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bas given Bombay an immense sea-borne trade. The older ports, Surat, Broach, Cambay is and Mandvie, were famous in the ancient days, and their bold and hardy mariners carried Indian commerce to the Persian Gulf and the coasts of Africa. But the opening of the Suez Canal and the increasing size of ocean steamers have tended to concen. trate it in modern ports with deep water anchor Eages, and the sea-borne trade of the Presidency is now concentrated at Bombay and Karachi, although attempts are being made to develop Mormugao in Portuguese territory into an outlet for the trade of the Southern Mahratta Country. Administration.



The Presidency is administered by a Gover nor and an Executive Council of four members, with the assistance of three Ministers. exact change made in the functions of the Provincial Governments is indicated in the section on the Provincial Governments (q. v.) where a description is given of the division of the administration into two branches, the Reserved Subjects, administered by the Governor and bis Council and the Transferred Sub

jects, administered by the Governor and his Ministers, the whole Government commonly meeting and acting as one. In another part of that section the division between Reserved and Transferred subjects is shown. This new form of administration under the Reform Act

of 1919 came into operation in January 1921. All papers relating to publicservice business reach Government through the Secretariat, divided into seven main departments, each under a Secretary (a) Finance; (b) Revenue; (c) Home and Ecclesiastical; (d) Political; (e) General, Educational and Marine; (Legal; (9) Public Works. The senior of the Civilian Secretaries is entitled the Chief Secretary. The Government frequently moves. It is in Bombay from November to the end of March; at Mahableshwar from April to June; but the Secretariat is always in Bombay. Un der the Governor-in-Council the Presidency is administered by four Commissioners. The Commissioner in Sind has considerable independent powers. In the Presidency Proper there are Commissioners for the Northern Division, with headquarters at Ahmedabad; the Central Division at Poona; and the Sou thern Division at Belgaum. Each district is under a Collector, usually a Covenanted Civilian, who has under him one or more Civilians as Assistant Collectors, and one or more Deputy Collectors. A collectorate contains on average from eight to ten talukas, each consisting of from one to two hundred villages whose whole revenues belong to the State. The village officers are the patel, who is the head of the village both for revenue and police purpose; the talati or kulkarni, clerk and accountant; the messenger and the watchman. Over each Taluka or group of village is the mamlatdar, who is also a subordinate magistrate. The charge of the Assistant or Deputy Collector contains three or four talukas. The Collector and Magistrate is over the whole District. The Commissioners exercise general control over the Districts in their Divisions. The control of the Government over the Native States of the Presidency is exercised through Political Agents.

in Poona from June to November;



The administration of justice is entrusted to the High Court sitting in Bombay; and comprising a Chief Justice, who is a bar. rister, and seven puisne judges, either Civilians, Barristers, or Indian lawyers. In Sind the Court of the Judicial Commissioner (The Judicial Commissioner and four Additional Judges) is the highest court of civil and criminal appeal. The growing importance of Karachi and Sinds has, however, necessitated the raising of the sta tus of the Judicial Commissioner's Court and the passing of the Sind Courts Act in August 1926, which contemplates the creation of a Chief Court for Sind with a Chief Judge and three or more been put into effect owing to financial difficulties. Puisne Judges. The Act however has not yet Of the lower civil courts the court of the first instance is that of the Subordinate Judge The Court of first appeal is that of the District recruited from the ranks of the local lawyers. or Assistant Judge, or of a first class subordinate judge with special powers. District and Assistant Judges are Indian Civilians, or mem. ceeding Rs. 5,000 in value an appeal from the bers of the Provincial Service. In cases exdecision of the Subordinate or Assistant Judge and from the decision of the District Judge in all original suits lies to the High Court. District and Assistant Judges exercise criminal original criminal work is chiefly disposed of by jurisdiction throughout the Presidency, but the Executive District Officers. Capital sentences are subject to confirmation by the High Court. In some of the principal cities Special Magistrates exercise summary Jurisdiction (Bombay has five Presidency Magistrates, as well as Honorary Magistrates exercising the functions of English Justices of the Peace) and


Court of Small Causes, corresponding to the English County Courts.

Local Government.

administration is secured by the constitution of local boards and municipalities, the former exercising authority over a District or a Taluka, and the latter over a city or town. These bodies are composed of members either nominated by Government or elected by the people, who are empowered to expend the funds at their disposal on education, sanitation, the construction of roads and tanks, and general improvements. Their funds are derived from cesses on the land revenue, the toll and ferry funds. The tendency of recent years has been to increase the elective and reduce the nominated element. to allow these bodies to elect their own chairmen, whilst larger grants have been made from the general revenues for water supply and drainage.

Local control over certain branches of the

The City Municipalities Act of 1926 works further advance in the matter of local SelfGovernment in the Presidency. The Act provides more adequate basis for Municipal Administration in the larger cities of the Bombay Presidency. The larger municipalities are now styled as Municipal Boroughs which are now 29 in number. The executives of these Borough Municipalities are invested with larger powers than hitherto exercised. Another important change introduced by the Act was the extension of municipal franchise to occupiers of dwellings

or buildings with annual rental values of Rs 12 or with capital value of not less than Rs. 200. Public Works.

reported at their Police Stations. On appoint
ment Assistant Superintendents of Police.
Deputy Superintendents of Police, Inspectors
and Sub-Inspectors undergo a course of training
at the Central Police Training School at Nasik
before being posted to Districts for executive
duty. The Bombay City Police is a separate
force under the Commissioner of Police who is
directly responsible to Government.

The Public Works Department is under the control of two Chief Engineers who act as Secretaries to the Government; one for General Works and the other for Irrigation. Under them are Superintending Engineers in charge of divisions and Executive Engineers in charge of districts, with the Consulting Architect. The chief irrigation works are Education is imparted partly through in Sind and consist of a chain of canals fed direct Government agency, partly through the by the annual inundations from the Indus and medium of grants-in-aid. Government maintain one perennial canal the Jamrao. The Sukkur Arts Colleges at Bombay, Poona, Gujarat Barrage project which was inaugurated in and Dharwar; the Grant Medical College, the 1923 is the greatest Irrigation Scheme in the Poona College of Engineering, the Agricultural world and is designed to ensure the vast areas of College, Veterinary College, School of Art, Law fertile land in Sind a regular and constant School and a College of Commerce. The Royal supply of water. It will enable 6,000,000 acres Institute of Science is now open in Bombay. of crops to be irrigated annually, i.e., over 500,000 Most of the secondary schools are in acres more than the total area irrigated in private hands; the majority of the primary Egypt. The scheme is not only vital to the schools are maintained by District and Local future of Sind but of indirect benefit to the whole Boards with a grant-in-aid. The Bombay -of India., The whole scheme is estimated Municipality is responsible for primary educato cost over 34 million sterling or over 18 crores tion in Bombay City. (q. v. Education). of rupees. In the Presidency proper The passing of the Primary Education Act the principal protective works are in 1923 was perhaps the most important event the Nera Canal, Gokak Canal, Mutha Canal in the history of Primary Education in this and the Godavari Canal Scheme. In addition Presidency during the last 30 or 40 years. The there is under construction a chain of protective irrigation works, originating in reser: voirs in the Ghat regions. The Godavari canals were completed during the year 1917-18, and the two most important projects, namely, the Nera Right Bank Canal and the Pravara River Works system, which have been under construction since 1912 and 1911. The Bandhardara dam, the second highest yet constructed by Engineers the world over belonging to latter group was opened by His Excellency the Governor on 10th December 1926. These projects will irrigate certain tracts most liable to famine. Police.

The Police Force is divided into 3 categories, riz., District Police, Railway Police and the Bombay City Police. The District and Railway Police in the Presidency proper are for the purpose of control under the Inspector-General


Act provides for the definite handing over of the management of primary schools to local bodies subject to the general supervision of Government. It further gives Government the power of calling upon local authorities to prepare schemes for the introduction of compulsory education__if they fail to do so of their own initiative. For various reasons there was delay in bringing the Act into operation. Since 1925 twenty-two out of twenty-seven Dist. Local Boards have taken over control of primary education. Four District Local Boards in the N. D. and one in Sind have yet to take over the control. Fifty out of 156 Municipalities also manage their for boys continues to be in force in five Mofussil schools under the Act. Compulsory education Municipalities, Bandra, Satra City, Dhulia, Surat and Bayadgi. The Bombay Municipality has introduced compulsion in two Wards (F. & G.) for both boys and girls excepting Moslem girls.

Police who is assisted by three Deputy Inspectors-General of whom two are in charge of Ranges and the third is in charge of the Criminal Investigation Department and the Finger Print Bureau. District and Railway Police in Sind are under the Deputy Inspector-General of Police for Sind, subject to the control of the Commissioner-in-Sind. The executive management of the Police in each district and on Railways in the Presidency proper as well as in Sind, is vested in a Superintendent of Police in a District under the general direction of the Magistrate of the District concerned. For the purposes of effective supervision over the inProposals have been recently put forward by vestigation and prevention of crime, some of the the Committee on University Reform for the larger districts are divided into one or more reorganization of the University on sounder Sub-Divisions each under a Sub-Divisional lines, but these are still under the consideration Officer who is either an Assistant Superintendent of the authorities. A Bill to amend the Univer of Police or a Deputy Superintendent of Police.sity Act is before the Legislature. Inspectors are usually placed in charge of

The Educational Department is administered by a Director, with an Inspector in each Division and a Deputy Inspector with Assistants in each district. Higher education is controlled by the Bombay University (established in 1857) consisting of the Chancellor (the Governor of the Presidency), the Vice-Chancellor appointed by Government for two years), and 100 Fellows of whom 10 are ex-officio; 10 elected by the Graduates, 10 by the Faculties, and 80 are nominated by the Chancellor.

Circles comprising two or more Police Stations. The principal educationa! institutions are:-
Sub-Inspectors are the officers in charge of Government Arts Colleges-
Police Stations and are primarily responsible
under the law, for the investigation of offences

Elphinstone College, Bombay, Principal,
Mr. H. Hamill, M.A.

Deccan College, Poona, Principal, Mr. H. G.
Rawlinson, M.A.

Gujarat College, Ahmedabad, Principal,
G. Findlay Shirras, M.A., F.S.s. (Offg.)
Karnatak College, Dharwar, Principal, Mr.
H. V. Hampton, M.A.
Private Arts Colleges-

St. Xaviers, Bombay (Society of Jesus),
Principal, Rev. Father Duhr, S. J.
Wilson College, Bombay (Scottish Mission),
Principal, Rev. J. Mackenzie, M.A.
Fergusson College, Poona (Deccan Educa-
tional Society), Principal, K. R. Kanitkar,
M.A., B.Sc.

Baroda College, Baroda (Baroda State),
Principal, 8. G. Barrow, B.Sc.
Samaldas College, Bhavnagar (Bhavnagar
State), Principal, Mr. T. K. Shahani, M.A.
Bahauddinbhai College, Junagadh State,
Principal, Mr. S. H. Hodivala, M.A.
Special Colleges-


Medical College, Bombay (Govern-
ment), Dean, Captain S. L. Bhatia, .IM.S.
College of Engineering, Poona (Government),
Principal, Mr. W. L. C. Trench,
Agricultural College, Poona (Government),
Principal, Dr. William Burns.
Chiefs' College, Rajkot, Principal, Mr. J.

T. Turner.

College of Science, Ahmedabad.
Law College, Bombay, Principal, Dr. J. S.
Khergamvala, LL. D. (London.)

College of Commerce, Bombay, Principal,

Mr. M. L. Tannan.

Veterinary College, Bombay, Mr. K. Hewlett.
Haffkine Institute, Bombay, Director, Lt.-Col.
F. P. Mackie, I. M.S.


The Medical Department is in the charge of the Surgeon-General and Sanitation in that of the Dired or of Public Health, both members of the Indian Medical Service. Civil Surgeons stationed at each district headquarters are re sponsible for the medical work of the district; whilst sanitation is entrusted to one of the Assistant Directors of Public Health. Three large hospitals are maintained by the Government in Bombay, and arrangements are being made to increase the hospital accommodation in the City. It is hoped to set up in the near future not less than 850 additional beds in the various hospitals of the city. Well-equipped hospitals exist in all important up-country stations. Over three million persons including 81,000 inpatients are treated annually. The Presidency contains 6 Lunatic Asylums and 16 institutions for the treatment of Lepers. Vaccination is carried out by a staff under the direction of the Director of Public Health. Sanitary work has received an immense stimulus from the large grants made by the Government from time to time.


Under the Reform Scheme of 1919 Provincial Finance entered on a new phase. Before the passing of this Act Provincial finance was incor. porated in Imperial Finance. The Provinces had certain heads of revenue of their own and other heads which they divided with the Govern ment of India. By the new constitution a comparatively clean cut was made between the

finances of the Government of India and those of the Provinces. Such revenues as they enjoy the Provinces enjoy in full, and in return they make cash contributions to the Government of India, fixed for a term of years. The general principle underlying this settlement is that those contributions shall gradually disappear. The present contribution of the Government of Bombay is Rs. 56 lakhs. Estimated Revenue for 1927-28. PRINCIPAL HEADS OF REVENUE.

Sir J. J. School of Art, Bombay (Govern ment), Principal, Mr. W. E. G. Solomon. Victoria Technical Institute, Bombay. Principal, Mr. A. J. Turner, B.Sc., F. I. O.


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XXXIX-A Miscellaneous adjustments between the Central and Provincial


XL Extraordinary Receipts

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Civil Works and Miscellaneous public improvements receipts not charged to Revenue. XLII Bombay Development Scheme

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Deposits and advances Loans and advances by provincial Govern-
ment Advances from provincial Loans Fund
Opening Balance..

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Other Revenue Expenditure financed from Ordinary Revenue 15. (1) Other Revenue Expenditure financed from famine Insurance Grants 16. Construction of Irrigation Works


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51 & 51A. Contribution and Miscellaneous adjustments between Central and Provincial Governments

Expenditure in England .. ::


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Total Expenditure


Capital Account not charged to Revenue.

Construction of Irrigation Works

59. Bombay Development Scheme
Other Expenditure not charged to Revenue
Debt Heads, Deposits and Advances
Closing Balance







33,74.000 16,01,51,000

2,35,90,000 183,19,000 59,26,000



Governor and President-in-Council,

His Excellency Lt.-Colonel The Right Hon'ble Sir Leslie Orme Wilson, P.C., G.C.I.E.,

O.M.G., D.8.0.

Personal Staff.

Private Secy.-James Campbell Ker, C.I.E., M.A., 1.0.8.

Mily. Secretary-Major H. G. Vaux, 0.1.E., M.V.O., J.P.

Surgeon -Major A. G. Tressider, C.I.E., M.D., I.M.S. Aides-de-Camp-Capt. R. Neville, Royal Marines; Capt. K. E. Previte, Royal Marines; Capt. G. F. Bunbury, 20th Lancers.

Hon. Aides-de-Camp.-Hon. Captain Meherban Abdul Majid Khan Diler Jung Bahadur, Nawab of Savanur, Hon. Lt. Kumar Shri Naharsinghji

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of Baria; Hon. Lt. Meherban Sir Chintamanrao Dhundirao alias Appasaheb Patwardhan, K.C.I.E., Chief of Sangli; Stephen Calvocoressi Esq.; Hon. Lt. Meherban Malojirao Mudhojirao alias Nana Sahib Naik Nimbalkar, Chief of Phaltan; Capt. F. Seymour Williams, (Bcm.) Coy., R.E.S.I.E.; Capt. Balkrishnarao, Sardar Bahadur; Meherban Shankarrao Parashramrao Ramchandra alia Appa Saheb Patwardhan, Chief of Jamkhandi.

Commandant, H. E. the Governor's Bodyguard.— Major H. de N. Lucas, 7th Light Cavalry. Adjutant, H. E. The Governor's Bodyguard.-Capt. E. D. Holder, Skinners Horse.

Indian Aide-de-Camp-Risaldar Major Lakhpat Singh, 8th King George's Own Light Cavalry.

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