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the town is confined to tanning and the weaving of coarse linens ; but the neighbourhood abounds in grain, wine, and other fruits, and large flocks of sheep graze on the surrounding hills. An annual fair is held here, and much frequented. The town was ..". founded by Quintus Sertorius, anno 77 B. c., and was known in the time of Augustus as urbs victrir Osca. It subsequently fell into the hands of the Moors, from whom it was taken by Peter I. of Aragon, after the battle of Alcoraz, in 1096. (Miñano ; Dict. Géog.) HULL (KINGSTON ON), a large and important commercial town, river-port, mum, and , parl. r. of England, and co., of itself, locally situated in co. York, E. riding, Harthill wap., on the N. bank of the Humber aestuary, 22 m. from the Spurn-head, 34 m. S.E. York, and 155 m. N. London. Lat. 53° 45° N., long. 0°20' W. Pop. of parl. bor., (which includes, besides the town pars, those of Sculcoates and logo and a sortion of the par. of Sutton,) 49,727 in 1831. The co. includes also the pars. of Ella, Hessel and N. Ferriby, with a pop. of 2,969 persons, chiefly engaged in agr cultural pursuits. e town, which stands close to the confluence of the navigable river Hull with the Humber, has been greatly enlarged and improved during the last half century. . It is, well paved and lighted with gas: the principal streets extend nearly 2 m. ..",". Humber, .# about the same distance along the W. bank of the Hull; and from these others branch off, crossing each other in different directions, and covering an extensive area. Almost the whole town is built with brick: the older streets are inconveniently narrow ; but many recently laid out are wide and regular, containing handsome residences. The public buildings are numerous, but, generally speaking, not remarkable for beauty: the principal, besides the churches, are the Mansion-house (in which is the court-house and and court of requests), the guildhall, exchange, cornexchange, custom and excise offices, the Trinity-house, the gaol (built at an expense of 22,000l.), the theatre, and the citadel, a regularly garrisoned fort on the E. side of the river Hull, which is here crossed by a stone drawbridge of 3 arches. A good market-house was built some years o and in the market-place is an equestrian statue of William III. The town has also a handsome Doric column, surmounted by a colossal statue of Wilberforce, the great advocate for the abolition of slavery. Within the parl. bor. are 8 churches, among which that of the Holy Trinity, in the market-place, begun in the 14th century, is remarkable as one of the best specimens in England of the Gothic style, at different periods. It is a cruciform, cathedral-like building, from the centre of which rises a highly ornamented embattled tower with pinnacles, 140 ft. in height. The interior is 280 ft. long, and 72 ft. broad. St. Mary's, in Lowgate, was originally built at nearly the same time as that last mentioned; but having been ...} destroyed by . VIII., it was afterwards restored at different periods, and with little taste in the architecture. There are also 20 places of worship for Dissenters, a Jews' synagogue, and a floating chapel for the use of Dissenters; to all of these large Sunday schools are attached, which furnish instruction to upwards of 7,000 children. The principal schools are, the Grammar School, founded by Bishop Alcock, in 1486, and chartered by Queen Elizabeth, in which the instruction is general as well as classical, the Vicar's School, established in 1734 for 60 boys; Cogan's charity school, endowed with 400W., a year for the maintenance and instruction of 40 girls; the nautical school for 36 boys, attached to the Trinity House; 3 national schools, attended in 1834 by about 1,100 children; and 2 Lancastrian schools, with 750 children. The means of procuring a sound education have been greatly increased of late ears, by the establishment of 2 colleges which furnish nstruction in classics, history, natural science, &c., on a plan similar to that pursued at the University and King's Colleges, London. Among the numerous endowed charities of the town, the oldest is the Trinity House, founded in 1369, for the support of decayed seamen and their oil...o. Henry VIII. The present building, erected in 1753, consists of 4 sides enclosing a square; the E. front is an elevation of the Tuscan order, and the interior comprises 2 large and well-proportioned councilchambers, besides offices and apartments for 32 pensioners. A school within the building gives a useful nautical education to the sons of seamen intended for the merchaut-service. The Charterhouse Hospital (originally endowed in 1380 for poor monks) was re-established in 1640, and devoted to the maintenance of poor pensioners. The revenues are stated by the Charity Commissioners (Analyt. Digest) to average 1,500l. a year; and there is accommodation for 60 persons, besides a chaplain. Six, other endowed hospitals or almshouses give relief to about 70 persons. The Charityhall is a kind of poor-house, established by an act obtained in 9 and 10 William III. : it was built by subscription, and is now maintained by the poor-rates raised within the bor. The lunfirmary, a brick build ng

ornamented with stone, was erected in 1782; it accom. modates 70 in-patients, and furnishes advice and medicine to an unlimited number of out-patients: the annual expenses are defrayed by voluntary subscription. A diso , opened in 1814, has also been extensively useful n giving medical relief to the poor in this increasing town. The port of Hull, which ranks fourth amongst those of the British empire, has extensive accommodations for shipping, which have been greatly enlarged during the present century. . The old dock formed in 1775 occupies the place of the old wall and ramparts: it is 1,700 ft. long, 250 ft. broad, and 24 ft. deep. Its wharfs, quays, &c., occupy an area of 13 acres, and the entrance is on the E. side from the Hull about 300 yards above its mouth. In 1807, the accommodation was further, increased by the construction of a dock opening directly into the Humber: its dimensions are 920 ft. in length, 350 ft. in breadth, and 30 ft. in depth, the wharfs, &c., covering an area of 9 acres. A third dock, connecting those above mentioned, was completed in 1829, at an expense of 180,000l. : its water-surface exceeds 6 acres, and affords accommodation for about 70 square-rigged vessels. In 1836, 503 ships, of 63,524 tons, belonged to this port, chiefly employed in trading with Germany and the Baltic, in the coasting trade, and in the whale fishery. The commerce of Hull, which is very large, depends principally on her advantageous situation. She is the principal emporium of the extensive and fertile countries situated on the Humber a stuary, and those traversed by thé numerous and important rivers that have their emibouchure in it, including the Trent, Don, Ouse, &c. The natural facilities for internal communication thus enjoyed by Hull, have been greatly extended by artificial means, §e is now united, partly by rivers and partly b canals, with Sheffield, Leeds, Manchester, Liverpool, &c.; so that she has become not merely the principal port for the W. Riding of Yorkshire, but also for a considerable portion of the trade carried on beween Lancashire and the N. parts of the Continent. . The great articles of export are cotton stuffs and twist, woollen goods, hardware and earthenware, &c. Of imports, the leading articles are wool, hones, timber, hemp and flax, corn and seeds, madder, bark, turpentine, skins, &c. The rise of Goole (which see) has somewhat injured the trade of Hull; and it may probably, also, sustan, some injury from the privilege of bonding being lately granted to Gainsborough ; but its superior facilities for trade and navigation will always ensure for it a decided superiority over the other ports on the Humber and its affluents. Hull used to be very largely engaged in the N. whalefishery; but that branch of business, though still carried on to a considerable extent, has materially declined. A regular intercourse is kept up between Hull and London, and ol and different ports of the Continent, by steam vessels. Subjoined is an account of the quantities of the principal articles of foreign produce, imported into Hull during each of the three years ending with 1839: —

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[For an Account of the Cotton Twist exported, see top of next column.] The gross customs' duties at the port of Hull amounted in 1838 to 758,4321., and in 1839 to 884,444l. The manufactures of Hull are not very important. A flax and cotton mill employed, in 1838, 339 hands; there is also a woollen mill, with extensive oil mills and sugar houses. In 1839,4,666,455 lbs. of hard soap were made in Hull; sail-cloth and cordage, are also extensively, produced; and there are white lead works, ship-builders' yards, and the other works necessary to a considerable ort. The Hull Joint Stock Banking Co., established in 833, has its principal office here: and here also is a branch of the Bank of England. A savings' bank, established in 1818, has been very extensively useful. There are four newspapers. The mun. bor, which received its first charter sm the 27th of Edward I., was enlarged by the Mun. Reform Act, so as to be co-extensive with the parl. bor., and was divided into seven wards, the governinent being vested in 14 aldermen (one of whom is

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mayor), and 42 councillors. Quarter and petty sessions are held under a recorder, and there is a court for the recovery of debts under 40s. Hull has sent 2 mems. to the H. of C. since the 33d of Edward I., and the franchise, previously to the passing of the Reform Act, was vested in freemen, by birth, o: or gift (about 1,000 previous to 1832). The limits of the present parl, bor. include (besides the old bor.) the entire pars. of Sculcoates and Drypool, a small portion of the par. of Sutton. and the extra-parochial district called Garrisonside. Reg. electors, in 1838-39, 4,222. Markets on Tuesdays and Saturdays: fairs for horses, July 10., Oct. 10., and Dec. 10. The name of Kingston-on-Hull was given to it by Edward I., who, seeing its eligibility for becoming an important station, erected a fortress, and constituted it a chartered town and port. When Edward III. invaded France, in 1359, otro: 16 ships and 470 mariners. The fortifications, commenced early in the 14th century, were completed by Sir Michael de la Pole, a great benefactor to this town during the reign of Richard II. The plague made great ravages here during the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries. In the reign of Charles I., Hull was the first to close its gates against the king, who shortly after besieged it, and would have taken it by stratagem, if the treachery of Sir John Hotham, its governor, had not been discovered in time to K. its surrender to the royalists. The town was afterwards besieged by the Marquis of Newcastle, and successfully defended by Lord Fairfax. The fortifications were 3. improved by Charles II., and the citadel was occupi o a large body of troops in order to keep in awe the inhabs., who were considered to be disaffected to the Stuart dynasty. At the close of the reign of James II., the town, fort, and garrison being in the hands of the Jacobite party, the place was surprised, and the Prince of Orange proclaimed king ; the anniversary of which event is still kept as a holiday. (Forster's Sketches on Hull; Qific. Doc.; Priv. Inform. HUMBER, a great river, or rather aestuary, on the E. side of England, between Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. It extends from Goole E. to Hull; and thence S.E. to its embouchure between the Spurn Point on the N., and the opposite coast of Lincoln on the S. This aestuary receives the waters of some of the most important of the English rivers. At its W. extremity it is joined by the Ouse (aster the latter has been augmented by the Derwent, the Aire, &c.), and by the Don ; and a little lower down it is joined by the Trent, and still lower down by the Hull river. Hull is the so port of the Humber, and next to it are Goole and Great Grimsby. A Hull spring tides rise about 22, and neaps about 13 ft.; and as there is at all times a considerable depth of water in the fair-way of the channel, Hull is accessible by very large vessels. Goole, which is about 22 m. more inland, may be reached by vessels drawing 15 and 17 ft. water, provided they take advantage of the tide. The basin of the Humber, or the country drained by the Ouse, Trent, and other rivers falling into this great aestuary, embraces an extent of about 10,000 sq. m., comprising some of the most populous and fertile districts in the kingdom.

END OF THE FIRST VOLUME,

London :

Printed by A. Sporriswoods,
New-Street-Square.

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BIOCRAPHY. Aikin's Life of Addison - - - 3 Bell's Lives of eminent British Poets 4 Dover's Life of the King of Prussia 8 nham's Lives of the Early Writers of Great Britain – 8 rt Lives of British Dramatists 8 Forster's Statesmen of the Commonwealth of England 9 -- (Rev. C.) Life of Bp. Jebb 9 Gleig's Lives of the most Eminent british Military Commanders - 10 Grant's (Mrs.) Memoir and Correspondence - - - - James's Life of the Black Prince - 15 “ Lives of the most Eminent o Statesmen - 15 Leslie’s Life of Constable - - 17 Mackintosh's Life of Sir T. More 19 Maunder's Biographical Treasury - 21 Roberts's Duke of Monmouth - 25 Roscoe's Lives of British Lawyers- 25 trussell's Correspondence of the Fourth Duke of Bedford - - 4 Shelley's Lives of Literary Men of Italy, Spain, and Portugal 27 -- Lives of French Writers - 27 Southey's Lives of the Admirals - 28 Waterton's Autobiography & Essays 31

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PrinTED FOR

, BROWN, GREEN, & LONGMAN

Paternoster Row, London.

CLASSIFIED INDEX.

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BOTANY AND CARDENING.

Abercrombie's Practical Gardener so and Main's Gardener's

3. Companion - - 3 Callcott's Scripture Herbal - - 6 Conversations on Botany - - 7 Drummond's First Steps to Botany 8 Glendinning On the Culture of the o 0.

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Hoare On Cultivation of the Wine - 12 “ On the Management of the Roots of Wines - - - 12

Hooker's British Flora - - - 12 - and Taylor's Muscologia Britannica - - - 12 Jackson's Pictorial Flora - - 15

Knapp's Gramina Britannica - 15

Lindley's Theory of Horticulture - 17 44. Guide to the Orchard and

Kitchen Garden - - 17

-- Introduction to Botany - 17

- Flora Medica - - - - 17 w Synopsis of British Flora 17

Loudon's Hortus Britannicus - 18 --

Lignosis Londinensis 18 Self-Instruction for Gardeners, &c. - - - 17 Encyclop.oftees &Shrubs 18 4. Gardening 17 4- Plants - 18 - Suburban Gardener and Villa Companion - 18 Repton's Landscape Gardening Rivera's Rose Amateur’s Guide

Roberts On the Wine - - Rogers's Vegetable Cultivator Schleiden's Scientific Botany Smith's Introduction to Botany “ English Flora - - “ Compendium of Eng. Flora

cHRONOLOGY. Blair's Chronological Tables - 4 Calendar (Illuminated) & Diary, 1846 14 Nicolas's Chronology of History - 22 Riddle's Ecclesiastical Chronology 25 Tate's Horatius Restitutus - - 29

COMMERCE AND MERCANTILE AFFAIRS.

Kane's |. Industrial Resources of Ireland - - - - 15

Lorimer's Letters to a Young Master Mariner - - - - 17

M“Culloch's pictionary of Commerce and Commer. Navigation - 19

Steel's Shipmaster's Assistant - 28

Thomson's Interest Tables - - 30

CEOCRAPHY & ATLASES. Butler's Sketch of Ancient and

Modern Geography - 5 : Atlas of Modern Geography 6 -- “. Ancient do. - - 6 Cooley's world Surveyed - - 6 De Strzelecki's New South Wales - 8 Forster's Hist. Geography of Arabia 9 Hall's New General Atlas - - 11 M’Culloch's Geographical Dictionary 19 Malte-Brun's Geograph - - 20 Murray's Encyclop. jo 22 Parrot's Ascent of Mount Ararat 6

HISTORY & criticism. Adair's (Sir R.) Memoir of his Mission to Vienna - * Negotiations for the Peace of the Dardanelles -

Addison's Hist, of Knights Templars 3

Bell's History of Russia -

Blair's Chron. and Histor. Tables

Bloomfield's Edition of Thucydides
-i. Translation of do. -
Bunsen's Egypt - - - -
Cooley's History of Maritime and

Inland Discover Crowe's History of France -

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- Pages

Dahlmann's Fnglish Revolution - 7

Dunham's Hist. of Spain & Portugal 8 -- History of Europe dur

ing the Middle Ages - 8 -- Hist. of the German Emp. 8 -: History of Denmark,

Sweden, and Norway - 8 -- History of Poland - 8

Dunlop's History of Fiction - - To Fergus's History of United States 9 Grant's (Mrs.) Memoir and Correspondence - - - - - 10 Grättan's History of Netherland Guicciardini's Historical Maxims 'a Life of Richard III. - 11 m's Lectures on Painting and

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- Arithmetic - -

-- etry - - - - 16

-- Treatise on Heat - - 15
Lectures on Polarised Light - - 16
Lloyd On Light and vision - - 17

Mackenzie's Physiology of Vision - 19
Marcet's (Mrs. Conversations
the Sciences, &c. - - - 20
Moseley's Practical Mechanics - 22
- Engineering&Architecture 22
Narrien's Geometry" - - - - 26
-- Astronomy and Geodesy 26
Qwen's Lectures on Comp. Anatomy 23
Parnell On Roads - - -
Pearson's Practical Astronomy -
Peschel's Elements of Physics -
Phillips's Palaeozoic Fossils of
Cornwall, &c. - -
-- Guide to Geolo - -
- Treatise on Geology -
-- Introduct. to Mineralogy
Portlock's Report on the Geology
of Londonderry - - - -
Powell's Naturas Philosophy - -
Quarterly Journal of the Geological
Society of London - - -
Ritchie (Robert) on Railways -
Roberts's Dictionary of Geosogy -
Sandhurst Coll. Mathemat. Course
Scoresby's Magnetical Investigations:
Scott's Arithmetic and Algebra -
“ Trigonometry - -
Thomson's Algebra - -
Wilkinson's Engines of War -

TOPOGRAPHY AND
E Boo

:

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British Architects - - - 3a
Civil Engineers - - - 30

-- ...fs. - - - so
Geological Society of London 30
Linnaean - - - - 3a)
Zoological - - - - 30
Proceedings of the Zoological Society 24

Quarterly Journal of the Geological
Society of London - - - 24
TRAVELs.
Ç. World Survey - - 5
Costello's (Miss) North Wales - 7
De Custine's Russia - - - 7
De Strzelecki's New South Wales - 7
Erman's Travels through Siberia - 6
Harris's Highlands of Ethiopia - 11
Howitt's Wanderings of a Journey-

man Taylor - - - 13
* German Experiences - 13

-- (R.) Australia Felix - 14
Laing's Notes of a Traveller - - 16
: Residence in Norway - 15

-- Tour in Sweden - - 16
Life of a Travelling. Physician - 17
Parrot's Ascent of Mount Ararat e
Paton's (A.A.) Servia - - - 23
-- -- Modern Syrians - 23
Postans's Observations on Sindh - 24
award's Narrative - - - -6
Strong's Greece as a Kingdom - 28
Von Orlich's Travels in India - 31

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:

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ADAIR (SIR ROBERT). —THE NEGOTIATIONS FOR THE

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ADAIR (SIR ROBERT).-AN HISTORICAL MEMOIR OF A

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ADDISQN.THE KNIGHTS TEMPLARS.

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Also
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Illustrated by many of his Letters and Private Papers never before published. By Lucy
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BAILEY.-ESSAYS ON THE PURSUIT OF TRUTH,

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Adapted to the Use of Landlords, Land-Agents, *Poo. Farmers, and Tenants. B
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