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" in this way” ή, “where,” “in which way"

We have also πηνίκα, “at what particular time?” with its correlatives ὁπηνίκα, τηνίκα, τηνικαύτα, τηνικάδε and ἡνίκα.

264 Adverbs in -ws are often formed from participles; thus we have not only τεταγμένως, “in an orderly manner;” ἀνειμένως, "negligently," &c. from participles in -os, but also similar forms from present and perfect participles of the active form, as πρεπόντως, “becomingly;” λυσιτελούντως, " profitably;” εἰκότως, "probably." And even when the participle governs a case, as νουνεχόντως οι ἐχόντως νοῦν (Plat. Legg. 686 E), “sensibly;" whence we should, with Dobree, read in Herod. iv. 36: γελῶ ὁρέων· οὐδένα νόον ἐχόντως ἐξηγησάμενον, “I am amused to see that no one has given a sensible explanation."

66

265 (δ) Participial adverbs in -δα, -δον, δην, express the mode of action; thus we have κρύβδην, " secretly,” from κρύπτω ; συλλήβδην, “ concisely,” from συλλαμβάνω; πλέγδην, “interwovenly,” from πλέκω ; σποράδην, " scatteredly,” from σπείρω ;

ἐπιτροχάδην, “ cursorily,” from ἐπιτρέχω; ἀναφανδόν, ἀμφαδόν, àμpadá, “openly," "visibly," from avapalvw. These correspond to another class in -T, TEL; as ovoμaorí, "namingly," from ovoμάζω; ἑλληνιστί, " in the way of speaking Greek,” from έλληνίζω; αὐτοσχεδιαστί, “extempore,” from αὐτοσχεδιάζω; ἀδακρυτί, ȧvwμwкtí, άotevarтí, "without weeping, wailing, or groaning," from δακρύω, οἰμώζω, στενάζω. These affixes are still farther softened into -e, -s, or even -a attached to the simple stem (above, 262, Obs. 2): compare ἀμαχητί, ἀμάχει; ἄπριγδα, ἀπρικτεί, ἀπρίξ; ἀναμίγδην, ἀνάμιγδα, ἀναμίξ, ἀνάμιγα.

αὐτονυκτί,

266 Adverbs with this participial signification are often derived from nouns: thus we have λovтív-dny, "in the way of wealth;" avTOVUKTI, "that very night;" auroxepi, "with the very hand;" avôpiori, "after the manner of men;" aμiolí, "unhiredly;" Boтpu-dóv, "clusteringly;" ixa-dóv, "troopingly," catervatim; kvvn-dóv, “dog-wise;" κavayn-dá, "noisily;" evpáğ, “sideways," &c. And even from other adverbs, as vewσtí, “newly;" Téρi, "around." πέριξ,

βοτρυδόν,

267 To the same list belong a considerable class of adverbs in -iv-da, expressing the names of games (πaidiôv óvóμara, J. Pollux, IX. 110), such as ỏσтρак-lvda, “the game of the potsherd;" Baoiλívda, "the game of king," &c.

268 Although there is sometimes an apparent identity between the adverb and the nom. masc. of an adjective, what we have seen of the mutilations, which take place in these forms, will caution us against supposing that this identity is real. Thus eμmas or ἔμπα is obviously ἐν πᾶσιν; and although εὐθύς is an adverb as well as evoú1 (above, 85), the coincidence of the former with the masc. adjective is only the accidental result of a corruption, probably of the adverb with one of these locative or genitive endings.

We see in the prepositions and conjunctions, which are all pronominal adverbs, the extent to which this corruption may be carried.

1 In Attic Greek evú refers to place, as ev¤ù'äŋvŵr, "straight to Athens;" and eves to time, "straightways." Heindorf. ad Plat. Lys. p. 203 E.

§ VII. Degrees of Comparison.

(1) Regular Comparison in -TEPOS, -TATOS.

269 The usual method of expressing a comparison between two or more objects in regard to quality is by affixing, to an adverbial inflexion of the adjective denoting the quality, the syllables -Te-pos, when two objects are compared, and the syllables -Ta-Tos when more than two objects are referred to. The former, as we have already seen (77), expresses motion from a certain point, and away, and the latter, motion through a series of points. Consequently if koûpo-s expresses the quality of "lightness," koʊpóTEρOs means "light beyond or before a certain point or object," and KOVOÓ-TaTOS, "light beyond a series of such points or objects." And this is always the meaning of comparative and superlative adjectives.

270 As might be expected from the length of the increased word, the adverbs, to which these terminations are appended, always appear in an abridged or mutilated form, and we have seen that the endings of the adverbs themselves admit of almost unlimited disintegration. We may however recognize the terminations -ws, -a, -is, or the neuter of the adjective used adverbially (above, 261), and the Latin proves that the degrees of comparison are expressed by a formative affix appended to the adverbial inflexion, and not to the crude form of the adjective itself. The following are the rules for the degrees of comparison, so far as any general rules can be established.

(a) If the penultima is short, the adverb retains the w before these affixes; if long, o is the only representative of the original -ws, thus:

σοφός
κούφους

σοφώτερος
κουφότερος

σοφώτατος
κουφότατος

It is generally supposed that this change from a to o or vice versâ is merely a metrical affection occasioned by the exigencies of hexameter verse. That this is not the case, and that the w is the original vowel, which has yielded to the weight of the preceding syllable, according to a general principle of euphony, is shown by the fact that Homer has λαρώτατος (Od. II. 350), κακοξεινώτερος (Ib. 366), ὀϊζυρώτερον (Π. XVII. 446).

271 (6) If the adjective-form ends in -v, -es, -av or -ap, these affixes may be immediately appended to the uninflected form (above,

261); as

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272 (c) If the adjective-form ends in -ητ or -εντ, this is softened into σ on account of the dental following, thus:

πένης for πένητες

χαρίεις for χαρίεντος

πενέστερος

χαριέστερος

πενέστατος
χαριέστατος

In contracted forms we may have no- for -eo-, as in Sophocles (Phil. 972), τολμήστατος for τολμέστατος.

For the softening of the dental, compare the Latin duris-simus for dured-timus.

Obs. Compounds of χάρις for χάριτος form the comparative and superlative from the gen., on the same principle as in σοφός, σοφῶς, σοφώτερος, thus :

εύχαρις εὐχαρίτως

εὐχαριτώτερος

εὐχαριτώτατος

273 (d) Adjectives in -wv (-ov-s), and the few which end in -ξ (-κ-s), change the w of the adverb into e and retain the s, thus:

σώφρων σωφρόνως σωφρονέστερος σωφρονέστατος

εὐδαίμων

εὐδαιμόνως

ἀφήλιξ ἀφηλίκως

εὐδαιμονέστερος εὐδαιμονέστατος ἀφηλικέστερος

To the same class belong the contracted forms in -oos, -ous, which change the -ows of the included adverb into -oes, -ous; as

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Some other long forms adopt the same change; as

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ἐπίπεδος

ἀκρατέστερος

ἐπιπεδέστερος (Xen. Hell. VII. 4, § 13).

274 (e) The included adverb is shortened into -us instead of es in some of these forms: thus from ἅρπαξ (ἁρπακτής) and μισο

πόρπαξ, we have ἁρπαγίσ-τατος and μισοπορπακίσ-τατος. This is particularly observed in the comparison of nouns in -s, -ov: thus we have κλέπτης, κλεπτίσ-τερος; πότης, ποτίσ-τατος; λάγνης, λαγνίσ-τατος; πλεονέκτης, πλεονεκτίσ-τατος. But ὑβρίστης makes ὑβριστότερος on account of the cacophony in ὑβριστίσ-τερος. Some nouns in -os, -ου follow this analogy: thus we have λάλος, “talkative,” λαλίστερος; πτωχός, “beggarly,” πτωχίσ-τερος; ὀψοφάγος, “gluttonous,” ὀψοφαγίσ-τατος; μονοφάγος, " eating alone,” μονοφαγίσ-τατος.

275 (f) Forms which present adverbial inflexions in -αι (?, q) or have by-forms in -os, which are in themselves of a comparative nature, attach the comparative suffix to an adverbial inflexion in

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276 The vacillation in these forms of the comparative, and the frequent use of more than one form for the same adjective, must be referred to laws of euphony acting on the termination of the included adverb. The following list contains the most important variations:

ἄσμενος

ἀσμενώτερος

ἄφθονος

ἀφθονώτερος
ἀφθονέστερος

ἀσμενώ-τατος, adv. ἀσμενέστατα and άσμεναί-τατα ἀφθονώτατος

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