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SATYAGRAHA.-(lit.) One possessed by the truth; one who follows the truth wherever it may lead. (Commonly used to denote the passive resistance movement.)

SAWAI-A Hindu title implying a slight distinction (lit. one-fourth better than others). SAWBWA.-A title borne by chiefs in the Shan States, Burma.

SEMAL or cotton tree.-A large forest tree with crimson flowers and pods containing a quantity of floss, BOMBAY MALABARICUM.

SEROW, sarau.-A goat antelope, NEMORHAEDUS BUBALINUS.

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SHEGADI, seggaree.-A pan on 3 feet with live

charcoal in it.

SHER, ser, seer-A weight, or measure varying much in size in different parts of the country. The Railway ser is about 2 lbs.

SHETH, shethia.-A Hindu or Jain merchant.

Baroda, corresponding to the Collector of
British District; (3) a group of Districts or
Division, Hyderabad.

SUBAHDAR. (1) The governor of a province under Mahomedan rule; (2) a native infantry officer in the Indian Army; (3) an official in Hyderabad corresponding to the Commissione: in British territory.

charge of a junior officer of the Indian Civil SUB-DIVISION.-A portion of a District in Service or a Deputy Collector.

SULTAN.-Like" Sardar."

SUPARI. The fruit of the betel palm, ARECA


SUPERINTENDENT.-(1) The chief police officer in a District; (2) the official in charge of a hill station; (3) the official, usually of the Indian Medical Service, in charge of a Central Jail.

SURTI.-Native of Surat, specially used of persons of the Dhed or Mabar caste who work as house servants of Europeans, and whose house speech is Gujarati.

SWAMI.-A Hindu religious wanderer.
SYCE, sais. A groom.

SYED, SYUD.-More variations of "* Said."
TABLIGH.-The Mahomedan conversion move-



TAHSIL-A revenue sub-division of a District; syn. taluka, Bombay; taluka, Madras and Mysore; township, Burma.

TAHSILDAR.-The officer in charge of a tahsil; syn. Mamlatdar, Bombay; township officer, or myo-ok, Burma; Mukhtiarkar, Sind; Vahivatdar, Baroda. His duties are both executive and magisterial.

SHISHAM or sissu.-A valuable timber tree seed, bullocks, or agricultural improvements; TAKAVI.-Loans made to agriculturists for


SHUDDHI.-Literally purification. A move. ment started in Rajputana and Northern India for the reconversion to Hinduism of those, like the Malakhana Rajputs, who, though Mahomedans for some generations, have retained many Hindu practices.

SIDI.-A variation of "Said."
SILLADAR.-A native trooper who furnishes
his own horse and equipment.
SINDHIA.--See under "Gaekwar."

syn. tagai, Bombay.


TALAV, or talao.-A lake or tank.

TALUK, taluka.-The estate of a talukdar in Oudh. A revenue sub-division of District, in Bombay, Madras and Mysore; syn. tashil.

TALUKDAR.-A landholder with peculiar tenures in different parts of India. (1) An official in the Hyderabad State, corresponding to the Magistrate and Collector (First TalukCollectors dar) or Deputy Magistrates and

SOLA.-A water-plant with a valuable pith, (Second and Third Talukdars); (2) a land


SOWAR. A mounted soldier or constable. SRI OR SHRI.-Lit. fortune, beauty, a Sanscrit term used by Hindus in speaking of a person much respected (never addressed to him; nearly=" Esquire"): used also of divinities. The two forms of spelling are occasioned by the intermediate sound of the 8 (that of s in the German Stadt).

STUPA or tope.-A Buddhist tumulus, usually of brick or stone, and more or less hemispheri

cal, containing relics.

SUBAH (1) A province under Mahomedan rale; (2) the officer in charge of a large tract in

holder with a peculiar form of tenure in Gujarat.

TALPUR. The name of a dynasty in Sind. TAMTAM, tumtum.-A North Indian name for a light trap or cart.

TANK.-In Southern, Western, and Central India, a lake formed by damming up a valley, in Northern India, an excavation holding water.

ment among the Mahomedans which aims at TANZIM.-Literally" organization." A movesecuring better education and a closer approach to unity among Mahomedans in India.


TARAI. A moist swampy tract; the term especially applied to the tract along the foot of the Himalayas.

TARI, toddy-The sap of the date, palmyra, or cocoanut palm, used as a drink, either fresh or after fermentation. In Northern India the juice of the date is called Sendhi.

TASAR, tussore.-Wild silkworms, ANTHERAEA PAPHIA; also applied to the cloth made from their silk.

TAZIA.-Lath and paper models of the tombs of Hasan and Husain, carried in procession at the Muharram festival; syn. tabut.

TEAK-A valuable timber tree in Southern
Western India and Burma, TECTONA



TELEGRAPHIC TRANSFERS.-See Council bills. THAGI, thuggee.-Robbery after strangulation of the victim.

THAKUR.-(1) The modern equivalent of the caste name Kshattriya in some parts of Northern India; (2) a title of respect applied to Brahmans; (3) a petty chief; (4) a hill tribe in the Western Ghats.

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URID, UDID.-A pulse, black grain,' (PHA-

USAR.-Soil made barren by saline efflorescence, Northern India.

sub-division, with both executive and magisVAHIVATDAR.-Officer in charge of a revenue terial functions, Baroda; syn. tahsildar.

VAID or baidya, Bengal.-A native doctor practising the Hindu system of medicine. VAKIL.-(1) A class of legal practitioner; (2) an agent generally.

VIHARA.-A Buddhist monastery.

demarcated by survey, corresponding roughly VILLAGE.-Usually applied to a certain area to the English parish.

VILLAGE UNION.-An area in which loca affairs are administered by a small committee.

WADA OF WADI.-(1)An enclosure with houses built round facing a centre yard; (2) private enclosed land near a village.

WAKF.-A Muhammadan religious or charltable endowment.

WALI.-Like "Sardar." The Governor of

THAMIN.-The brow-antlered deer, Burma, Khelat is so termed, whilst the Chiefs of Cabul CERVUS ELDI. are both Wali" and Mir."

THANA.-A police station, and hence the circle attached to it.

TIKA. (1) Ceremonial anointing on the forethead; (2) vaccination.

WAO.-A step well.

WATAN.-A word of many senses. In Bombay Presidency used mostly of the land or cash allowance enjoyed by the person who performs some service useful for Government or to the

TIKAM-The English pickaxe (of which the village community. word is a corruption).

TIL-An oilseed, SESAMUM INDICUM; also known as gingelly in Madras.

FINDAL, tandel.-A foreman, subordinate officer of a ship.

TIPAI, Teapoy.-A table with 3 legs, and hence used of any small European style table. TOLA-A weight equivalent to 180 grains (troy).

WAZIR.-The chief minister at a Mahomedan


WET RATE.-The rate of revenue for land

assured of irrigation.

YOGI-A Hindu ascetic who follows the yoga complete control over the bodily functions system, a cardinal part of which is that it confers enabling the practiser, for instance to breathe in through one nostril and out at the other. YUNANI.-Lit. Greek; the system of medicine

TONGA.-A one or two horsed vehicle with a practised by Mahomedans. covered top; syn. SHIGHRAM.

TSINE.-Wild cattle found in Burma and to the southward, Bos SONDAICUS; syn. hsaing and banteng.

TUMANDAR.-A Persian word denoting some


UMARA.-Term implying the Nobles collec


UNIT. A term in famine administration
denoting one person relieved for one day.
URIAL. A wild sheep in North-Western

ZAMINDAR.-A landholder.

ZAMINDARI.-(1) An estate; (2) the right of a landholder, zamindar; (3) the system of tenure in which land revenue is imposed on an individual or community occupying the position of a landlord.

ZANANA.-The women's quarters in a house hence private education of women.

ZIARAT.-A Mahomedan shrine, NorthWestern Frontier.

ZILA.-A District,

The Peoples of India.


It s vential to bear in mini, when dealing patana and in Bhar and represented in its who the pope of India, that it is a lustiselt rather than a ovuntry. Nowhere is the compl】 marter of Indians are ciarly eximputed than in the physical type of its inhabitants. No one would confuse the mils types, such as Pathans, Dias, Bajpums, Birma 28. Naza Tala, etc., nor does it tam long to carry ifferentiation much farther. The typical inhabitants of India-the Dravidians-differ aitogether from those of Northern Asia, ani me nearly resemble the tribes of Malaya, 321 Ma Lagascar. Whatever Hay be their origin. It is certain that they have settled in the ountry for countless ages and that their present physical charactresties have evolvel locally. They have been displaced in the NorthWest by & incessive hordes of invaders, including Aryans, Scythans, Pathans and Moghals, and in the North-East by Mongolaid trees alded to those of Birma, which is India only in a modern DONOCIME. Between these foreign elements and the pure Dravans is borderland where the contiguous races have intermingled.

The people of the Indian Empire are divided by Sir Henry Kisley (Caste, Tribe and Race, Indian Census Report, 1901; the Gazetteer of India, Eihnology and Caste, Vorme I, Chapter 6) into seven main physical types. There would be eight if the Andamanese were included, but this tiny group of Negritos may be disregar ded. The Turko-Iranian, represented by the Baison, Braai and Afghans of Baluchistan and the North-West Frontier Province. Probably formed by a fusion of Turki and Persian elements in watch the former predominate. Stature above mean; complexion fair; eyes mostly dark ont occasionally grey; hair on face plentiful; head brovi, nose moderately narrow, prominent, and very long. The feature in these people that strikes one most prominently is the portentous length of their noses, and it is probably this peculiarity that has given rise to the tradi tion of the Jewish origin of the Afghans.

The Indo-Aryan occupying the Punjab, Rajputana, and Kashmir, and having as its characteristic members the Rajputs, Khattris, and Jats. This type, which is readily distinguish able from the Turko-Iranian, approaches most closely to that ascribed to the traditional Aryan colonists of India. The stature is mostly tall; complexion fair; eyes dark; hair on face plentiful, head long; nose narrow, and prominent, but not specially long.

The Scytho-Dravidian, comprising the Maratha Brahmans, the Kunois, and the Coorgs of Western India. Probably formed by a mixture of Scythian and Dravidian elements. This type is clearly distinguished from the TurkcIranian by a lower stature, a greater length of head, a higher nasal index a shorter nose, and a lower orbito-nasal index. All of these characters, except perhaps the last, may be due to a varying degree of intermixture with the Dravidians. In the higher groups the amount of crossing seems to have been slight; in the lower Dravidian elements are more pronounced.

The Aryo-Dravidian or Hindustani, found in the United Provinces, in parts of Raj

per strata by the Hodustin Brahmin and in
Dower by the Chamar. Proladly the result of !
intermixt are, in varying proportions, of the In
Aryan and Dravillas types The head-form
long with a tendency to medium; the complexi
Varks from nightish brown to black; the n
ranges from medium to brai, being alwa
Among the Ini-Aryans; t
stature is lower than in the litter group, a
csmally below the average according to the sca
The higher representatives of this type approa
the Indo-Aryans, while the lower members a
in many respects not very far removed fro
the Dravidlats. The type is essentiaily
mixed one, yet its characteristics are read
defnable, and DO 052 would take even
upper class Hindustani for a pure Indo-Ary
or a Chamar for a genuine Dravidian.
distinctive feature of the type, the charact
which gives the real clue to its origin and stam
the Aryo Dravidian as racially different fro
the Indo-Aryan is to be found in the proportion
of the nose.

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of Lower Bengal and Orissa, comprising th The Mongolo-Dravidian, cr Bengal ty Bengal Brahmins and Kayasthas, the Mah medans of Eastern Rengal, and other group Peculiar to this part of India. Probably a blen of Dravidian and Mongoloid elements, with strain of Indo-Aryan blood in the higher group The head is broad: complexion dark; hair c face usually plentiful: stature medium; no melium with a tendency to broad. This is on of the most distinctive types in India, and it members may be recognised at a glance through out the wide area where their remarkable apt tude for clerical pursuits has procured ther employment. Within its own habitat the typ exten is to the Himalayas on the north and t Assam on the east, and probably includes th bulk of the population of Orissa; the wester limit coincides approximately with the hill country of Chota Nagpur and Western Bengal.

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Nepal, Assam, and Burma, represented by th The Mongoloid type of the Himalayas Kanets of Lahul and Kulu; the Lepchas Darjeeling and Sikkim: the Limbus, Murmis an Gurungs of Nepal: the Bodo of Assam; and th Burmese. The head is broad; complexion dark with a yellow tinge; hair on face scanty; statur short or below average; nose fine to broad, fac characteristically flat; eyelids often oblique.

The Dravidian type exten ling from Ceylo to the valley of the Ganges, and pervadin Madras, Hyderabad, the Central Provinces, mos of Central India and Chora Nagpur. Its mos characteristic representatives are the Paniyan of Malabar and the Santals of Chota Nagpu Probably the original type of the populatio of India, now modified to a varying extent b the admixture of Aryan, Scythian, and Mongo loid elements. In typical specimens the statur is short or below mean; the complexion ver dark, approaching black; hair p.entiful, with a occasional tendency to curl: yes dark; hea long nose very broad, sometimes depressed the root, but not so as to make the face appe

flat. This race, the most primitive of the Indian types, occupies the oldest geological formation in India, the medley of forest-clad ranges, terraced plateau, and undulating plains which stretch roughly speaking, from the Vindhyas to Cape Comorin. On the east and the west of the peninsular area the domain of the Dravidian is conterminous with the Ghats, while further north it reaches on one side to the Aravallis, and on the other to the Rajmahal Hills. Where the original characteristics have been unchanged by contact with Indo Aryan or Mongoloid people, the type is remarkably uniform and distinctive. Labour is the birthright of the pure Dravidian whether hoeing tea in Assam, the Duars, of Ceylon, cutting rice in the swamps of Eastern Bengal or doing scavenger's work in the streets of Calcutta, Kangoon and Singapore, he is recognizable at a glance by his black skin, his

squat figure, and the negro-like proportion of his nose. In the upper strata of the vast social deposit which is here treated as Dravidian these typical characteristics tend to thin and disap pear, but even among them traces of the original stock survive in varying degrees.

The areas occupied by these various types do not admit of being defined as sharply as they must be shown on an ethnographic map. They melt into each other insensibly; and although at the close of a day's journey from one ethnic tract to another, an observer whose attention had been directed to the subject would realise clearly enough that the physical characteristies of the people had undergone an appreciable change, he would certainly be unable to say at what particular stage in his progress the transformation had taken place.


The Indian Empire has an area of 1,805,332 | square miles, about 3,000 square miles being added at the last census owing to the enumeration by estimate of certain tracts in Burma which had been excluded from previous censuses.

Of the total area 1,094,300 square miles, or 61 per cent. lie in British Territory, while the Indian States cover an area of 711,032 square miles, or 39 per cent. The total population is 818,942,480, British Territory containing 247,003,293 persons, or 77 per cent., and the Indian States 71,939,187 persons, or 23 per cent. of the whole population. It is usual to illustrate

these figures by comparison with the countries of Europe and in respect of area and population the Indian Empire has been frequently compared to Europe without Russia. The war has, however, considerably altered the national and political distribution of countries and the new political map of Europe is perhaps hardly yet sufficiently familiar to form a graphic contrast. Turning further west we find that India with an area about half that of the United States has a population almost three times as large.

The most important statistics are set out in the following table :

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Density. Over the whole of India the population per square mile averages 177, the mean density in the British Provinces being 226 and in the States 101. If the districts (and small States) are taken as a unit, and the cities are excluded, the mean density ranges between a minimum of 1 and a maximum of 1,882 per square mile. The unequal distribution of the population of India is due to causes analysed in previous editions of the Year Book; it is chiefly dictated by physical conditions. Other influences are at work, such as the state of law and order, the means of communication, climate, and the existence of irrigation. Industrial factors are becoming more and more important as the population moves out of the congested rural tracts to supply the labour needed for industrial enterprise-for the tea in Assam,

the docks and jute mills of Calcutta, the minerals of Bengal and Chota Nagpur, the cotton of Bombay and the coffee and rubber of Southern India. For the purposes of comparison the manner in which the population is distributed in other countries of the world is indicated in the following statement:


The population of India has increased by 1.2 per cent. during the decade. The figures of previous censuses with the variations per cent. are given below. The average increase since the census of 1872 falls at a rate of 5.5 per cent., but the real gain is considerably less than this figure owing to two factors, (a) the additions of area and population included at each census and (b)the progressive increase in the accuracy of the enumeration from census to census. So far as the present census is concerned the additional area and population included amount to 2,675 square miles and 86,533 persons, respectively, while for the present purpose it may be taken that the enumeration of 1921 was, as regards numbers, as accurate but not more accurate than that of 1911. The real increase in the population during the last 49 years is thus estimated at about fifty-four millions or 20.1 per-cent.

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Factors in the Movement.-The increase was slightly greater in the British districts (1-3) than in the States (1-0). Assam and Burma show comparatively high rates of increase; immigration is an important factor in the rise in Assam, but neither of these Provinces was exposed to the invasion of influenza which wiped off the whole of the natural increase in the Central Provinces and Berar, Bihar and Orissa, and Bombay, and substantially reduced the population in the United Provinces and Rajputana, the Central India Agency, and Hyderabad State. The stimulus given to agricultural prosperity in the Punjab by a large expansion of canal irrigation did much to neutralise the effects of the high death rate in 1918. In Bengal and Madras unhealthy conditions were more localised and the development of the population was only partially retarded.

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The War. The war itself had little direct effect on the population of India. Such effect could operate in three ways (1) by death casualties, (2) by increasing the number of persons outside India at the census, and (3) by decreasing the birth-rate. The actual number of death casualties among the officers and ranks of Indian Army units and labour corps was 58,238. The maximum number serving out of India in combatant and labour units at any one time between 1914 and 1919 was, approximately. Indian troops 250,000, labour corps 230,000, total 180,000; the number about the time of the census being troops 105,000, labour corps 20,800, total 125,800. So far as the larger totals are concerned the war is not a direct factor of any importance in the census in any province.

Economic Conditions.-In considering the economic factors which determined the movement of the population during the decade it can be divided into two periods, a fairly normal period from 1911 to 1917 and the disastrous epidemic year 1918, accompanied by scarcity and followed by a second crop failure in 1920. In 1917 conditions in India began to respond to the world conditions of the war, men for the fighting and labour units and food, munitions and war material of all kinds were demanded. The strain on the railway organisation dislocated the local markets and the distribution system of the country was impaired. The rising prices of imported necessities hit the poorer classes. Then followed the disastrous seasons of 1918 and 1919. Famine relief organisation is now so highly perfected in India that scarcity is not necessarily accompanied by high mortality but influenza, starting in 1918, visited almost every portion of the country and in a few months wiped out the natural increase in the population of the previous seven years.

Public Health.-The distinctive feature of the decade 1901-1911 was plague. The recorded number of deaths from plague in the ten years was 6 millions. In the recent decade the deaths were less than half that number. Cholera is normally most prevalent in the Eastern Provinces.

Virulent as the epidemic can still be when its hold is establi-hed it is now usually of a temporary and local nature, and the total deathrate in British India from the disease during the decade did not amount to more than 1.5 per cent. By far the largest number of deaths

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