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The fem. ἡ χείρ, " the hand,” for χέρια, like δωτεῖρα for δωτέρ-ια from δωτήρ, δωτέρας, is declined as follows:

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186

Dual.

N.A.V. χεῖρ-ε

G.D. χειρ-οῖν, χερ-οῖν

e. Nouns in F, as represented by -ɩ or -v.

In these nouns the and v, which appear as substitutes for a lost digamma, are usually represented by e in the oblique cases. The similar forms of the 2nd declension present many analogies in their inflexions. When the or v is retained throughout the cases, the gen. and dat. sing. end in -os and -, as in the other consonantal nouns, and a comparison of πόλεως, πολεῖ, with the dialectical varieties πόληος, πόλη, assisted by the analogy of λαός, λέως, &c. (above, 145), supports the conclusion that the penultima in these cases was originally long, probably in consequence of some consonantal strengthening of the syllable. When the e is substituted, the gen. terminates with -ws, and the dat. is contracted into -eu. The acc. sing. retains the primitive -r, unless the nom. ends in -εύς, and then the acc. is -é-ā.

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N.A. V. Ki-e

G.D. κι οῖν

πολέοιν and πόλεων G.D. σιναπέοιν

In some words the Attic dialect retains the Ionic flexion of the genitive; such are ὁ πόσις, “ the husband,” gen. πόσιος; ἡ δῆρις, " the strife, gen. δήριος; ἡ μῆνις, “ the wrath," gen. μήνιος ; from τύρσις, “ a tower,” we have gen. τύρσιος (Xen. Anab. VII. 8, § 12), and from μάγαδις, " a harp,” we have dat. μαγάδι (Ibid. 3, § 32). The noun ois, “ a sheep,” is declined with . throughout.

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ὁ ἰχθύς, “ the fish,” ὁ πήχυς, “the elbow,” τὸ δάκρυ, “the tear,”

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Plural.

109

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Compounds with πήχυς make their neut. pl. in -a, -η, 23 διπήχη from δίπηχυς; so also ἥμισυς, “ half,” makes ἡμισέος, -ους, ἡμίσεα, ἡμίση. The word ἡ ἔγχελυς, “the eel,” is declined like ἰχθύς in the singular, but like πήχυς in the plural.

189 β. Fem. in -aus.

ἡ γραῦς, “ the old woman,” ἡ ναῦς, “ the ship.”

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Dual.
Ν.Α.V. γρᾶε

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γραυσί

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Α.

γρᾶτας, γραῦς

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In old Attic the accusative plural of these nouns in -eús is generally uncontracted in -éas. But we have Toùs Baσiλeîs, or, τοὺς perhaps erroneously, Baoiλns, in Sophocl. Ajax, 388, Tous IIλaταιείς in Thucyd. II. 76, τοὺς νομεῖς or νομῆς in Χen. Cyrop. I. 1, § 2, and in vieús for vios the form Toùs vieîs alone is found. It seems that we must restore τοὺς φονεῖς for τοῖς ἐμοῖς in sch. Ag. 1296 (Journ. of Philol. vol. III. p. 216), and this contraction would be the more natural as povéa is sometimes a tribrach. In the orators the contracted form is common. When the termination -cús follows a vowel, the gen. and acc. sing. and pl. are regularly contracted, ea being written a, as in IIeipaiŵôs, Пeipaiâ, ἀγνιῶν, ἀγνιᾶς, Μηλιώς.

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192 With these we may compare the masc. or fem. nouns in -ws, -wos, and the feminines in -ws, -w, -oos, -oûs, for in each of these cases v, as the representative of F, has been absorbed (above, 95). Take, for example, ó Oús, "the jackal," o "pws, "the noble warrior," for pƑãoт-s1, and aidos, "the shame," for aidofis, nx for xoFís, "the echo."

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Masc. proper names in -eús frequently have a corresponding Για feminine in -ώ, as Νηλεύς, Νηλώ. These feminine nouns, like αἰδώς and ἠχώ, have no dual or plural.

193

f. Derivatives in -ns, -eos.

From neuter nouns of the class (γ) are formed compounds, chiefly adjectives and proper names, by inserting ea =ŋ for o in the masc. and fem. nominatives and accusatives, e for o in the neuter nom. and accus. The other cases remain unaltered. Thus from τὸ τεῖχος, “ the wall,” we have ὁ, ἡ εὐτειχής, τὸ εὐτειχές, “ that which is well fortified,” and from τὸ τοῦ δήμου σθένος, “the strength of the people,” we have Δημοσθένης, the name of the celebrated orator, which, though resembling κριτής in the nom., is infected after the model of τεῖχος. In some proper names, however, the analogy of κριτής is followed in the accus. sing. Thus we have both Σωκράτεα, -η, and Σωκράτην. If a vowel precedes η in the nominative of these nouns (as in compounds with κλέος), a double contraction takes place in the dative: thus Ηρακλέει becomes Ἡρακλεῖ, Περικλέει becomes Περικλεί. Although ἡ τριήρης is properly an adjective agreeing with vaûs understood, it is practically used only as a substantive, signifying "the war-galley with three banks of oars," and may serve as an example of this form of declension, by the side of the two most common forms of proper

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