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For the purpose of emphasis or exaggeration, the comparison is sometimes extended by a superaddition of the affix: thus we have προτεραίτερος from πρότερος (Aristoph. Equit. 1165), and similarly χερειότερος, πλειότερος, ἀρειότερος, ἀμεινότερος, βελτίσε τερος, γλυκιότερος, μειζότερος, &c. Τo the same class belong such words as αὐτότερος, αὐτότατος (Lat. ipsissimus), παντοδαπώτατος, and the like. Other exaggerations are παγκάκιστος, πανύστατος, τρισμέγιστος, φαυλεπιφαυλότατος.

§ VIII. Undeclined, Irregular, and Defective Nouns.

284 Although the laws which lead to apparent anomalies of inflexion have been already explained, it will be most convenient to the learner, if we follow the example of previous grammarians, and add here a list of those nouns which are either undeclinable, defective, or irregular.

ἀηδών, “ nightingale;” gen. ἀηδόνος, ἀηδοῦς, dat. -όνι, -ο. So also Γοργών, εἰκών, χελιδών (184).

ἀλκί by the side of ἀλκῇ, “ with strength.”

ἅλς in the signification “salt,” generally in the pl. οἱ ἄλες. In the sing. as is poetically "the sea."

ἅλως, “ threshing-foor;” gen. -ω, -ωος, also ἅλων, ωνος. ἄνα, “ Ο king,” in addresses to gods, for ἄναξ.

ἄΐδος, ἄΐδι, ἄΐδα for ᾅδου, &c. from "Αιδης.

ἄλφι, “ barley-meal;” secondary form ἄλφιτον. So also κρι by the side of κρίθη, “ barley.” Αλφι and κρί were probably dental forms like μé-T, “honey.”

άμφω, “ both ;” gen., dat. ἀμφοῖν.

ἀνδράποδον, “ slave;” dat. pl. ἀνδραπόδοις and ἀνδραπόδεσσι. The latter form shows, as does also the form avdparodiw, that the derivation is ἀνήρ and πούς, not ἀνήρ and ἀποδίδωμι, hence the original word was ἀνδράπους, like τρίπους, and the name is best explained by the boast of the Dorian warrior (Hybr. ap. Ath. xv. p. 695 F): πάντες γόνυ πεπτηῶτες ἀμὸν προσκυ νεῦντί με δεσπόταν. There is a similar irregularity in Οἰδί

πους, q. v.

'Avopoμéda retains the -a throughout.

So also some other proper

names, such as Λήδα, Φιλομήλα. Cf. 18, g, 119, 161.

ávýp, "a man," i. e. vir, not homo (185).

Απόλλω for 'Απόλλωνα (184).

ἀργέτος, -τι, instead of ἀργῆτος, ἀργῆτι.

"Apns, "the god of war;" "Apeos, "Apei, "Apm and "Apŋv. Also in epic poetry 'Apños, 'Apñt. That the original form of the nom. was "Αρενς appears from the comparative ἀρείων (278).

ἀρνός, masc. and fem., " of the lamb;” ἀρνί, ἄρνα, ἄρνες, ἀρνάσι, used instead of the inflexions of auvós. The true nom. was ἀῤῥήν,

appny, "the male."

dorp, masc., "a star;" dat. pl. doтρáσw.

βρέτας, “ an image ;” neut. βρέτεος, βρέτη.

yáλa, neut., “milk” (182 a,).

yeλws, masc., "laughter," -wTOS, -wra, and -wv, -ov. So also epws, "love;" pws, "sweat" (180). Compare pws for "pw-T-S (192).

yóvʊ, neut., “knee" (182 a). So also dópv.

yun, fem., "woman" (179).

dat, dat., “in the fight" (Lobeck, Paralip. p. 89 sq.).

dauap, fem., "wife" (181).

δάκρυον, neut., “ tear ;” dat. pl. δάκρυσιν from the poetic δάκρυ. deiva, "a certain person" (240).

δένδρον, neut., “ tree;” dat. pl. both δένδροις and δένδρεσιν from δένδρος. There is also a form δένδρεον, whence δένδρεα, δενδρέοις.

deoμós, masc., "chain;" pl. -poi and -μá; díppos, masc., δεσμός,

has also both forms, but the masc. pl. is more common.

"seat,"

Δημήτηρ, “ the goddess of corn;” Δήμητρος, Δήμητρι, Δήμητρα (Δήμητραν), Δήμητερ.

δορυξέ, masc., “ Ο spear-shaft-maker,” from δορυξόος.

δρυμός, masc., “ oak-grove;" pl. -μοί and -μά.

ἔαρ, neut., “ Spring ;” ἔαρος, ἔαρι, ήρος, ήρι.

ἔγχελυς, fem., “ eel,” -νος; but ai and τὰς ἐγχέλεις, τῶν ἐγχελέων

in the pl.

εἴκων, fem., “ image” (184).

ἐρετμός, masc., “ oar;” pl. ἐρετμοί and έρετμά.

ἕως, fem., “ morning” (171).

Ζεύς, masc., “Jupiter;” gen. Διός; dat. Διΐ; acc. Δία. Also
Ζηνός, Ζηνί, Ζήνα.

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Θαλῆς, masc., Θαλέω, Θαλῇ, Θαλῆν. The forms Θαλοῦ, Θάλητος, &c. are later.

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δος and θέμιος.

θέμις, fem., “ law," has the genitive forms θέμιστος, θέμιτος, θέμι Homer has the acc. θέμιστα, pl. θέμιστες ; Pindar has θέμιτες, θέμισσιν. In some passages θέμις is neut. and indeclinable.

θεσμός, masc., “ decree ;" pl. -μοί and -μά.

θρίξ, fem., “ hair ;" τριχός, θριξί (97).

θυγάτηρ, fem., “ daughter;" θυγατρός, θυγατρί, τέρα, θύγατερ, θυγατέρε, -τέροιν, -τέρες, -τέρων, -τράσι, -τέρας.

κάλως, masc., " cable;" -ω, ων; pl. -ωες and -or; acc. -ους.

κάρα, neut., “ head;” κρατός, κρατί, κράτα, masc.

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κλαδί, κλαδεσί, coexist with the regular infexions of κλάδος, “α bough :” see στιχός.

κλείς, fem., “key;” acc. κλείδα and κλεῖν; pl. κλεῖδες, κλείδας and κλεῖς. In old Attic we have also κλής, -ηδός.

κνέφας, neut., “ darkness;” gen. -eoς, -ους; dat. ai, -g, whence

κνεφαῖος.

κοινωνός, masc., “partaker;” pl. (only in Xenophon) κοινῶνες, τας,

as from κοινών, ξυνάν.

κρίνον, neut., “ lily;” κρίνεα, κρίνεσι.

κύκλος, masc., “ circle ;” pl. κύκλοι and κύκλα.

κύων, masc., fem., " dog” (184).

λίπα, neut., old dative, “ with oil.”

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λίς, masc., “ a lion ;" acc. λιν, Hom. λίες and λες, Euphor. λιέσιν. λύχνος, masc., “ lamp ;” pl. λύχνοι and λύχνα.

μάλης for μασχάλης, in the phrase ὑπὸ μάλης, “ under the arm.” μάρτυς, masc., fem., " witness ;” regular in μάρτυρος, &c. ; but dat. pl. μάρτυσιν, and acc. sing. μάρτυν in Simonides.

μείς, masc., “ month,” for μήν.

μέλε, masc., “ Ο wretch.”

μόσυν, masc., “ a wooden tower;” gen. μόσυνος, &c. ; but dat. pl. μοσύνοις.

μύκης, masc., “ a mushroom ;” gen. μύκητος and μύκου.

ναῦς, fem., “ ship ;” sing. νεώς, νηί, ναῦν; gen., dat., dual νεοῖν; pl. νῆες, νεῶν, ναυσίν, ναῦς (189).

νύξ, fem., " night" (180).

Οἰδίπους, Οἰδίποδος, and -που, -ποδι, -ποδα, and -πουν ; voc. που. Also gen. Οιδιπόδαο, -δα, -δεω ; dat. -δῃ; acc. -δην; voc. -δα. οἶs, fem., “ sheep;” οἰός, οἰί, οἶν ; οἶες or οἶς, οἰῶν, οἰσίν, οἶας οι οἶς. ὄναρ, neut., “ dream ;” only nom. and acc.

ὄνειρος, masc., “ dream ;” both -ου masc. and -ατος neut.

ὄρνις, masc., fem., “ bird;” ὄρνιθος, -θι, -νῖν and -νῖθα; voc. ὄρνι; pl. ὄρνιθες, &c. ; and also ὄρνεις, ὄρνεων, and in the acc. ὄρνις. The Dorians wrote ὄρνῖχος, ὄρνῖχα, &c.

ὄσσε, “ eyes;” gen. ὄσσων; dat. ὄσσοις.

οὖδας, neut., “ foor;” gen. οὔδεος; dat. οὔδεῖ. οὖς, neut., “ ear;” ωτός, ὤτων, ὠσίν.

σε

πνύξ, fem., “ house of assembly;” πυκνός, &c. ; later, πνυκός. Ποσειδών, “ the god of the sea ;” acc. Ποσειδώ.

πρεσβευτής, masc., “ambassador;” but πρεσβύτης or πρέσβυς, “old man;” in the former sense, gen. πρέσβεως; acc. πρέσβυν; pl. πρέσβεις; dat. πρέσβεσι; in the latter only acc. πρέσβυν and voc. πρέσβυ.

πρόσωπον, neut., " countenance ;” pl. προσώπατα, -πασιν. πρόχοος, -ους, fem., " pitcher ;” dat. pl. πρόχουσιν.

πῦρ, neut., “ fire,” πυρός; pl. τὰ πυρά, τοῖς πυροίς, " watch-fres." σής, masc., “ moth,” σεός; pl. σέες, σέας, σέων. In later writers, σητός, &c.

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σκώρ, “ dung" (181).

στάδιον, neut., “ a furlong;” οἱ στάδιοι, τὰ στάδια.

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σταθμός, masc., " standard ;” pl. -μοι and -μα, " balance.” στιχός, gen. and pl. στίχες from στίχος, " a row.

τάν in ὦ τάν, “ Ο thou, old form of τυνή.

Τάρταρος; pl. Τάρταρα.

ταώς, masc., “ peacock;" both regular and also ταῶνι, ταῶνες,

ταώσιν.

ὕδωρ, neut., “ water” (181).

viós, masc., "son," in addition to the regular declension has the following: gen. υἱέος; dat. υἱεῖ; acc. υἱέα; dual vἱέε, νἱέοιν; pl. υἱεῖς, νἱέων, υἱέσιν, υἱέας, -είς.

φρέαρ, neut., “ well;” φρέατος and φρητός.

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χείρ, fem., “ hand ;” χειρός, χερός, χερσί, &c.

χούς, masc., “a congius” or “liquid measure;” χοός, χοί, χοῦν, χόες, χόας. Also, as from χοεύς, χοῶς, χοᾶ, χος, &c. But χούς, masc., a heap of earth, has only gen. χοός ; acc. χοῦν,

&c.

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χρέως, neut., “ debt;” also χρέος; gen. χρέως and χρέους ; pl. χρέα.

There is no dat.

χρώς, masc., “ skin ;” gen. χρωτός, &c. Ionice χροός, χροι, χρόα. We have also the phrase ἐν χρῷ for ἐν χρωτί.

ὦ τάν. See τάν.

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