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The irregularity in the declension and accentuation (51, c. 6) of yuvis explained by an hyperthesis of 1 (104, 110, (6)), as the following comparison will show: Singular.

Plural.
Ν. ή (γυνα-κίς) γυνή

(γυνακίες) γυναίκες
G. (γυνακίος) γυναικός (γυνακίων) γυναικών
D.

(γυνακίϊ) γυναικεί (γυνακέσι) γυναιξί Α. (γυνακία) γυναίκα (γυνακίας) γυναίκας V. (γυνακί) γύναι

(γυνακίες) γυναίκες

Dual.
Ν.Α.V. (γυνακίε) γυναίκε
G.D. (γυνακίοιν) γυναικούν

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I. Masculine and Feminine Nouns. In these nouns the dental characteristic is always omitted before the nominative -s (above, 92), and when « precedes the characteristic it is combined with the s, as in the guttural declension : η λαμπάς, « the lamp,” for λαμπάδ-s; o, η παίς, « the child,” for παιδ-ς; η ελπίς, “ the hope,” for ελπίδ-s; η χάρις, “the grace,” for χάριτ-s; η δαίς, « the feast,” for δαίτ-s; ή κλείς, « the key,” for κλείδ-s; η

« χλαμύς, “the cloak,” for χλαμύδ-s; ο, ή όρνις, «the bird,” for όρνιθ-s; η κόρυς, « the helmet,” for κόρυθ-ς; ο άναξ, “the king,”

” . for άνακτ-s; ή νύξ, « the night,” for νύκτ-s; η έλμινς, « the worm, for έλμινθ-ς; ή δάμαρ, « the wife,” for δάμαρτ-s; ο λέων, « the lion,” for λέοντ-s; ο γίγας, “the giant,” for γίγαντ-s; ο πούς, foot,” for πόδ-s; o οδούς, “ the tooth,” for οδόντ-s; ο πλακόεις, “ the flat cake,” for πλακόεντ-ς, Contracted into πλακούς for πλακούντ-ς (210); ο μύκης, « the mushroom,” for μύκητ-s; η λευκότης, « the

και whiteness,” for λευκότητ; ο γέλως, «the laughter,” for γέλωτ-s; η Πάρνης, “a mountain in Attica,” for Πάρνηθος; η Τίρυνς, « the city Tiryns,” for Τίρυνθ-ς. Singular.

Plural.
N.V. λαμπάς

N.V. λαμπάδες
G. λαμπάδ-ος

G. λαμπάδων
D.
λαμπάδ-ι

D. λαμπά-σι (for λαμπάδεσια)
Α.
λαμπάδα

Α. λαμπάδας

6 the

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Dual.
Ν.Α. V. λαμπάδ-ε
G.D. λαμπάδ-οιν

N.V. όρνις

Singular.

Dual.

Plural.

όρνίθ-ες (όρνεις) G. όρνιθ-ος

ορνίθων (όρνέων) D. όρνιθ-ι

όρνί-σιν for ορνίθεσιν Α. όρνίθ-α and όρνιν

όρνιθ-ας (όρνεις) Ν. Α.V. όρνι-θ-e

G.D. ορνί-θουν Ν. γίγας

γίγαντ-ες G. γίγαντ-ος

γιγάντων D. γίγαντ-ι

γίγάσιν Α. γίγαντ-α

γίγαντ-ας

γίγαντες Ν.Α.V. γίγαντ-e

G.D. γιγάντ-οιν Ν. V. οδούς

οδόντες G. οδόντ-ος

οδόντων D. οδόντ-ι

οδούσιν
Α.
. οδόντ-α

οδόντιας
Ν.Α.Υ. οδόντ-
G.D. οδόντ-ουν

V. γίγαν

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Ν.Υ. πλακούς

πλακούντ-ες G. πλακούντ-ος

πλακούντ-ων D, πλακούντ-ι

πλακούσιν Α. πλακούντ-α

πλακούντας
Ν. Α. V., πλακούντ-e
G.D. πλακούντ-Οιν

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Singular. Dual. Plural.
N.V. γέλως

γέλωτ-ες
G. γέλωτ-ος

γελώτ-ων D. γέλωτ-ι, γέλω

γέλω-σι
Α. γέλωτ-α, γέλω, γέλων γέλωτ-ας

Ν.Α.V. γέλωτ-€
G.D.

γελώτ-οιν It will be observed, from a comparison of the examples, that dental nouns which have or v before the characteristic 8, 6, 7, that is, nouns in -ις, gen. -ιδος, -ιθος, -ιτος, and in -υς, gen. -υδος, -υθος, and which are not oxytone in the nominative singular, not only have the usual accusative in -a after the characteristic, but also drop the characteristic, and retain the proper case-ending -v in the accusative singular. Thus épus, "strife,” makes in the accusative both έριδα and έριν, όρνις, "a bird,” both όρνιθα and όρνιν, χάρις, “ grace," « favour,” « charm,” both χάριτα and χάριν, κόρυς, "a “,

, helmet,” both κόρυθα and κόρυν. But oxytone nouns have only

,. the form in -α, like λαμπάδα, given above, ελπίδα, χλαμύδα, &c. The simple Troús has only the accusative tóda, but its compounds admit both forms; thus from πολύπους we have both πολύποδα and πολύπoυν. A special exception is furnished by κλεϊς, “a key,"

, ," which makes both κλειδα and κλείν.

The syncope of the characteristic t, which is indicated in the dat. and acc. sing. of γέλως, takes place also in ο χρώς, “the skin,” which has dat. χρωτί and χρώ, and ο ιδρώς, “the sweat,” which has dat. and acc. ιδρώτι, ιδρώ, ιδρώτα, ιδρώ.

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II. Neuter Nouns.

181 Neuter nouns with a dental characteristic either (a) drop it altogether, as in το σώμα, « the body,” for σωματ, gen. σώματ-ος, in το μέλι, « the honey,” for μέλιτ, and in the solitary neuter noun in -η, το κάρη, «the head,” for κάρητ or κρατ-, gen. κάρητ-ος: or (β) change it into -s, as in το τέρας, « the wonder,” for τέρατ, gen. τέρατ-ος. (α) If the characteristic is –κτ-, both letters are dropt, as in το γάλα, “the milk,” for γάλακτ, gen. γάλακτ-ος. (α) If the

.

(Q) characteristic is -ντ-, the νis retained, and the alone is dropt, as in το πάν, « the whole,” for πάντ, gen. παντός. (α) If the first

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syllable of the form has the diphthong -ov, the -v is transferred to the last syllable, where it takes the place of the -at-, as in yów, " the knee,” for yoûvat, gen. yoúvat-os or yóvatos. And (@.) if the last syllable of the form contains the combination of p with another consonant, this liquid is transferred to the end, where it takes the place of the t, with or without a lengthening of the final vowel in the nominative; it is omitted in the other cases, which retain merely a short a, as in yóvatos, &c. The following are examples of this form: το ήπαρ, « the liver,” for ήπρατ, gen. ήπατος: το σκώρ, “the dung,” gen. σκα-τός: το ύδωρ, «the water,” for ύδρατ

, (cf. ίδρως), gen. ύδατος. But η δάμαρ, “the wife,” for δάμαρτ-, has &áyapt-os in the gen., &c.

When -s is substituted for 7 in the nominative, it may be dropt

ー in the other cases, which are formed rather with reference to this secondary, than to the primary form. In some nouns (B) we have both sets of inflexions, as in tò képas, “the horn,” for képat = képevt,

,κέρατ = , gen. Képar-os and xépa-os, contracted into képws, as for képa-o-os (see 107); or without contraction, as in dópu,“ the spear-shaft,” gen. δόρατ-ος and δορός, dat. δόρατ-ι and δορί or δόρει, nom., acc., and voc. pl

. Sópn : in others (B.) we have only the secondary set of inflexions, as in tò oras, “ the light,” gen. oéna-os. () Unless the syllable which is terminated by the characteristic 7 is la or pa (119), the connecting vowel is o in the nominative, and e in the other cases; the characteristic is s in the nominative, and is invariably dropt in the other cases, which suffer contraction also in Attic Greek; thus we have tò teixos, " the wall,” gen. Teixeos, τείχους.

182 The following are examples of all the varieties of Neuter nouns with an original dental suffix.

a,

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Singular. α β

α, az a

Β,
Ν.Α.V. σωμα- τέρα-ς γάλα- πάν- γόνυ- ήπαρ- κέρα-ς
G. σώμα-τ-ος τέρα-τ-ος γάλα-κτ-ος παν-τ-ός γόνα-τ-ος ήπα-τ-ος κέρα-τ-ος

κέραμος

κέρως D. σώμα-τ-ι τέρα-τ- γάλα-κτ-ι

παν-τ-ί γόνα-τ-ι ήπα-τ-ι κέρα-τ-ι

κέρα-ϊ

κέρα
Plural.
Ν.Α.V. σώμα-τ-α τέρα-τ-α γάλα-κτ-α πάν-τ-α γόνα-τ-α ήπα-τ-α κέρα-τ-α

κέρα-α

κέρα G. σωμά-τ-ων τερά-τ-ων γαλά-κτ-ων πάν-τ-ων γονά-τ-ων ηπά-τ-ων κερά-τ-ων

κερά-ων

κερών
D. σώμα-σι τέρα-σι γάλα-ξι πά-σι γόνα-σι ήπα-σι κέρα-σι
Dual.
Ν.Α.V. σώμα-τ-ε τέρα-τ-ε γάλα-κτ-πάν-Τ-e γόνα-τ-e ήπα-τ-κέρα-τ-e

κέρα-e

κέρα G.D. σωμά-τ-οιν τερά-τ-οιν γαλά-κτ-οιν πάν-τ-οιν γονά-τ-οιν ηπά-τ-οιν κερά-τ-οιν

κερά-οιν κερών

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