of the external trade of Hayti at different periods, will tend to indicate the effects of the different measures of its successive rulers: —
Table of Exports from Hayti, during the Years 1789, 1801, and from 1818 to 1826, both inclusive.
tion to the republic in 1822.