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the instance of an elected member that poor girls reading in any educational institution in the province-Government, local fund, Municipal or aided should be exempted from School fees in any Standard up to III Form. The total expenditure of the province in Education is in the neighbourhood of Rs. 340 lakhs. The principal educational institutions in the province are the Presidency College, the Christian College and Pachaiyappa's College, Madras; the St. Joseph's College, Trichinopoly; the Government College, Kumbakonam; the Government College, Rajamundry; the Maharaja's College, Trivandrum; the Agricultural College, Coimbatore; and the Medical and the Engineering Colleges at Madras.

Cochin Harbour Scheme.

Com

blishment of Village Panchayats, or
mittees of Elders. Over 500 Panchayats have
come into existence in the Presidency. Gene-
rally speaking the Local Boards in Madras
display a courageous disposition to levy taxes
up to the sanctioned maximum. Even then
many of them are unable to make both ends
meet.
Irrigation.

tioned the Cauvery Reservoir Project, the In March 1925, the Secretary of State sancestimated cost of which amounts to £ 4 millions. The project has been framed with two main objects in view. The first is to improve the existing fluctuating water supplies for the Cauvery Delta irrigation of over a million acres; the second is to extend irrigation to a The Government of Madras and the autho-new area of 301,000 acres, which will, it is rities of the Cochin and Travancore States estimated, add 150,000 tons of rice to the food have come to an agreement regarding the supply of the country. The scheme which is financing of the Cochin Harbour scheme. The expected to be completed before 1933 provides importance of this project lies in the fact that for a large dam at Metur on the Cauvery to a good harbour at Cochin would lead to the store 90,000 million cubic feet of water and development of a valuable hinterland which for a canal nearly 88 miles long with a conis at present far removed from any convenient nected distributary system. port. The scheme is to cut a passage through ant project is the Periyar project which is inAnother importthe bar which blocks the entrance from the tended not only for irrigation purposes but also sea to an extensive backwater. A trial cut for providing water power for generating elecwas made in 1923 and the effect of the mon- tricity. Taking its rise in the Western Ghats, soon thereon observed. The results recorded the river flows into the Arabian Sea through were examined by a committee of Harbour Travancore State territory. After prolonged Engineers in England which reported favour- negotiations, the Travancore Durbar consentably on the prospects of the scheme. The ed to the water being caught and stored in the plant necessary for effecting a deeper and Travancore hills for being diverted towards the wider cut has been secured and the work is East. Some three thousand feet above seain progress. Everything had been prepared at level a Cochin for proceeding with the major works and constructed and nearly 50 feet below the crestconcrete and masonry dam has been with the arrival of the dredger and the pipe line level of the dam a channel through the summit on the lines of the Bombay plant work is pro- of the range carries the waters into the eastern gressing rapidly. If access through the bar water-shed where they are led into the river can be established at all periods of the year, a por- Vaigai. The total quantity of water impoundtion of the backwater will be dredged to afford ed to crest level is 15,660 million cubic feet. anchorage for ocean-going steamers. this work, a river ordained by Nature to flow By Vizagapatam Harbour Project. into the Arabian Sea has been led across the Even more pregnant with future possibili- Peninsula into the Bay of Bengal irrigating in its ties is the scheme for the development of the irrigable area commanded by the Periyar system way well over 100,000 acres Vizagapatam harbour. Proposals for the deve- is 142,749 acres, while the supply from the lake lopment of the port at this place have been under consideration since 1859; but the sucwas sufficient only for 130,000 acres. cess of the project is bound up with the cons- increasing the effective capacity of the lake by up for this deficit, Government contemplate To make truction of direct railway communication between Vizagapatam and the Central Pro-lowering the water-shed cutting at an estimated vinces; for the quantity of trade which could cost of Rs. 24 lakhs. be obtained from the littoral itself is insufficient to justify the capital expenditure which would be required. In May 1925 the Government of India declared Vizagapatam a major port thereby enabling the development of the port under the directions of the Central Government. Preliminary operations commenced in the end of the year and were continued vigorously in 1926 with the aid of dredgers and rockbreakers. It is expected that the construction of the harbour will take four or five years. The surrounding hill-sides and adjacent areas will meanwhile be developed for industrial, trading and residential purposes.

of land. The

irrigation in the Madras Presidency totals 7
The area already under
million acres. Of this, over 3 million acres are
served by petty irrigation works numbering
about 35,000.
Electric Schemes.

Of the major schemes that have been receiv ing Government's attention, undertaking whose details are expected to he a hydro-electric announced in the near future, is by far the most important. The protracted negotiations regarding the purchase by the Madras Government of what is known as the Pykara concession, which includes a huge and powerful water-fall have concluded and it has been decided to work the scheme as a government venture. It has indeed As in Bomuay, the Madras District Munici- not propose to hand over either this water-fall been publicly announced that Government do palities and Local Boards Act has amended in various directions, all of which vate syndicate for development. A member of been or any other source of water power to any pritend towards liberalisation. More recently the American Institute of Electrical Engineers legislation has been passed permitting the esta- with wide experience of big hydro-electric

Local Self-Government..

schemes in Canada has been appointed for five years to be in sole charge of the Pykhara Scheme. A proposal to electrify some portions at least of the railways in South India is also under the consideration of the Government. The increasing number of electric supply undertakings throughout the Presidency has necessitated the construction of an up-to-date electric testing laboratory for the electrical inspector to Government at a cost of nearly Rs. six lakhs. Co-operation

The progress made by the Co-operative Department, both in the formation of new societies and the development of those registered in previous years has been very satisfactory. There was a large increase, during the year, in the number of members and in the amount of share capital, of working capital and of reserve fund. The steadily increasing efficiency of many of the local supervising unions gave evidence of the success of the policy adopted by Government of transferring, within statutory limits, the control of primary Societies to non-official organisations wherever such a course was practicable. Some noteworthy features of the Co-operative movement during the year were the increased activities of the building societies stimulated by financial help from Government; a marked development in the organisation of labour societies, and an increase in the number of societies formed by cultivators to enable them to hold up their crops for a favourable market and for the joint sale of their produce. The cooperative movement also made satisfactory progress among the depressed classes during the year. A Committee was appointed to inquire into the progress of the Co-operative movement and suggest in what ways and on what lines the movement may be still further carried on.

Social Legislation.

An advance piece of social legislation which has caused considerable excitement in the Presidency is the Hindu Religious Endow ments Act. It has for its object the regulation of the great endowments of certain religious institutions, such as Hindu temples. The profits are applied under State control to benevolent activities, mostly educational. The measure entailed a considerable amount of correspondence with the Government of Madras; the Governor of Madras found himself unable to assent to the Bill as originally passed, and returned it for re-consideration, recommending certain amendments which the Council accepted. The Act came into force last year and has been working satisfactorily notwithstanding the obstacles placed in its

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way by the orthodox section of the Hindu community. The latter are striving their utmost to put technical and other obstacles in the way of its smooth working and are making much of the suggestion thrown out by the GovernorGeneral while giving his assent to the Bill, namely, that some of its defects might be remedied in the light of experience. Another piece of legislation-a non-official Bill-which has raised a heated controversy is the Malabar Tenancy Bill, which aims to confer, subject to certain conditions, оссuраnсу rights on "kanom " tenants and actual cultivators of the soil. As there was a sharp difference of opinion on the very principles of the Bill and as it was thought that the landlords would be hard-hit by it, the Governor has withheld his assent. A committee has been appointed to go into the matter thoroughly and its findings are awaited. Meanwhile the Madras Legislative Council has carried an adjournment motion protesting against the personnel of the Committee. Noteworthy among other efforts at legislation for social reform was the non-official resolution passed by the Council recommending to Government to undertake legislation or to ask the Government of India to do so to put a stop to the practice of dedicating young women and girls to Hindu temples for immoral purposes under the pretext of caste, custom or religion. It was also resolved to ask Government to fix as their goal local prohibition of drink in the presidency within 20 years.

Law and Order.

The Superior Court or Civil and Criminal judicial work in the Presidency is the High Court at Madras, which consists of a Chief Justice and eleven puisne judges. The existing law provides for a maximum of 20 High Court Judges. For the administration of criminal justice there are 25 Session Judges in the mofussil. Additional and Assistant Sessions Judges being provided to assist Courts in which the work is heavy. Then there are the District Magistrates, the Subordinate Magistrates and Honorary Magistrates. The admini-tration of civil justice is carried on by 24 District Judges, 29 Subordinate Judges and District Munsifts. In the Presidency Town there are a City Civil Court consisting of one Judge and Small Causes Court consisting of a Chief Judge and two other Judges. Madras is a litigious province and the records show one suit for every 85 persons. The Police department is under an Inspector-General who has four deputies in four ranges of the Presidency, a Superintendent being stationed at each District. The sanctioned strength of the permanent police force is about 30,000.

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Governor.

Collector of Customs, T. A. Stewart, 0.1.E.

His Excellency the Right Hon. Viscount Gos- Commissioner of Excise, P. L. Moore, 1.0.8. chen, G.C.I.E., C.B.E.

Personal Staff.

Private Secy., E. C. Smith, 1.0.8.

Military Secy., Major H. F. C. Hobbs.
Surgeon, Major D. P. Johnstone, R.A.M.O.
Aides-de-Camp, Lieut. Maurice Alan Fremantle
and Lieut. Henry Alleyene Lash.

Extra Aide-de-Camp, Captain George Gerrard
Goschen.

Indian Aide-de-Camp,

Singh Bahadur.

Risaldar-Major Hamir

Inspector-General of Registration, E. H. M.
Bower.

Meteorologist and Deputy Director, Madras Obser-
vatory, S. R. U. Savur.

Acting Director, Kodaikanal Observatory, Thomas
Royds.

Supdt., Govt. Central Museum, and Principal
Librarian, Connemara Public Library, Dr. F.
H. Gravely.

Director of Agriculture, R. D. Anstead, M.A.

Commandant, H. E. the Governor's Body Guard, Chief Conservator cj Forests, H. Tireman, C.I.E.

Major T. N. Watson, M.v.O.M.C.

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Dr. P. Suhbarayan, Bar-at-Law (Education Gulston Addison and Development)

Mr. A. Ranganatha Mudaliar (Local Self-Government, Medicine and Public Health). Dewan Bahadur R. N. Arogyaswami Mudaliar (Public Works).

SECRETARIES TO GOVERNMENT.

Chief Secretary, A. Y. G. Campbell, C.I.E., O.B.E.,
V.D., I.C.S.

Secretary, Finance Department, G. T. Boag, 1.c.s.
Secretary, Local Self-Government Department,
C. B. Cotterell, C.I.E., I.C.S.

Chief Engineer and Joint Secretary to Govern-
ment, Public Works Department (Buildings
and Roads), M. R. Kharegat.

Chief Engineer and Secretary to Government, Public Works Department, (General and Irrigation), P. Hawkins.

MISCELLANEOUS APPOINTMENTS.

Director of Public Instruction, Richard Littlehailes, M.A. (on deputation).

Inspector-General of Police, F. A. Hamilton. Surgeon-General, Major-General F.H. G. Hutchinson, C.I.E., M.B., I.M.S.

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Director of Public Health, Lt.-Colonel A. J. H. George Stratton
Russell, M.A., M.D., I.M.S.

Accountant-General, J. C. Nixon, B. SC., I.C.S.,

I.C.S.

Inspector-General of Prisons, Lt.-Colonel John
Phillip Cameron, I.M.S.

Postmaster-General, R. W. Hanson.

John Whitehill (Acting)
Sir Thomas Rumboid, Bart.
John Whitehill (Acting)
Charles Smith (Acting)
Lord Macartney, K.B.

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