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(n) The following Homeric forms deserve attention :
Singular. Ν. υιός (υλεύς) κάρη
γόνυ δόρυ G. vios and viéos κάρητος, καρέατος γούνατος δούρατος κρατός, κράατος
γουνός δουρός D. vì and viet κάρητι, καρήατι
δούρατι κρατί, κράατι
δουρί A. via and viéa κάρη, κάρ (II. XVI. 392) γόνυ δόρυ
τον κράτα (Od. VΙΙΙ. 92)
καρήατα, κάρονα G. υιέων
κράτων, καρήνων D. υίάσι
Α. υίας, υιέας
$ III. Adjectives.
195 As the adjective expresses an unappropriated quality, it is necessary that it should be capable of apposition to nouns of different genders. It has, therefore, in most cases three formsa masculine, feminine, and neuter. If, however, the adjective is
, , . not expressive of a simple quality, or if it deviates but slightly from the use of a substantive in apposition, this motion through the genders may take place either partially or not at all. Thus,
, when an adjective is compounded of an adjective and substantive, or of a substantive preceded by củ, å-, or dus-, or a preposition, it is not usual to distinguish the masculine from the feminine, and the neuter alone is represented by separate inflexions. And there are some nouns of the consonantal declension which are used in apposition as adjectives without any change of gender'.
1 The text states the general principle, but there are such inconsistencies in practice, that no fixed rule can be laid down for the learner's guidance. See Lobeck, Paralipomena, Dissert. III. et vii.
(I) Adjectives of Three Terminations.
196 The triple inflexion is generally adopted in the case of adjectives in -os, when the full termination is -eos, -kos, -Aos, -vos, -pos, -tos and -TEOS. Those in -KOS, which are derived from verbs, retain the three endings, even when the verb is compounded with a preposition, as in επιδεικτικός, -ή, -όν from επιδείκνυμι, περιποιηTikós, -ý, -óv from TEPITTOLÉW; but not so, if they are derived from compound adjectives, as υπερσυντέλικος, -ον from συντελικός, μισοπέρσικος from περσικός, when the accent also is drawn back. There are a few examples of verbals in -tós of two genders, as éo Batós, Thucyd. 11. 41, ảvektós, vii. 87, ÉTAKTÓs, Plato, Resp. IX. 573 B; and Plato uses xaûvos, both with two and with three genders, as in χαύνους τας ψυχάς (Leges, p. 728 E) and χαύνην την ovotpoońv (Politic. p. 282 E). The triple declension is also found in adjectives in -ús (-eia, -ú), -els for -ev-s (-egoa, -ev), -ās for -av-s (-aiva, -ăv), -as for -avt-s (-āga, -āv), -nu for -ev-s (-elva, -ev), -WV ),
-ς (, ), -ς (-εινα for -ovt-s (-ovoa, -ov), -ws for -07-s (-via, -os). When the fem. gender is represented by separate inflexions, the first or -a declension is invariably adopted. The masc. and neut, are never of the first declension, when the adjective has three terminations, but always (a) of the second in -os, -ov, or (B) of the third (B) in -ús, -ú; (B) in -v-s, -v; (B) in -VT-S, -VT; and (B.) in Fór-s, Fór.
197 Q. If the masc. and neuter are like Nóryos, Fúdov, the feminine follows the declension of τιμή. Thus we have ο σοφός, το σοφόν, but η σοφή.
198 Qg. If a, e, i, or p precedes the termination, -a is retained throughout, as in φιλία or χώρα. Thus ο ιερός, το ιερόν, but η ιερά.
If the masc. and neut. are contracted like vóos or οστέον, the feminine follows συκέα, with of course the same exceptions in favour of a, e, i, po before the termination. Thus we have απλόος, απλόη, but αθρόος, αθρόα.
200 B. If the masc. and neut. are like rñxus, žoty, the fem. is like aandecă.
201 B,. If the masc. nom. is -v-s (one or other of these being assimilated or absorbed), the neuter is the uninflected form in -v, which appears as the vocative of the masculine. Thus we have ο μέλας for μέλαν-ς, ω and το μέλαν: ο τέρης for τέρενς (like ποιμήν for ποιμέν-s), ω and το τέρεν. The feminine is always -αινά or -εινά for αν-ια, εν-ια; and is declined like λέαινα.
202 B. When the form is vt, the 7 is omitted in the voc. masc. and in the nom., acc. and voc. neut.; and, in the nom. masc., -αντ-s becomes -ας, as in τύψας for τύψαντος, πάς for πάντ-ς. -εντ-s becomes -εις, as in χαρίεις for χαρίεντ-s. -οντ-s becomes -ους, as in διδούς for διδόντ-ς (comp. οδούς), or -ων,
as τύπτων for τύπτοντ-ς. -υντ-s becomes -υς, as in δεικνύς for δεικνύντ-ς. The fem. is always in -σά, like μού-σα;
i.e. from αντ-ς, α-σα
εντ-s, εσ-σα Or ει-σα
203 β. The adjectives in Fότ-s, Fότ, have a feminine in -υλα, in which the v or labial part of the digamma is still seen. The masc. and fem. are sometimes found as nouns ; thus we have μήτρως, declined like ήρως, fem. μητρυιά; and we have the feminine forms άρπυια, αγυιά, όργια, without any corresponding masculine. The existing forms, with the full inflexion, are always derived from the perfect of the active verb, and express the state which results from action. In regard to the form of the oblique cases, we may remark that φώς (φασότ-s), φωτός bears the same relation to τετυφώς (τετυφότ-s), τετυφότος, that ήρως (ήρξαo-s), ήρωος, does to αιδώς (αιδοί-s), αιδόος.
α,. ιερός, sacred.
EXAMPLES. 204 Class α. α. σοφός, oise.
NEUT. N. σοφός σοφή σοφόν G. σοφου σοφης σοφου D.
σοφώ σοφή σοφώ Α. σοφόν
σοφών σοφών σοφών D.
σοφούς σοφαϊς σοφούς Α. σοφούς σοφάς σοφά
Dual. Ν.Α.V. σοφώ σοφά
σοφώ G.D. σοφούν σοφαίν σοφούν
α, χρύσεος, golden.
χρυσούν χρυσής V. χρύσες
χρύσεον χρυσούν χρυσέου χρυσού χρυσέω χρυσό χρύσεον χρυσούν χρύσεον χρυσούν
χρύσεα χρυσά χρυσέων χρυσών
1 For the accentuation see above, 169, Obs.
απλώ G.D. απλόουν
απλόω απλώ απλόουν απλοϊν
αθρόος, -α, -ον, crowded, is not contracted, to distinguish it from άθρους, ηoiseless.