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Besides the appellative nouns in -της and -os, which we have already mentioned (274), and others of a still more completely adjectival nature, which form their degrees of comparison regularly, such as δοῦλος, δουλότερος, ἑταῖρος, ἑταιρότερος, βάρβαρος, βαρβα ρώτερος, κύριος, κυριώτερος, &c., we have this comparison also in the case of substantives denoting persons or things, which are not capable of being used in their existing forms as qualitative adjectives: thus we have βασιλεύτερος, “ more kinglike,” βασιλεύ-τατος, “ most kinglike,” from βασιλεύς; κύντερος, “more doglike, i.e. more shameless,” κύντατος, “most shameless,” from κύων; 30 also κερδίων and κέρδιστος from κέρδος, ἐλέγχιστος from ἔλεγχος (or perhaps from the obsolete ελεγχής), μυχοίτατος and μύχατος from μύχος.


(5) Comparisons of Adverbs.

As it seems that the terminations which indicate comparison are appended (at least those in -τερος, -τατος) to adverbs, that is, to fixed forms of the adjectives, it may be scarcely necessary to remark, that they may be affixed to pronominal and other adverbs. Of these formations there are in fact two classes.

(a) When the comparative or superlative of the adverb is itself an adjective: thus we have

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(b) When the comparative or superlative of the adverb is itself an adverb; and here we have either (a) a comparative adverb formed from the neut. sing., and a superlative adverb formed from the neut. plur. of the adjectives of those degrees, thus:

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or we have (β) a comparative in -τέρως by the side of one in -τερον,

the superlative in -ws not being used, thus:

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or lastly, we have (γ) a comparative in -τέρω by the side of a su

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For the purpose of emphasis or exaggeration, the comparison is sometimes extended by a superaddition of the affix: thus we have προτεραίτερος from πρότερος (Aristoph. Equit. 1165), and similarly χερειότερος, πλειότερος, ἀρειότερος, ἀμεινότερος, βελτίσε τερος, γλυκιότερος, μειζότερος, &c. Τo the same class belong such words as αὐτότερος, αὐτότατος (Lat. ipsissimus), παντοδαπώτατος, and the like. Other exaggerations are παγκάκιστος, πανύστατος, τρισμέγιστος, φαυλεπιφαυλότατος.

§ VIII. Undeclined, Irregular, and Defective Nouns.

284 Although the laws which lead to apparent anomalies of inflexion have been already explained, it will be most convenient to the learner, if we follow the example of previous grammarians, and add here a list of those nouns which are either undeclinable, defective, or irregular.

ἀηδών, “ nightingale;” gen. ἀηδόνος, ἀηδοῦς, dat. -όνι, -ο. So also Γοργών, εἰκών, χελιδών (184).

ἀλκί by the side of ἀλκῇ, “ with strength.”

ἅλς in the signification “salt,” generally in the pl. οἱ ἄλες. In the sing. as is poetically "the sea."

ἅλως, “ threshing-foor;” gen. -ω, -ωος, also ἅλων, ωνος. ἄνα, “ Ο king,” in addresses to gods, for ἄναξ.

ἄΐδος, ἄΐδι, ἄΐδα for ᾅδου, &c. from "Αιδης.

ἄλφι, “ barley-meal;” secondary form ἄλφιτον. So also κρι by the side of κρίθη, “ barley.” Αλφι and κρί were probably dental forms like μé-T, “honey.”

άμφω, “ both ;” gen., dat. ἀμφοῖν.

ἀνδράποδον, “ slave;” dat. pl. ἀνδραπόδοις and ἀνδραπόδεσσι. The latter form shows, as does also the form avdparodiw, that the derivation is ἀνήρ and πούς, not ἀνήρ and ἀποδίδωμι, hence the original word was ἀνδράπους, like τρίπους, and the name is best explained by the boast of the Dorian warrior (Hybr. ap. Ath. xv. p. 695 F): πάντες γόνυ πεπτηῶτες ἀμὸν προσκυ νεῦντί με δεσπόταν. There is a similar irregularity in Οἰδί

πους, q. v.

'Avopoμéda retains the -a throughout.

So also some other proper

names, such as Λήδα, Φιλομήλα. Cf. 18, g, 119, 161.

ávýp, "a man," i. e. vir, not homo (185).

Απόλλω for 'Απόλλωνα (184).

ἀργέτος, -τι, instead of ἀργῆτος, ἀργῆτι.

"Apns, "the god of war;" "Apeos, "Apei, "Apm and "Apŋv. Also in epic poetry 'Apños, 'Apñt. That the original form of the nom. was "Αρενς appears from the comparative ἀρείων (278).

ἀρνός, masc. and fem., " of the lamb;” ἀρνί, ἄρνα, ἄρνες, ἀρνάσι, used instead of the inflexions of auvós. The true nom. was ἀῤῥήν,

appny, "the male."

dorp, masc., "a star;" dat. pl. doтρáσw.

βρέτας, “ an image ;” neut. βρέτεος, βρέτη.

yáλa, neut., “milk” (182 a,).

yeλws, masc., "laughter," -wTOS, -wra, and -wv, -ov. So also epws, "love;" pws, "sweat" (180). Compare pws for "pw-T-S (192).

yóvʊ, neut., “knee" (182 a). So also dópv.

yun, fem., "woman" (179).

dat, dat., “in the fight" (Lobeck, Paralip. p. 89 sq.).

dauap, fem., "wife" (181).

δάκρυον, neut., “ tear ;” dat. pl. δάκρυσιν from the poetic δάκρυ. deiva, "a certain person" (240).

δένδρον, neut., “ tree;” dat. pl. both δένδροις and δένδρεσιν from δένδρος. There is also a form δένδρεον, whence δένδρεα, δενδρέοις.

deoμós, masc., "chain;" pl. -poi and -μá; díppos, masc., δεσμός,

has also both forms, but the masc. pl. is more common.


Δημήτηρ, “ the goddess of corn;” Δήμητρος, Δήμητρι, Δήμητρα (Δήμητραν), Δήμητερ.

δορυξέ, masc., “ Ο spear-shaft-maker,” from δορυξόος.

δρυμός, masc., “ oak-grove;" pl. -μοί and -μά.

ἔαρ, neut., “ Spring ;” ἔαρος, ἔαρι, ήρος, ήρι.

ἔγχελυς, fem., “ eel,” -νος; but ai and τὰς ἐγχέλεις, τῶν ἐγχελέων

in the pl.

εἴκων, fem., “ image” (184).

ἐρετμός, masc., “ oar;” pl. ἐρετμοί and έρετμά.

ἕως, fem., “ morning” (171).

Ζεύς, masc., “Jupiter;” gen. Διός; dat. Διΐ; acc. Δία. Also
Ζηνός, Ζηνί, Ζήνα.

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Θαλῆς, masc., Θαλέω, Θαλῇ, Θαλῆν. The forms Θαλοῦ, Θάλητος, &c. are later.


δος and θέμιος.

θέμις, fem., “ law," has the genitive forms θέμιστος, θέμιτος, θέμι Homer has the acc. θέμιστα, pl. θέμιστες ; Pindar has θέμιτες, θέμισσιν. In some passages θέμις is neut. and indeclinable.

θεσμός, masc., “ decree ;" pl. -μοί and -μά.

θρίξ, fem., “ hair ;" τριχός, θριξί (97).

θυγάτηρ, fem., “ daughter;" θυγατρός, θυγατρί, τέρα, θύγατερ, θυγατέρε, -τέροιν, -τέρες, -τέρων, -τράσι, -τέρας.

κάλως, masc., " cable;" -ω, ων; pl. -ωες and -or; acc. -ους.

κάρα, neut., “ head;” κρατός, κρατί, κράτα, masc.

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But τὸ κρᾶτα

κλαδί, κλαδεσί, coexist with the regular infexions of κλάδος, “α bough :” see στιχός.

κλείς, fem., “key;” acc. κλείδα and κλεῖν; pl. κλεῖδες, κλείδας and κλεῖς. In old Attic we have also κλής, -ηδός.

κνέφας, neut., “ darkness;” gen. -eoς, -ους; dat. ai, -g, whence


κοινωνός, masc., “partaker;” pl. (only in Xenophon) κοινῶνες, τας,

as from κοινών, ξυνάν.

κρίνον, neut., “ lily;” κρίνεα, κρίνεσι.

κύκλος, masc., “ circle ;” pl. κύκλοι and κύκλα.

κύων, masc., fem., " dog” (184).

λίπα, neut., old dative, “ with oil.”

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