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229 Thus we have (1) the first and second personal pronouns, ey, ou, which express "I" and "thou," or the person speaking and the person addressed. (2) The reflexive pronoun, ", which expresses that the object is also the subject. (3) The pronoun of self or sameness, autós, which expresses identity, and is combined with all the three former pronouns. (4) The relative pronoun, ős, which approximates in meaning to %, but is more definite. (5) The distinctive pronoun, ó, which is called the definite article. (6) The indicative pronouns, ὅδε, οὗτος and ἐκεῖνος, which express as distinct from the subject the three positions, here, near to the here, and there (hic, iste, ille in Latin). (7) The indefinite and interrogative pronouns, ó deîva, rìs and τís, which imply that the object is somewhere, but do not define where it is. (8) The relative-indefinite, oσTIs, compounded of (4) and (7), the meaning of which it combines. (9) The reciprocal pronoun, ảλλýλwv, which expresses an interchange of relations between two objects. (10) The correlative adjectival pronouns, τοιοῦτος, τοσοῦτος, τηλικοῦτος, τυννοῦτος, which express comparison of quality, degree, age, &c. (11) The discretive and distributive pronouns, ἄλλος, ἕτερος; ἕκαστος, ἑκά
All these, except the last, have the government of substantives, and those included under (1) and (2) have their own adjectives, which are called possessives,—éμós, σós, éós, &c.
230 The pronouns (2), (4), (5), (7) are all derived from the second pronominal element. The pronouns (3), (6), (8), (10) are compounds.
231 (1) First and Second Personal Pronouns.
234 (3) Pronoun of self or sameness.
αὐτός, -ή, ό, he, she, it or self (below, 407, 410, cc, 444, αα).
So 8 avrós, "the same," though the Attic Neuter is more frequently ταὐτόν than ταὐτό for τὸ αὐτό (see e. g. Plat. Theret. p. 160 A).
For σεαυτοῦ, τῆς, -οῦ, ἑαυτοῦ, -ης, -οῦ, the Attic writers say also σαυτοῦ, τῆς, -οῦ, αὐτοῦ, τῆς, τοῦ ; and for the plural number of ἑαυτοῦ these are used: σφῶν αὐτῶν; σφίσιν αὐτοῖς; σφᾶς αὐτούς.
These pronouns never occur in Homer as one word, but always separated, as ἐμ' αὐτόν, -ήν, -ό, and ἳ αὐτήν, οἱ αὐτῷ.
In the plural the first two are declined as two words, each by
236 Possessive Pronouns, having the government of adjectives, and derived from (1) and (2).
Possessive Pronouns are declined exactly like adjectives of three terminations, thus:
ἐμός, -ή, -όν, mine.
σός, -ή, -όν, thine (Doric, τέος).
ἑός οι ὅς, ἑή or ἥ, ἑόν or ὅν, his or hers (Ionic).
σφωίτερος, -α, -ov, belonging to you two (Ionic).
νωίτερος, -α, -ον, belonging to us two (Ionic). ἡμέτερος, -α, -ον, our.
ὑμέτερος, -α, -ον, your.
σφός, -ή, -όν, his, her, their. And
σφέτερος, -α, -ον, generally only in the plural, as the possessive of σφεῖς ; but also used of the other persons.
238 (5) The Distinctive Pronoun or Definite Article.
In certain cases the nominative masculine is also ös. See below
in the Syntax (388).
1 The best writers sometimes use τώ, τοῖν with feminine nouns; thus we have τώ πόλεε twice in Thucyd. V. 23; τὼ χεῖρε, Xen. Mem. II. 3, § 18; τὼ ἡμέρα, Xen. Cyr. Ι. 2, § 11; τοῖν κινησέοιν, Plat. Leg. 898 4.