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(η) The following Homeric forms deserve attention :
Ν. υἱός (υἱεύς)
γούνατος δούρατος γουνός δουρός
Ν. υίες, υἱέες, υἱεῖς κάρᾶ (from κάραα, κάρατα)
195 As the adjective expresses an unappropriated quality, it is necessary that it should be capable of apposition to nouns of different genders. It has, therefore, in most cases three forms— a masculine, feminine, and neuter. If, however, the adjective is not expressive of a simple quality, or if it deviates but slightly from the use of a substantive in apposition, this motion through the genders may take place either partially or not at all. Thus, when an adjective is compounded of an adjective and substantive, or of a substantive preceded by ev, ả-, or dus-, or a preposition, it is not usual to distinguish the masculine from the feminine, and the neuter alone is represented by separate inflexions. And there are some nouns of the consonantal declension which are used in apposition as adjectives without any change of gender1.
1 The text states the general principle, but there are such inconsistencies in practice, that no fixed rule can be laid down for the learner's guidance. See Lobeck, Paralipomena, Dissert. III. et VII.
(I) Adjectives of Three Terminations.
196 The triple inflexion is generally adopted in the case of adjectives in -os, when the full termination is -eos, -kos, -λos, -vos, -ρος, -τος and -τεος. Those in -kos, which are derived from verbs, retain the three endings, even when the verb is compounded with a preposition, as in ἐπιδεικτικός, -ή, -όν from ἐπιδείκνυμι, περιποιητικός, -ή, -όν from περιποιέω ; but not so, if they are derived from compound adjectives, as ὑπερσυντέλικος, -ον from συντελικός, μισοπέρσικος from περσικός, when the accent also is drawn back. There are a few examples of verbals in -Tós of two genders, as ἐσβατός, Thucyd. II. 41, ἀνεκτός, VII. 87, ἐπακτός, Plato, Resp. ΙΧ. 573 B; and Plato uses yaûvos, both with two and with three genders, as in χαύνους τὰς ψυχάς (Leges, p. 728 E) and χαύνην τὴν σvoτρоonv (Politic. p. 282 E). The triple declension is also found in adjectives in -ús (-eîa, -ú), -eɩs for -ev-s (-eσoa, -ev), -ās for -av-s (-aiva, -ăv), -as for -avт-s (-ãσa, -āv), -nv for -ev-s (-eiva, -ev), -wv for -ovτ-s (-ovoa, -ov), -ws for -оT-s (-vîa, -os). When the fem. gender is represented by separate inflexions, the first or -a declension is invariably adopted. The masc. and neut. are never of the first declension, when the adjective has three terminations, but always (a) of the second in -os, -ov, or (B) of the third (81) in -ús, -ú; (B) in -v-s, -v; (8) in -vτ-s, -VT; and (B) in FÓT-S, FÓT.
197 a,. If the masc. and neuter are like Xoyos, úλov, the feminine follows the declension of τιμή. Thus we have ὁ σοφός, τὸ σοφόν, but ἡ σοφή.
198 a. If a, e, i, or p precedes the termination, -a is retained throughout, as in φιλία or χώρα. Thus ὁ ἱερός, τὸ ἱερόν, but ǹ iepá.
199 ag If the masc. and neut. are contracted like voos or ὀστέον, the feminine follows συκέα, with of course the same exceptions in favour of a, e, i, po before the termination. Thus we have ἁπλόος, ἁπλόη, but ἀθρόος, ἀθρόα.
200 B. If the masc. and neut. are like ĥXUS, ǎσTU, the fem. is like ἀλήθεια.
2018 If the masc. nom. is -v-s (one or other of these being assimilated or absorbed), the neuter is the uninflected form in -v, which appears as the vocative of the masculine. Thus we have ὁ μέλας for μέλαν-ς, ὦ and τὸ μέλαν: ὁ τέρην for τέρενς (like ποιμήν for ποιμένος), ὦ and τὸ τέρεν. The feminine is always -aivă or -eivă for av-ia, ev-ia; and is declined like Méauva.
202 B. When the form is vT, the T is omitted in the voc. masc. and in the nom., acc. and voc. neut.; and, in the nom. masc.,
-αντ-s becomes -as, as in τύψας for τύψαντος, πᾶς for πάντες. -εντ-s becomes -εις, as in χαρίεις for χαρίεντ-ς.
-οντ-s becomes -ουs, as in διδούς for διδόντος (comp. ὀδούς), or -ων, as τύπτων for τύπτοντες.
-υντ-s becomes -vs, as in δεικνύς for δεικνύντες.
203 B. The adjectives in Fót-s, Fót, have a feminine in -vîa, in which the v or labial part of the digamma is still seen. The masc. and fem. are sometimes found as nouns; thus we have μήτρως, declined like ἥρως, fem. μητρυιά; and we have the feminine forms ἅρπυια, ἀγυιά, ὄργυια, without any corresponding masculine. The existing forms, with the full inflexion, are always derived from the perfect of the active verb, and express the state which results from action. In regard to the form of the oblique cases, we may remark that φώς (φαδότες), φωτός bears the same relation to τετυφώς (τετυφότες), τετυφότος, that ἥρως (ἤρξαο-ς), pwos, does to aidós (aidoƑí-s), aidóos.