Page images
PDF
EPUB

!

242

(9) Reciprocal Pronoun.

Plural.

[blocks in formation]

Dual.

G.D. ἀλλήλοιν -αιν -οιν
A. ἀλλήλω -α

243 (10) Correlative Adjectival Pronouns.

These pronouns are called correlative, because they always refer to a relative expressed or understood, in connexion with which there is generally also an interrogative and indefinite pronoun: thus τοσοῦτος, with τόσος and τοσόσδε, refers to the relative ὅσος and the interrogative and indefinite πόσος, ποσός; τοιοῦτος, with τοῖος and τοιόσδε, to the relative οἷος and the interrogative and indefinite ποῖος, ποιός ; and so on, according to the following table :

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

The simple forms τόσος and τolos are seldom used in prose, and generally when there is little emphasis, as in the phrase τόσα καὶ τόσα, “such and such numbers.” Corresponding to τοῖος we have παντοῖος, ἀλλοῖος, ἑτεροῖος; and corresponding to τόσος, τοσοῦτος, we have τύννος, τυννοῦτος, “go little, tantillus.

The declension of τοσόσδε, τοιόσδε, τηλικόσδε corresponds to that of ode, so that the accent always remains on the penultima; thus, τοσοῦδε, τοσοίδε, τοσώνδε, &c. The words ending in -οντος are declined as follows:

[blocks in formation]

244

(11) Discretive and Distributive Pronouns.

(α) The discretive pronouns are ἄλλος, ἄλλη, ἄλλο, “another” (out of many), and ἕτερος, ἑτέρα, ἕτερον, “another” (out of two). The former of these, a representative of the Latin alius, ollus and ille, may be traced to an identity of origin, as it bears the same or nearly the same meaning, with κεῖνος, -η, -ο, “that other.” With the exception of the neuter in -o, it is regularly inflected. The discretive repos means literally "nearer on this side" (cf. the Latin citra, citerior, citimus, &c.), and is referred to the reflexive element. Instead of ὁ ἕτερος the Attic writers have ἅτερος, ἅτεροι, and still more frequently in the neuter θάτερον and θάτερα for τὸ ἕτερον and τὰ ἕτερα. The Ionic dialect has the crasis

οὔτερος, the Doric either ἕτερος οι ώτερος (see Ahrens, Dial. Dor. p. 114). Ultimately the corruption θάτερος, θατέρα, θάτερον established itself in the Kown StáλEKTOS, and we have an apparent example of this as early as Euripides, who writes @áτepov for tòv ërepov (Ion, 849; cf. Böckh, C. I. 1. No. 2119). We have also a discretive relation between οὐδείς, μηδείς, and οὐδέτερος, μηδέτερος.

(6) The distributive pronouns are ἕκαστος, ἑκάστη, ἕκαστον, "each one" (of many), Latin unus-quisque, and éxάтEρOS, ÉKATÉρa, Exάтeρov, "either one" (of two), "both the one and the other," Latin uterque, as distinguished from ambo, äμpw, àμþóτepos. See Plato, Theaetet. 185 Β: ὅτι ἀμφοτέρω δύο, ἑκάτερον δὲ ἕν. These distributives are derived from an old pronominal compound signifying "one," which is still extant in the Sanscrit numeral êkas, "one;" and is also seen in the particle exas, Latin secus, "apart,' "by itself." The phrase as exaσto means "severally,” as in Thucyd. 1. 3: οἱ ὡς ἕκαστοι Ελληνες, “the several Hellenic tribes,” "the Hellenes taken severally or as separate tribes, afterwards known by a common designation."

245 Besides the inseparable affixes -de and - (the latter of which, however, is sometimes liable to a kind of tmesis in the Attic comedies; above, 112), we have moveable suffixes, in the case of certain particles, which give a special value to some of the pronouns.

(a) The 1st and 2nd personal pronouns combine themselves with the moveable affix ye into a strengthened whole (like the Latin egomet), in which the accent is drawn back; thus we have eywye, ἔμοιγε for ἐγώ γε, ἐμοί γε; but ἐμοῦ γε and ἐμέ γε.

περ

(b) The particles Te and Tep added to relative and correlative pronouns give them a special and emphatic value; thus (1) os TE means "the particular person who," and is used regularly in the phrase 'Te, "for the particular reason which," i. e. "on condition that;" and in the adverb ❝s Te (σTE), "in the particular manner in which," i. e. "so that, to the extent that, on the condition that;" (2) olós Te, properly the correlative of Toîós Te, means "just such a one as," i. e. "able or capable;" as olós r' eiμì taûta Spâv, “I am just such a person as (I am able) to do these things;" (3) ός περ, όσος TEр, "exactly the person who," "just as much

[blocks in formation]

ζ, ἑπτά, seven.

ή, ὀκτώ, eight.

θ', ἐννέα, nine.

ί, δέκα, ten.

ια', ἕνδεκα, eleven.

ιβ', δώδεκα, δυώδεκα, and δυοκαίδεκα, twelve.

ιγ', τρισκαίδεκα and δεκατρεῖς, thirteen.

ιδ', τεσσαρεσκαίδεκα and τεσσαρακαίδεκα, fourteen.
ιέ, πεντεκαίδεκα, fifteen.

ις', ἑκκαίδεκα, sixteen.

ιζ', ἑπτακαίδεκα, seventeen.

ιή, ὀκτωκαίδεκα, eighteen.

ιθ', ἐννεακαίδεκα, nineteen.

κ', εἴκοσι(ν), twenty.

κα', εἷς καὶ εἴκοσι, twenty-one.

1 Instead of " eighteen” or “ nineteen,” the Greeks frequently said “twenty wanting two" or one: e. g. νῆες δυείν or μιᾶς δέουσαι είκοσι, twenty ships wanting two or one, i. e. 18 or 19 ships; and so for 28, 29, 38; and this applies to detailed numbers, as in Thucyd. VII. 3t: τετρακόσιοι καὶ δυοῖν δέοντες πεντήκοντα ἄνδρες, “four hundred and forty-eight men;” and to hundreds as well as to tens; thus we have in Thucyd. II. 31: τριακοσίων ἀποδέοντα μύρια, " nine thousand seven hundred.”

2 In the composition of two numbers, if the smaller precedes, the two are joined by καί ; if the greater, the conjunction is omitted: as πέντε καὶ εἴκοσι, Herod. ; είκοσι πέντε, Demosth. In Pindar, Οl. I. 128, we have the two numbers combined by τε καί.

frequently used as adjectives than the others, and for this reason would have inflexions, which the others, whose use would be more adverbial, might omit without so much inconvenience. The same remark applies to the corresponding fact in regard to the numerals of the Romans, whose fundamental number was three.

247 Numerals are divided into two classes: A. Cardinals, B. Ordinals. The former express a definite number. The latter express the position of the objects in a succession of numbers. So that although the cardinal is by its origin a positional word, it includes in its meaning all the positions up to that which it designates for this is the process in counting.

248 All ordinals are declined like adjectives of three genders.

249 A. Cardinal Numbers (answering to the question "How

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]
« PreviousContinue »