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here I must observe, though it diverts the immediate objećt of my research, that Fraser's assertion stands unaccompanied by any detail of events, descriptive of the benefit which Saadut Khan derived from the invasion: nor has he quoted, in support of it, any specific authority. If a probable conclusion, indeed, is to be drawn from Fraser's relation of the condućt of Saadut Khan, during the Persian war, I would with little hesitation say, that the Governor of Oude held no share in the councils or favour of Nadir Shah. For had he obtained the protećtion of that Prince, to which he stood entitled from the services imputed to him, it is not probable that so large a share of the disaster of the Dehli army at Karnal, would have fallen on this officer, - IN a passage of Fraser's history, it is seen, I think, that Saadut Khan could not have held a confidential correspondence with the Persian, or experienced any portion of his indulgence. Fraser says, “Before I relate the treacherous correspondence * carried on be“ tween Nizam Saadut Khan, and Nadir Shah, the invitation they “gave him to march towards Hindostan, which was the princi“ pal motive that encouraged him to undertake the expedition, I “ shall,” &c.—- And in the other part of the book it is mentioned, that on Nadir's approach towards the capital, Saadut Khan received orders to join the Dehli army, and that he had already crossed the

Ganges, when he was directed to return to Oude. It had been resolved in the councils of Mahomet Shah, which were distraćted and wavering, that the army should take the field under the command of the Vizier ; and that the Emperor, protećted by the forces of Saadut Khan, should remain at Dehli. This Omrah was required to undertake the charge, but an ill state of health at that time detained him in Oude. He arrived in February 1739, in the camp of Mahomet Shah, who receding from his former determination, had joined the army. On the day of Saadut Khan's junction * with the imperial forces, his camp was attacked and plundered by a body of Persian troops, who slew many of his attendants. Saadut Khan, on receiving information of the disaster, left the King's apartments, where he had been in waiting, and hastened to the assistance of his party. Khan Dowrah, the imperial general, marched to the relief of Saadut Khan, and in a short time, most of the imperial officers of Mahomet Shah, who commanded sepaperate bodies, came into action. Nadir Shah, seeing the contest become obstinate and serious, appeared himself at the head of his troops, who then were irresistable, and a complete vićtory was gained over the Dehli army, which suffered a severe loss in men and officers. Khan Dowrah was mortally wounded : his eldest son, with many Omrahs, were slain ; and Saadut Khan fell into the hands of the enemy. In the army of Nadir it is said, that 25oo soldiers, with seven principal officers, were killed, and that 5ooo men were wounded. After the engagement, Nadir Shah ordered a tent to be pitched near his own quarters, for the accommodation of Saadut Khan, and two other Omrahs of Mahomet Shah. The baggage of these officers was stationed on the outfide of the camp, together with their servants, none of whom were permitted to attend them, nor were they allowed to make use of their own provifions. – Little farther mention is made of Saadut Khan by Mr.

* There is no future mention made of the correspondence,

resolved * The army was encamped at Karnal, about 100 miles to the westward of Dehli.

meri * A tax laid by Nadir Shah on the inhabitants of Dehli. + It was believed at Dehli, that Saadut died of the effects of an ulcer in his leg.

Fraser after this affair, than that he was appointed to guard the

city of Dehli, on the day of Nadir Shah's first entrance. This

writer likewise says, that Nadir Shah, summoning Saadut Khan before him on the 9th of March 1739, reprehended him in harsh language for being the cause of impeding the collection of the imposts,” and that on the next day, Saadut Khan died, having been before weak and indisposed. Mr. Fraser concludes his relation of Saadut Khan, by observing, that some imagined he died

through anger of the abusive reproach of Nadir ; and others are

of opinion, that jealousy provoked him to take poison. F **

MR. Fraser's relation of the condućt of Saadut Khan, the spirit of which is strictly adhered to, now awaits a dispassionate decision, which is to determine the probable truth of Saadut Khan's invitation of Nadir Shah into India. This author, who has unquestionably left us a valuable tract of Indian history, in other passages of

Vol. I, S his

his book, observes, that the Persian Prince shewed marks of indulgence and liberality to many of Mahomet Shah's Omrahs, but no example is brought forward of his munificence, or even lenity, having been extended to Saadut Khan. On the contrary, it is seen, that Saadut Khan suffered severely in the ačtion of Karnal, and was subsequently treated with much rigour. Sufd AR Jung, who resided at Oude at the period of Saadut Khan's death, succeeded to the Government; an appointment, a Ccording to the tradition of the family, conferred on him by Nadir Shah : yet I am induced to believe, from the liberal condućt of the Persian to Mahomet Shah, that Sufdar Jung received the promotion at the hands of his own sovereign. Sufdar Jung, after the march of the Persian army from Dehli, came to court, where he obtained the office of Meer Atush, or grand master of the ordnance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In the year 1746, Ahmed Shah, the Duranny, invaded Hindosan, and had advanced to Sirhend, where he was successfully opposed by the Dehli army, in which Sufdar Jung had a confiderable charge. Soon after the accession of Ahmed Shah to the throne, Sufdar Jung was advanced to the Vizarut, and his son, Shujah-ud-Dowlah, to the command of the ordnance. But a frong party at court, composed of Ghaze ud-Deini Najeb-ud

“ This prince commenced his reign in 1747. * + The grandson of the great Nizam-ul-Mulck.

t Dowlah,

Dowlah, the Rohilla chief, and Tameid Khan, a court eunuch, prevailing against the interest of Sufdar Jung, he was compelled to leave Dehli; but not before he had cut off Janied Khan, whom he caused to be assassinated in his own house, at an entertainment given to the eunuch. SUF DAR Jung, having collečted a large force, invaded the Imperial territories, and laid siege * to the capital, which was closely invested for the space of six months. He is accused of committing many enormities and wanton ačts of violence during the siege, particularly of cannonading the palace, the destruction of which could not have facilitated the capture of the fort. The court of Dehli was compelled to accede to the terms of the rebel, who required a formal grant of the provinces of Oude and Allahabad, for himself and his heirs.-Sufdar Jung died in the year 1754, during the reign of Alumguir Sani, and was succeeded in the subahdarry of Oude, by his son Shujah-ud-Dowlah, F then about twenty-five years of age. As the design of this work does not admit of any enlargement on the subjećt of Sufdar Jung, it will suffice to say, that his disposition was severe, often cruel ; and that his rapacious avarice threw uncommon odium on his name. To illustrate the commencement of Shujah-ud-Dowlah's public

* This event happened in 1753.

+ This domestic name of this prince was Tillah-ud-Dein Hyder. His father, whe was in the Oude province during the birth of Shujah-ud-Dowlah, built, in the neighbourhood of Lucknow, the fort of Tillahabad, in commemoration of the event,

S 2 life,

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