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The only liquid forms known in Greek are those of which the characteristic is λ, v, or p, and these are all connected with the dentals. Thus we have ὁ ἅλς, “the salt,” gen. ἁλ-ός; ὁ παιάν, “the war-song,” for παιάν-s, gen. παιᾶν-ος ; ὁ Ελλην, “the Greek," gen. Ἕλληνος; ὁ ποιμήν, “the shepherd,” for ποιμέν-s, gen. ποιμένος; ὁ κτείς, “the comb,” gen. κτενός; ὁ δελφίς, “the dolphin,” for δελφίν-ς, gen. δελφίνος; ὁ μόσσυν, “the tower,” gen. μόσσυν-ος ; ὁ δαίμων, “the deity,” for δαίμον-s, gen. δαίμονος ; ὁ κλών, “the branch,” for κλώνος, gen. κλων-ός; ὁ ψάρ, “the starling, gen. ψαρ-ός; τὸ νέκταρ, “the nectar,” gen. νέκταρος; ὁ θήρ,“the wild beast,” for θήρας, gen. θηρός; ὁ αἰθήρ, “the clear sky,” for αιθέρες, gen. αἰθέρ-ος; τὸ πῦρ, “the fire,” gen. πυρ-ός; ὁ μάρτυς, “the witness,” gen. μάρτυρος; ὁ ῥήτωρ, “the orator," for ῥήτορ-s, gen. ῥήτορος; ὁ φώρ, “the thief, gen. φωρός. The declensions of these nouns are generally in strict accordance with the previous examples. In the dat. pl., a and p are retained before -σι, but v is dropped (above, 93).

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Ν. Ελλην κλών δαίμων θήρ αἰθήρ φώρ ῥήτωρ
G. Ελλην-ος κλων-ός δαίμονος θηρός αιθέρος φωρός ρήτορος
D. "Ελληνι κλων-ί δαίμονι θηρεί αιθέρι φωρεί ῥήτορι
Α. Ελλην-α κλῶν-α δαίμονα θῆρα αἰθέρ-α φωρα ρήτορα
V. Ἕλλην
κλών δαῖμον θήρ αιθήρ φώρ ῥῆτ-ορ



Ν.V. "Ελληνες κλώνες δαίμονες θῆρες φωρες ῥήτορες Ἑλλήνων κλων-ων δαιμόνων θηρῶν φωρῶν ῥητόρων Ελλη-σι κλω-σί δαίμο-σι θηρ-σί φωρ-σί ῥήτορσι Ἕλληνας κλῶν-ας δαίμονας θῆρας φώρας ῥήτορας



Ν.Α. V. "Ελληνε




δαίμονε θῆρε φορε ρήτορε Ἑλλήν-οιν κλων-οῖν δαιμόνοιν θηρ-οῖν φωρ-οῖν ῥητόρ-οιν

184 The following fem. and oxytone nouns are declined not only like δαίμων, but also like αἰδώς: ἡ εἰκών, “the image,” gen. εἰκόνος and εἰκοῦς, &c.; ἡ ἀηδών, “the nightingale,” gen. ἀηδόνος and ἀηδοῦς, &c.; ἡ χελιδών, “the swallow,” gen. χελιδόνος and χελιδοῦς, &c. The same contraction takes place in the acc. sing., and nom., acc., and voc. plur. of certain comparatives in -wv, -ovos: thus acc. sing. μείζονα, μείζοα, μείζω ; nom. and voc. plur. μείζονες, μείζους, μείζους ; acc. μείζονας, μείζοας, μείζους (107). In ὁ, ἡ κύων, “the dog,” for κύον-ς, root Fov-, the oblique cases drop the o: thus gen. κυνός, dat. κυνί, &c.

185 If, in forms corresponding to αιθήρ, αιθέρος, the termination is -τερ or -νερ, we generally find a syncope in the Attic dialect; in the latter case, & is inserted between v and p, according to 86. Thus ὁ πατήρ, “the father,” and ὁ ἀνήρ, “the man,” are declined as follows (cf. 51, c. 5):

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The fem. ἡ χείρ, " the hand,” for χέρια, like δωτεῖρα for δωτέρ-ια from δωτήρ, δωτέρως, is declined as follows:

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In these nouns the and v, which appear as substitutes for a lost digamma, are usually represented by e in the oblique cases. The similar forms of the 2nd declension present many analogies in their inflexions. When the or v is retained throughout the cases, the gen. and dat. sing. end in -os and -, as in the other consonantal nouns, and a comparison of πόλεως, πολεῖ, with the dialectical varieties πόληος, πόλη, assisted by the analogy of λαός, λέως, &c. (above, 145), supports the conclusion that the penultima in these cases was originally long, probably in consequence of some consonantal strengthening of the syllable. When the e is substituted, the gen. terminates with -ws, and the dat. is contracted into -eu. The acc. sing. retains the primitive -v, unless the nom. ends in -εύς, and then the acc. is -é-ā.


187 α. Masc. or Fem. in -us.

Neut. in -ι.

ὁ κῖς, “ the worm,” ἡ πόλις, “ the city,” τὸ σίναπι, “ the mustard.”

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In some words the Attic dialect retains the Ionic flexion of the genitive; such are ὁ πόσις, “the husband,” gen. πόσιος; ἡ δῆρις, " the strife,” gen. δήριος; ἡ μῆνις, " the wrath,” gen. μήνιος; from τύρσις, “ a tower,” we have gen. τύρσιος (Xen. Anab. VII. 8, § 12), and from μάγαδις, " a harp,” we have dat. μαγάδι (Ibid. 3, § 32). The noun ois, “ a sheep,” is declined with . throughout.

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ὁ ἰχθύς, “ the fish,” ὁ πήχυς, “the elbow,” τὸ δάκρυ, “ the tear,

τὸ ἄστυ, “ the city.”

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Compounds with πήχυς make their neut. pl. in -ea, -η, as διπήχη from δίπηχυς; so also ἥμισυς, “ half,” makes ἡμισέος, -ους, ἡμίσεα, ἡμίση. The word ἡ ἔγχελυς, “the eel,” is declined like ἰχθύς in the singular, but like πήχυς in the plural.

189 β. Fem. in -αυς.

ἡ γραῦς, “ the old woman,” ἡ ναῦς, “ the ship.”

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