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elocution, and was endowed with a calm passive fortitude, which successfully supported him through the long course of a dangerous occupation. The tenets of Nanock forbid the worship of images, and ordain that the places of public prayer shall be of plain construction, and devoid of every exhibition of figure. A book, entitled the Grun:h, which contains the civil and religious institutes of Nanock, is the only typical objećt which the Sicques have admitted into their places of worship. Instead of the intermediation of subordinate deities, they are direéted to address their prayer to one God, who, without the aid of any delegate, is to be considered the unassociated ruler of the universe.” Though many essential differences exist between the religious code of the Hindoos and that of the Sicques, a large space of their ground-work exhibits strong features of similarity. The article indeed of the admission of proselytes amongst the Sicques, has caused an essential deviation from the Hindoo system, and apparently levelled those barriers which were construšted by Brimha, for the arrangement of the different ranks and professions of his people. Yet this indiscriminate admission, by the qualifications which have been adopted, do not

widely infringe on the customs and prejudices of those Hindoos

* When it is noticed that the worship of the Hindoos is loaded with a mass of puerile ceremony, and oftentimes conducted with a ridiculous grimace, it will not feem surprizing that a creed, founded on principles calculated to promote the est blishment of a simple uniform religion, and promulgated by a man of distinguished tribe and cxemplary manners, should draw to it proselytes even in the bigotted regions of India.

who who have embraced the faith of the Sicques. They still preserve the distinčtions which originally marked their sects, and perform many of the ancient ceremonies of their nation. They form matrimonial connections only in their own tribes, and adhere implicitly to the rules prescribed by the Hindoo law, in the choice and preparation of their food. The only aliment used in common, by the Sicques at this day, is the pursaud,” or sacred bread, from the participation of which no tribe or class of their people is cxcluded. Few events of historical importance are related of Nanock, the founder of this seót, who possessing neither territory nor wealth, nor aided by the force of arms, preached his doctrine in peace, and manifested, in the countries which he visited, an unaffected simplicity of manners. He journeyed through most of the kingdoms in India, from whence, according to the tradition of the Sicques, he went into Persia and Arabia. In his travels, which with short intervals continued for the space of fifteen years, he was attended by a Mahometan musician, named Murdana, who became his convert, and ever remained faithfully attached to his

person. It is said that in one of the expeditions of Baber + inte India, Nanock having been apprehended by some of the soldiers, was brought before that prince, who informed of the sanétity of his character, treated him with respect and indulgence. As no records of the Moghul Empire bear a testimony of the existence of this seót during the period in which Nanock lived, it cannot be supposed that his converts were numerous or powerful. Nanock, according to the Sicque records, died in the month of August, A. D. 1539, aged seventy years, at Dayrah, a village on the banks of the Rawee, about forty miles to the northward of Lahore, where a vast concourse of people annually assemble, to perform certain ceremonies in commemoration of the day of his decease. Nanock, though he had two sons, devolved the charge of the mission to his favourite disciple Anghut,” a Hindoo of the Chittery tribe, to whom he also entrusted the publication + of the laws and precepts of his doćtrine. Anghut, who seems to have passed his time in retirement, died about the year 1542, at the town of Khadour,f the place of his nativity. He was succeeded by Ammerdass, a native of the Lahore distrićt, who propagated the new doćtrine without molestation, and died in the year 1574, at the village of

* The pursaud is said to be a composition of flour, butter, and certain spices; this Abread after being consecrated by the Bramins, is also used by some sects of Hindoos in the ceremony of administering an oath, particularly in that quarter of the Orisia province, contiguous to the temple of Juggud Nautt.

+ Baber defeated the Patan King of Hindostan, in A. D. 1526.

* Nanock changed the original name of his successor, which was Lina.

+ The religious and historical writings of the Sicques, are written in a charater called the Gooroo Mhookee, or the language of the Gooroos, or priests. This letter, which is said to have been invented by Nanock, differs from the various characters in use among the Hindoos.

f A village in the Punjab, about forty miles to the eastward of Lahore,


Vol. I. K k GovinGovindual.” Ramdass, + who had espoused the daughter of the last preceptor of the Sicques, was then chosen the representative of their se&t. This priest lived in the reign of Acbar, and, according to the tradition of the Sicques, experienced some marks of that emperor's favour. Retiring in the latter part of his life to a small distrićt £ in the vicinity of Lahore, which Acbar had granted to him, he founded the town of Ramdasspour. He repaired also and ornamented a reservoir of water, which had in ancient times been dedicated at that place by the Hindoos to their God Ram, and to which he now gave the name of Amrut Sir.S. Ramdass made a compilation of the history and precepts of his predecessors, and annexing his own commentaries, ordained that his disciples should form the principles of their faith on the doctrine set forth in the joint collečtion. Ramdass died at the town he had founded about the year 1581, and was succeeded by his fon Arjun, who having incurred the displeasure of a Hindoo || favoured by Jehanguir, was committed by that prince to the persecution of his enemy; and his death, which happened in the year 1606, at Lahore, was caused it is said by the rigour of confinement. The soccession devolved on Hurrgovind, his only son, who ačtuated by revenge for the cruelties exercised on his father, and strongly supported by the enthusiastic valour of his adherents, he dragged the Hindoo from his house, though within the walls of Lahore, and put him to death. Fearing the effects of the emperor's displeasure, Hurrgovind fled to Hurtarpour, a village founded by his father, where he collected an armed body for the defence of his person, and according to the records of the nation, defeated a force that Jehanguir had sent to punish his rebellion. But the vein of incongruous story which runs through the atchievements of this militant priest, precludes the derivation of any extensive historical use. The only passage deserving a serious notice, represents, that an officer of Jehanguir, named Mahobut Khan, effected the Sicque's submission to the emperor, who ordered him to be imprisoned in the fort of Gualior : but that after a short confinement, he was, at the intercession of Mahobut Khan, set at liberty. It is not seen that Hurrgovind disturbed the peace of the Moghul government at a future period, but passing his days in a recluse manner, he died about the year 1644, at Khyrutpour, a village in the Punjab. The Sicques conferred the office of priesthood on Harray, the grandson of Hurrgovind, though four of their late preceptor's sons were alive. No other mention is made of Harray, than that he died in the year 1661 at Khyrutpour. At his death, a violent contest arose for the succession, which was claimed by the respective adherents of his two sons,

* Situate on the Byas, the second Punjab river from the eastward. - This Gooroo was born in the city of Lahore.

† At the distance of twenty four miles from Lahore.

$ 4mrut, according to the mythology of the Hindoos, is a water said to bestow

immortality on those who drink it, and Sir, in certain dialects of the Hinduce, signifies a piece of water ,

| Named Chaundoo.


K k 2 Ramroy,

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