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grandeur. Hafiz Rhamut had borne a part in the actions of his countrymen in India; he had seen that no limits are affixed to power, and that no duties, prescribed for the guidance of men, impede the strides of ambition. The death of Saud Ullah Khan, which happened in 1761, at Owlah, contributed to fix the power of Hafiz Rhamut, and relieved him from his proportioned payment of the sum, that had been assigned for the maintenance of that chief.

The want of established facts for describing in regular order the History of the Rohillas, confined me to the use of such materials, as immediately mark their military progress, or lead to the essential changes of their government. In my Rohilla papers it is mentioned, that on Sufdar Jung's death,* Ghaze-ud-Dein, the Vizier of the Empire, + joined by Ahmed Khan Bungush,& marched an army into Oude, and commenced hostilities against Shujahud-Dowlah, who had refused to make any pecuniary acknowledgments to the court on the event of his accession, or render an account of the personal estate of his father. Shujah-ud-Dowlah, aware of his inability to resist this attack alone, solicited the aid of the Rohilla states, who assenting to the request, came into Oude

# He died in the year 1754.
+ Ahmed Shah then sat on the throne of Delhi.

The Navaab of Furruckabad.
s In Mahometan states, the prince on the death of a subject, becomes the heir of
his property; which is often remitted to the family on the payment of a moderate fine.


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with a large force. The Rohilla chiefs ultimately effected a celsation of hostility between the contending parties ; and being chosen to decide on the claims preferred by Ghaze-ud-Dein, it was stipulated, that Shujah-ud-Dowlah should appropriate certain districts of the annual value of five lacks of rupees, to the use of the Imperial family. Nor was this engagement acceded to by Ghaze-ud-Dein, until Saud Ullah Khan had agreed to become security for its performance.* - - Saud Ullah Khan, in 1760, had accompanied the Rohilla army to the relief of Najeb Khan, one of the Rohilla chiefs, who was invested by a body of Mahrattas at Sookertal ; up and this appears to be the last public act which Saud Ullah performed.

That you may view more comprehensively the fituation of the Rohillas at the period of Saud Ullah’s death, it is necessary to lay before you a brief description of those officers; who at that time held possessions in Rohilcund.

Dhoondy Khan, in the partition of lands which were assigned to the chiefs, obtained the districts of the Bissouly, Morababad, Chaundpore, and Sumbul.I He died previously to the Rohilla war, 1774, leaving three fons, the eldest of whom, Mohubbullah

* It was on this occasion, I believe, that Shujah-ud-Dowlah and Saud Ullah made an exchange of their turbans. This ceremony is observed by the Mahometans in India as a pledge of friendlhip, and sometimes it is practised in the ratification of treaties.

+ The name of a village, and ford of the Ganges. - See Rennell's Map. # Towns in Rohilcund.See Rennell's Map.


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Khan, succeeded to the largest portion of his territory.* Mullah Surdar Khan, to whom the districts of Sunejah Kote,t and some other adjacent lands had been assigned, left six sons ; amongst whom dissentions arising about the division of the inheritance, the two eldest, Ahmed Khan and Mahomet Khan, had recourse to arms, for the decision of the contest. Ahmed Khan,

Ahmed Khan, supported by Hafiz Rhamut, defeated his brother in an action, and took him prisoner. Futtah Khan, one of the early associates of Ali Mahomet, who had accumulated much wealth from the office s he had so long filled, held the districts of Bandaum, Aussete, and Hessinpour.|| This officer, who died before the expulsion of the Rohillas, was succeeded in the territorial property, by his eldest son Ahmed Khan. The widow of Saud Ullah Khan, held in high estimation for a liberality of disposition and pious deportment, resided in the town of Owlah, which had been by the confent of the chiefs, committed to her immediate charge. After the

* This chief, confiding in an engagement made with the Vizier, in which it was ftipulated that he thould not be molested by the combined army, did not appear in arms during the Rohilla War, 1743. But the Vizier violating the agreement, stripped him of his territory and treasure.

+ Situate at the distance of forty-four computed miles to the westward of Bareily. Vide Rennell's Map

t Ahmed Khan commanded part of the Rohilla army in the war, 1774.
§ Futtah Khhn neld the office of treasurer, a matter of the houshold.
# Towns lying in the weit and south quarters of Rohilcund.

& Ahmed Khan, the son of Futtah Khan, after the defeat of the Rohillas in 1774, joined the army of Fyze Ullah, at Laldong, and reured with that chief to Rampour.


death of Saud Ullah, when the common authority of the government had devolved on Hafiz Rhamut, it is not seen that the Rohilla arms were extensively employed, or that any important revolution affected their state. They had previously to the Vizier's invafion of Rohilcund, carried on a desultory war with the Mahrattas, and seized on certain of their districts in the Duab, which continued a short time in the Rohilla possession. The Mahrattas who afterwards came in great force, expelled the Rohillas from the Duab, and laid waste the eastern quarter of Rohilcund. As a short history of the life of Shujah-ud-Dowlah will be annexed in which the principal events of the Rohilla war are noticed, a discussion of them in this place becomes unnecessary.

The form of government adopted by the Rohillas in India, of near affinity to that which exists in their native country, may be denominated feudal. The fucceffor's of Daoud Khan possessing slender hereditary pretensions, and surrounded by the men who had essentially aided in the first conquest, held but a limited sway. Sundar Khan and Futtan Khan, two of the most respectable of the Rohillas, never ceased to oppose the progress of Hafiz Rhamut, which was conspicuously directed to sovereign rule ; and by a zealous attachment to the party of Saud Ullah's widow, who was beloved by the people, they formed a moderate counterpoise to the encroaching power of that chief. Here it becomes my duty, whether as the compiler of Rohilla tracts, or a recorder of common fame, to briefly delineate the


character of Hafiz Rhamut. Born and reared to manhood in a country, * where its people are taught to consider a military as the only laudable profession, and that the sword conveys an irreproachable title to every acquisition, Hafiz Rhamut, constitutionally brave, became an enterprising soldier. His government was founded on the common basis of an active system ; but flourished from the knowledge he possessed of its resources. He seems to have maintained a general good faith in public transactions, and though in the attainment of power he trampled on another's right, his genius and valor preserved the allegiance, and perhaps the love of his people; who saw in him a master, whose hand was equally prompt to indulgence or protection, And here I am impelled to say, that Shujah-ud-Dowlah alone, would never have dared Hafiz to the field. Hafiz Rhamut, like most of the chiefs or princes of a country, where succession falls to the strongest arm, was unfortunate in his family : Enayat Khan his eldest son, took up arms against him, was defeated, and obliged to seek shelter with Shujah-ud-Dowlah, in whose


he served at the Battle of Buxar.t Dissentions had arisen also amongst the descendants of the other Rohilla officers, which involved the country in general commotion, and on the arrival of the united forces of the English and Shujah-ud-Dowlah in Rohilcund, the

* Afghanistan. + He afterwards returned to Rohilcund, where he died before the last Robiila war.

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