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Obs. 2 Móvos, "alone," "only," i. e. "one-ly," Ionic poûvos, is of the nature of an ordinal, and is connected with the first numeral in its original form μείς, μία, μέν.

Obs. 3 The ordinals are sometimes combined with cardinals, as in the phrase τῇ ὀγδόῃ καὶ ἐνάτῃ ἐπὶ δέκα, and the like.

Obs. 4 The following are epic forms of the ordinals: πρόμος, τρίτατος, τέτρατος, ἑβδόματος, ὀγδόατος, εἴνατος, by the side of which the ordinary forms also are used. We have, besides, devraтos, "the last." The Doric dialect has πρᾶτος by the side of πράν for πρώαν, and τέρτος is given by Choroboscus, Cramer. Anecd. II. p. 275, 23, as the Æolic form of τρίτος.

as

255 From the feminine of the ordinal may be formed a secondary ordinal expressing the day on which an event happened; 23 τριταῖος ἀπέθανεν, “ he died on the third day, i. e. τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ, πεμπταῖοι ἤλθομεν, “we came on the fifth day. Also the interrogative πоσтaîοs; “on what day?" "after how many days?"

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256 We have also (a) multiple adjectives, aπλóos (-oûs), single," dπλóos (-oûs), “double," тρiπλóos (-oûs), “treble," &c. (for the declension see above, 205). Rarer forms are dipáσios, τριφάσιος, &c.

(b) Proportional adjectives are such as

Simλários, "twice as much,"
διπλάσιος,

τριπλάσιος,

Tρiπλáσios, "thrice as much,"

Tоanλáσios, "many times as much."

These answer to the question ποσαπλάσιος.

Obs. The difference between the adjectives in -óos and those in -άσιος is thus given by Ammonius (de dif. p. 43): διπλοῦς κατὰ μέγεθος, διπλάσιος κατ ̓ ἀριθμόν, i. e. διπλοῦς, duplex, defines the number of parts into which the whole is divided; dinλários, duplus, how many times a given number contains another in itself; thus Plato says (Charm. p. 168 c): ov yap coτí nov ädλov dinλáσiovýμíσeos, but (Cratyl. 408 c) : διπλοῦς ὁ λόγος ἀληθής τε καὶ ψευδής.

257 Numeral adverbs are such as

(a) Sixa, "in two ways,"

Tρixa, "in three ways,"
TÉTρaxa, "in four ways,"

&c.

answering to the adjectives in -Tλoûs, and

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answering to the adjectives in -Tλáσios, probably formed from those in -πλoûs (above, 107). We have also more general adverbs of the same kind; as ισάκις, πολλάκις, πλεονάκις, &c.; the interrogative ποσάκις, and the correlatives τοσάκις, ὁποσάκις.

258 Numeral substantives, besides μupiás, which has been already mentioned, are such as μovás, "unity," dvás, “duality," τριάς, τετράς, πεμπάς (later πεντάς, or even πεμπτάς), ἑξάς, ἑπτάς, ὀκτάς, ἐννεάς, δεκάς, δωδεκάς, &c. ; εἰκάς, τριακάς, τεσσερακοντάς, &c. ; ἑκατοντάς, χιλιάς.

§ VI. Adverbs.

259 When some case of a declinable word-whether substantive, adjective, or pronoun-has fixed itself absolutely for the expression of certain secondary predications (see Syntax, 435), it is called an ADVERB. The prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections, which are generally regarded as distinct parts of speech, are, in regard to their origin and primitive use, neither more nor less than adverbs. Their right to a separate place in the grammar of an inflected language depends upon their syntactical functions only. The preposition is an adverb of place, specially defined by the apposition of the case of a noun; the conjunction is an adverb of manner, specially defined as the relative or antecedent in some connected sentences; the interjection is the vocative case of a noun, or some single sound, used as an exclamatory adverb.

260 We may treat of adverbs, as they are generally understood, with reference either to their meaning or to their form.

a. With regard to their meaning, adverbs are divided into (a) Adverbs of quality or manner; as kaipíws, "opportunely;" πρεπόντως, “ becomingly;” βαρβαρικώς, " barbarously;” ταυρηδόν, "like a bull;" avapavdóv, "openly;" ovoμaorí, "by name, naming

ly," nominatim; èçaípins, “suddenly;" odağ, “bitingly;" Xíav, 'excessively;" πрoîкa, “gratuitously," &c.

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(B) Adverbs of place; as očкodev, "from home;" ’Oλvμπíaše, "to Olympia;" IIvooî, "at Delphi;" érépwσe, "in a different direction;" evdoet, "within," &c.

ἔνδοθι,

(7) Adverbs of time; as πpív, "before;" Tóre, "then;" víka, "when;" μos, "while;" réws, "so long as ;" Tóтe; "when?" &c.

261 6. With reference to their form (a), sometimes the adverb corresponds exactly to some existing case of the noun; as Dat. Koμion, "with abundance," i. e. "very much;" so also dŋμooía, “publicly;" idía, "privately;" κown, “in common;" Tε, "on foot;" σπoνòn, "zealously;" pt, "in the spring;" πεζῇ, ίφι, ἕκητι, ipi, "violently;" EKηTI, "willingly," &c.

Acc. ȧpxv or τǹv ȧpxýv, “at the beginning," i. e. “at all," "wholly," "entirely;" so also akuv, "at the point," “ hardly ;" δωρεάν oι προίκα, " gratis or in vain;” μακράν, "far;" πépav, "on the other side;" and especially neuter adjectives; as κaλóv, "beautifully;" Spaxéa, "briefly;" ȧvτíπaλov, "correspondingly" (Thucyd. 1. 3, § 4, vI. 23, § 1), &c. And sometimes to a noun with its preposition; as

πараxрnμа, "along with the business," i. e. "on the spot," "directly."

каÐάжеρ = каľ а Teр, "according to which things in particular," περ,

καθάπερ καθ ̓

i. e. "like."

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ἐξαπίνης οἱ ἐξαίφνης = ἐξ ἀπινῆς (later αἰπεινῆς), ex pracipiti, a sudden."

ἐνσχερώ and ἐπισχερώ = ἐν σχερῷ, ἐπὶ σχερῷ, “ in order.”

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The irregular forms vúкTwp and eμTodov are contractions for νυκτὸς ὥρᾳ and τὸ ἐν ποσὶν ὄν (cf. τὰ ἐν ποσὶ εἱλεύμενα. Herod. II. 76).

1 We should expect νύχθωρ, but it might be connected with ώρα, like φρυκτωρός. Rosen (Rig-Veda, Annot. p. v.) has compared the termination with the Vaidik vas-tar =mane. But the belongs to the crude form of vúкT-s, and if the generally-received etymology, which is given in the text, is to be rejected, we must conclude that vÚKTwp is a corruption of vúκTws, formed from the genitive (ablative) like the other adverbs

in -ws.

262 (B) Sometimes the adverb preserves a genuine but obso

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ing:

A.

'Aonvale for 'Aonvao-de, "to Athens."

Obs. 1 In these terminations the principal changes are the follow

-θεν becomes -θα, -δα, -δον, -δην, τει, -τι, -5.

-0 becomes -, -ot, and even -ov.

-de becomes -dis, and in derivatives from pronouns it is alwas -σe.

Obs. 2 The locative termination -σ or has often a moveable v (above, 85), which is sometimes represented by s, also moveable, and sometimes by the open vowel a (above, 107). Thus we have, on the one hand, πέρυσι and πέρυσιν, πάλι and πάλιν; then ἄχρι and ἄχρις, αύθι and αὖθις, πολλάκι and πολλάκις; then ἄρτι, ἔτι, ὕψι, &c. without any s. Again, we have ἀεί, αἰεί, αιέν, αἰές, but αὖτε, ὄψε, τῆλε, without any consonantal affix or representative even of Again, we have adverbs both in -a and -er, as ἕνεκα and ἕνεκεν, ἐνταῦθα, ἐντεῦθεν, ἔνθα and ἔνθεν; and both in -a and -us, as ἀνάμιγα by the side of ανάμιξ, μέγα by the side οι μόγις, μάλα by the side of μόλις ; but also adverbs in -a without any trace of a consonantal affix, and in s without any further trace of the formative insertion, as τάχα, ὦκα, κάρτα, ἀλλά, σάφα, αὐτίκα, and πύξ, λάξ, ὀδάξ, γνύξ, άλις. Finally, we have adverbs in -ov, like σήμερον, avρiov, Tλnσiov, which must represent an original termination -au or -aiv. This appears not only from internal evidence, but from the changes of the person-endings of verbs from - to -ov or -a, and from comparatives like πλησιαίτερος.

Obs. 3 The greatest irregularity is that which we observe in relative and interrogative adverbs. Thus instead of

80, "where," Tó, "where?" we find ou, ou, which are properly equivalent to ὅθεν, πόθεν:

and instead of

oσe, "whither," Tóore, "whither?" we find ol, roî, which are properly equivalent to ὅθι, πόθι.

263 (7) The most common form of the adverb is when the gen. is assimilated to -ws. There is hardly any adjective which cannot furnish an adverb of this form, thus:

σοφός, “ wise,” gen. σοφοῦ, adv. σοφῶς, “ wisely.”

ndús, "sweet," gen. «déos, adv. ýdéws, “sweetly.”

xapieis, “graceful," gen. xapíevros, adv. xapiévτws, "gracefully." evdaíμov, “happy," gen. evdaíμovos, adv. evdaiμóvws, "happily."

We have seen, however, that it is only with nouns in F that we practically find this gen. in -ws as a case. Many of these adverbs cast off the final -s; as apvw, "suddenly;" avew, “silently;" oπíσw, “behind;" and this is always the case with those derived from prepositions; as avw, "upwards;" káтw, "below;" elow and čow, "within;" ěžw, "without;" πрóσш and πóррw, "afar." We have both ourws and ourw (above, 85). But it may be doubted whether the latter forms are not connected rather with the dat. than with the gen., to which we assign the adverbs in -ws. Dialectical variations, such as è§oî, ëğw, would seem to point to this; but these forms are in many instances so mutilated and corrupt, that we can scarcely hope to arrive at a certain analysis. Thus, in the correlative adverbs, those in -ws refer to manner, as πos, "how?" πws, "somehow;" os, "in what way," &c. And yet the shortened form w refers to time, as in ouπw, nondum, "not yet," i. e. "at no previous time." If Te is added to the crude form, another relawhen ;” ποτε, tion of time is expressed; for Tóre means "when;" 66 at any time;" TÓTE, "then" or "at that time;" őre, "at which time;" Oй TOTE, "not at any time,' never," nunquam, either of past or present time; où πάжоте, "never yet," πώποτε, "never at any previous time." In perhaps the only passage in which we appears as an interrogative (Eschyl. Agam. 1507), it is obviously synonymous with πώς.

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The following table shows how these irregular adverbs are used to express place, time, and manner.

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