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It will be observed, from a comparison of the examples, that dental nouns which have or u before the characteristic 8, 0, T, that is, nouns in -s, gen. -idos, -100s, -TOs, and in -vs, gen. -vdos, -vos, and which are not oxytone in the nominative singular, not only have the usual accusative in -a after the characteristic, but also drop the characteristic, and retain the proper case-ending -v in the accusative singular. Thus epis, "strife," makes in the accusative both ἔριδα and ἔριν, ὄρνις, “ a bird,” both ὄρνιθα and ὄρνιν, χάρις, "grace," "favour," "charm," both xápira and xápw, кópvs, “a χάριτα κόρυς, helmet," both xóрvea and кóрvv. But oxytone nouns have only κόρυθα κόρυν. the form in -a, like λaμπáda, given above, èxπída, xλaμúda, &c. The simple woús has only the accusative móda, but its compounds admit both forms; thus from πολύπους we have both πολύποδα and TOλÚTOVV. A special exception is furnished by λeîs, “a key,” which makes both κλείδα and κλείν.

The syncope of the characteristic 7, which is indicated in the dat. and acc. sing. of yéλws, takes place also in ó xpos, "the skin," which has dat. xpwτi and xp, and ó idpós, “the sweat," which has dat. and acc. ἱδρῶτι, ἱδρῷ, ἱδρῶτα, ἱδρῶ.

II. Neuter Nouns.

181 Neuter nouns with a dental characteristic either (a) drop it altogether, as in τὸ σῶμα, “ the body,” for σώματ, gen. σώματος, in Tò μé, "the honey," for μéer, and in the solitary neuter noun μέλι, in -η, τὸ κάρη, “the head,” for κάρητ or κρατ-, gen. κάρητος: or (B) change it into -s, as in Tò Tépas, "the wonder," for répaт, gen. TépаT-os. (a) If the characteristic is -T-, both letters are dropt, as in Tò yaλa, "the milk," for yáλакт, gen. yáλакт-os. (a) If the characteristic is -T-, the v is retained, and the 7 alone is dropt, as in Tò Tâv, "the whole," for Távт, gen. Tavтós. (a) If the first πάντ, παντός.

T

syllable of the form has the diphthong -ov, the -v is transferred to the last syllable, where it takes the place of the -ar-, as in tò yóvʊ, "the knee," for yoûvaт, gen. yoúvaт-os or yóvatos. And (a) if the last syllable of the form contains the combination of p with another consonant, this liquid is transferred to the end, where it takes the place of the 7, with or without a lengthening of the final vowel in the nominative; it is omitted in the other cases, which retain merely a short a, as in yóvatos, &c. The following are examples of this form: τὸ ἦπαρ, “the liver,” for ἧπρατ, gen. ἥπα-τος: τὸ σκώρ, “the dung, gen. σκατός : τὸ ὕδωρ, “the water,” for ὕδρατ (cf. ίδρως), gen. ὕδατος. But ἡ δάμαρ, “ the wife,” for δάμαρτος, has dauapr-os in the gen., &c. δάμαρτοs

-s

When is substituted for 7 in the nominative, it may be dropt in the other cases, which are formed rather with reference to this secondary, than to the primary form. In some nouns (8) we have both sets of inflexions, as in Tò képas, "the horn," for képaт = KÉPEVT, gen. κέρατοs and κέρατος, contracted into κέρως, as for κέρα-σ-os (see 107); or without contraction, as in Tò dópu, "the spear-shaft," gen. δόρατοs and δορός, dat. δόρατι and δορί or δόρει, nom., acc., and voc. pl. dópm: in others (B) we have only the secondary set of inflexions, as in Tò σéλas, "the light,” gen. σéλa-os. (y) Unless the syllable which is terminated by the characteristic T is λa or pa (119), the connecting vowel is o in the nominative, and e in the other cases; the characteristic is s in the nominative, and is invariably dropt in the other cases, which suffer contraction also in Attic Greek; thus we have Tò Teixos, "the wall," gen. Teixeos, τὸ τεῖχος, τείχους.

182 The following are examples of all the varieties of Neuter nouns with an original dental suffix.

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Ν.Α.V. σώμα--α τέρατα γάλα-κτ-α πάν-τ-α γόνα-τ-α πα-τ-α

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G.

σωμάτων τερά-τ-ων γαλά-κτ-ων πάντων γονά-τ-ων ήπά-των κεράτων

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D.

σώμα-σι τέρα-σι γάλα-ξι πά-σι γόνα-σι ήπα-σι

κέρα-σι

σέλα-σι

τείχεσι

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τείχη

G.D. σωμά-τ-ον τερά-τ-ουν καλά-κτ-ον πάν-τ-οιν γονά-τ-οιν ἡπά-τ-οιν κερά-τ-οιν

κερά-οιν κερών

σελά οιν

τειχέ-οιν τειχοῖν

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The only liquid forms known in Greek are those of which the characteristic is λ, v, or p, and these are all connected with the dentals. Thus we have ὁ ἄλ-ς, “the salt,” gen. ἁλός; ὁ παιάν, “the war-song,” for παιάν-s, gen. παιᾶν-ος ; ὁ Ελλην, “ the Greek," gen. Ἕλληνος; ὁ ποιμήν, “the shepherd,” for ποιμέν-s, gen. ποιμένος; ὁ κτείς, “the comb,” gen. κτενός; ὁ δελφίς, “the dolphin,” for δελφίν-s, gen. δελφίνος; ὁ μόσσυν, “the tower,” gen. μόσσῦν-ος ; ὁ δαίμων, “the deity,” for δαίμον-s, gen. δαίμονος ; ὁ κλών, “the branch,” for κλών-s, gen. κλων-ός; ὁ ψάρ, “the starling,” gen. ψαρ-ός; τὸ νέκταρ, “the nectar,” gen. νέκταρος; ὁ θήρ,“the wild beast,” for θήρες, gen. θηρός; ὁ αἰθήρ, “the clear sky,” for αἰθέρος, gen. αἰθέρος; τὸ πῦρ, “the fre,” gen. πυρ-ός; ὁ μάρτυς, “the witness,” gen. μάρτυρος; ὁ ῥήτωρ, “the orator, for ρήτορος, gen. ῥήτορος; ὁ φώρ, “the thief, gen. φωρός. The declensions of these nouns are generally in strict accordance with the previous examples. In the dat. pl., λ and p are retained before -σι, but v is dropped (above, 93).

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Singular.

Ν. Ἕλλην κλών δαίμων θήρ αἰθήρ φώρ ῥήτωρ G. Ἕλληνος κλων-ός δαίμονος θηρός αἰθέρος φωρ-ός ῥήτορος D. "Ελλην-ι κλωνί δαίμονι θηρεί αιθέρι φωρεί ρήτορι Α. Ελληνα κλῶν-α δαίμονα θῆρα αἰθέρ-α φωρα ρήτορα V. Ελλην κλών δαῖμον θήρ αιθήρ φώρ ῥητορ

G.

Plural.

N.V. Ἕλληνες κλώνες δαίμονες θῆρες φωρες ῥήτορες Ἑλλήνων κλων-ῶν δαιμόνων θηρῶν φωρῶν ῥητόρων Ελλη-σι κλω-σί δαίμο-σι θηρ-σί φωρ-σί ῥήτορ-σι Ἕλληνας κλῶν-ας δαίμονας θῆρας φώρας ῥήτορας

D.

Α.

Ν. Α.V. "Ελληνε

G.D.

Dual.

κλῶν-ε δαίμον-ε θῆρε φωρ-ε ρήτορε Ἑλλήν-οιν κλων-οῖν δαιμόνοιν θηρ-οῖν φωρ-οῖν ῥητόρ-οιν

184 The following fem. and oxytone nouns are declined not only like δαίμων, but also like αἰδώς: ἡ εἰκών, “the image, gen. εἰκόνος and εἰκοῦς, &c.; ἡ ἀηδών, “the nightingale,” gen. ἀηδόνος and ἀηδοῦς, &c.; ἡ χελιδών, “the swallow, gen. χελιδόνος and χελιδοῦς, &c. The same contraction takes place in the acc. sing., and nom., acc., and voc. plur. of certain comparatives in -wv, -ovos: thus acc. sing. μείζονα, μείζοα, μείζω ; nom. and voc. plur. μείζονες, μείζους, μείζους ; acc. μείζονας, μείζοας, μείζους (107). In ὁ, ἡ κύων, “the dog,” for κύον-ς, root Fov-, the oblique cases drop the o: thus gen. κυνός, dat. κυνί, &c.

185 If, in forms corresponding to αιθήρ, αιθέρος, the termination is -τερ or -νερ, we generally find a syncope in the Attic dialect; in the latter case, 8 is inserted between v and p, according to 86. Thus ὁ πατήρ, “the father,” and ὁ ἀνήρ, “the man,” are declined as follows (cf. 51, c. 5):

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