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λίς, masc., “ a lion ;" acc. λιν, Hom. λίες and λες, Euphor. λιέσιν. λύχνος, masc., “ lamp ;” pl. λύχνοι and λύχνα.
μάλης for μασχάλης, in the phrase ὑπὸ μάλης, “ under the arm.” μάρτυς, masc., fem., " witness ;” regular in μάρτυρος, &c. ; but dat. pl. μάρτυσιν, and acc. sing. μάρτυν in Simonides.
μείς, masc., “ month,” for μήν.
μέλε, masc., “ Ο wretch.”
μόσυν, masc., “ a wooden tower;” gen. μόσυνος, &c. ; but dat. pl. μοσύνοις.
μύκης, masc., “ a mushroom ;” gen. μύκητος and μύκου.
ναῦς, fem., “ ship ;” sing. νεώς, νηί, ναῦν; gen., dat., dual νεοῖν; pl. νῆες, νεῶν, ναυσίν, ναῦς (189).
νύξ, fem., " night" (180).
Οἰδίπους, Οἰδίποδος, and -που, -ποδι, -ποδα, and -πουν ; voc. που. Also gen. Οιδιπόδαο, -δα, -δεω ; dat. -δῃ; acc. -δην; voc. -δα. οἶs, fem., “ sheep;” οἰός, οἰί, οἶν ; οἶες or οἶς, οἰῶν, οἰσίν, οἶας οι οἶς. ὄναρ, neut., “ dream ;” only nom. and acc.
ὄνειρος, masc., “ dream ;” both -ου masc. and -ατος neut.
ὄρνις, masc., fem., “ bird;” ὄρνιθος, -θι, -νῖν and -νῖθα; voc. ὄρνι; pl. ὄρνιθες, &c. ; and also ὄρνεις, ὄρνεων, and in the acc. ὄρνις. The Dorians wrote ὄρνῖχος, ὄρνῖχα, &c.
ὄσσε, “ eyes;” gen. ὄσσων; dat. ὄσσοις.
οὖδας, neut., “ foor;” gen. οὔδεος; dat. οὔδεῖ. οὖς, neut., “ ear;” ωτός, ὤτων, ὠσίν.
πνύξ, fem., “ house of assembly;” πυκνός, &c. ; later, πνυκός. Ποσειδών, “ the god of the sea ;” acc. Ποσειδώ.
πρεσβευτής, masc., “ambassador;” but πρεσβύτης or πρέσβυς, “old man;” in the former sense, gen. πρέσβεως; acc. πρέσβυν; pl. πρέσβεις; dat. πρέσβεσι; in the latter only acc. πρέσβυν and voc. πρέσβυ.
πρόσωπον, neut., " countenance ;” pl. προσώπατα, -πασιν. πρόχοος, -ους, fem., " pitcher ;” dat. pl. πρόχουσιν.
πῦρ, neut., “ fire,” πυρός; pl. τὰ πυρά, τοῖς πυροίς, " watch-fres." σής, masc., “ moth,” σεός; pl. σέες, σέας, σέων. In later writers, σητός, &c.
σκώρ, “ dung" (181).
στάδιον, neut., “ a furlong;” οἱ στάδιοι, τὰ στάδια.
σταθμός, masc., " standard ;” pl. -μοι and -μα, " balance.” στιχός, gen. and pl. στίχες from στίχος, " a row.
τάν in ὦ τάν, “ Ο thou, old form of τυνή.
Τάρταρος; pl. Τάρταρα.
ταώς, masc., “ peacock;" both regular and also ταῶνι, ταῶνες,
ὕδωρ, neut., “ water” (181).
viós, masc., "son," in addition to the regular declension has the following: gen. υἱέος; dat. υἱεῖ; acc. υἱέα; dual vἱέε, νἱέοιν; pl. υἱεῖς, νἱέων, υἱέσιν, υἱέας, -είς.
φρέαρ, neut., “ well;” φρέατος and φρητός.
χείρ, fem., “ hand ;” χειρός, χερός, χερσί, &c.
χούς, masc., “a congius” or “liquid measure;” χοός, χοί, χοῦν, χόες, χόας. Also, as from χοεύς, χοῶς, χοᾶ, χος, &c. But χούς, masc., a heap of earth, has only gen. χοός ; acc. χοῦν,
χρέως, neut., “ debt;” also χρέος; gen. χρέως and χρέους ; pl. χρέα.
There is no dat.
χρώς, masc., “ skin ;” gen. χρωτός, &c. Ionice χροός, χροι, χρόα. We have also the phrase ἐν χρῷ for ἐν χρωτί.
ὦ τάν. See τάν.
CONJUGATION OF THE VERB.
§ 1. Differences of Voice.
285 A VERB (ôîμa) is a word which contains a predication of time, with reference to one or other of the three primary positions: and these primary positions are expressed by objective cases of the primitive pronouns. Thus we have didw-μ, "a giving by me,' ="I give;" Sídw-T, "a giving by him," "he gives ;" Sido-μev, δίδομεν, "a giving by us," "we give;" Sido-vτ, "a giving by them,' ="they give;" Sido-pai, "a giving on or of me," "I am given;" Sido-Taι, "a giving of or on him," = "he is given."
286 When the inflexions represent different pronominal elements, these differences are called the first, second, and third persons of the verb; and, as in the declensions, they appear in three numbers, singular, dual, and plural.
287 When the inflexions represent different cases of the pronominal elements, these differences are called voices. According to the inflexions there are only two voices, the active (¿ñμa èvepγητικόν) and the passive (ῥῆμα παθητικόν): but the active form may denote (a) that the action passes on (transit) to an object, in which case it is called a transitive verb; as Sidwμi äρтov, “I give bread;" or (b) that the action does not pass beyond the agent, in which case it is called intransitive or neuter; as τpéxw, "I run,' "there is a running by me." And the passive form denote (c) that the action refers to and terminates with the person implied in the inflexion, in which case it is properly and strictly called passive; as TUTTоμаι, "I am beaten;" or (d) that it is caused to be done for the agent, in which case it is called middle; as didáσкoμai πaîda, “I get a boy taught for myself;" or (e) that, although it really terminates with the agent, it appears as his act, in which case it is called deponent, and in this class we have both transitive
and intransitive verbs; thus we may say, aiobávoμai ктútov, “I perceive a noise," i.e. “I am impressed with the perception of it;" and ȧpivoûμa, "I arrive," i.e. "I cause myself to come." The discussion of these different usages of the verb belongs to Syntax, and more properly to the idioms or peculiarities of the Greek language.
§ II. Differences of Tense or Time.
288 But besides these differences of inflexion, there are affections of the uninflected form, which are not less important.
289 By a prefix, affix, or both, to the uninflected form, it becomes capable of predicating differences of time or tense. Thus,
(a) The prefix or augment ẻ- (a residuary or apocopized form of e-va, à-va, signifying "distance" or "negation," above, 114) always implies time past or non-existent time.
(b) The affix - (a residuary form of oaka signifying "proximity") always implies future or coming and approximating
(c) When the form has the augment è- as well as the prefix σ-, it implies that the act spoken of was future and is past, or that it took place within limits which require to be defined; it is therefore called the aorist or indefinite tense: though, in fact, all augmented tenses are indefinite, as will be shown in the Syntax.
(d) When the root-syllable is reduplicated, or prefixed in a weaker shape, the form predicates present or continuous time, and, with the augment, an imperfect or continued action in past time.
(e) When σ- is affixed in addition to the reduplication prefixed (which, of course, is still farther weakened by this elongation of the word), the form implies perfect time, or a past action continued in itself or its effects up to the present time.
(f) When this perfect receives an augment, it expresses the completion of an action in reference to some past time, and the tense is called plu-perfect or plusquam-perfectum.
(g) When we have an augment alone without reduplication or affix, the form implies transitory or momentary action completed in
past time; and from the resemblance in signification between this and the tense which implies that an action was future and is past, the form is called the second aorist. With regard to this second. aorist, it is to be observed that the passive form is not distinguished by a change in the inflexions of the person-ending, but by a pronominal insertion, analogous to that which discriminates the caseendings of the noun, and which must be carefully distinguished from the affix -σa-, which marks approximate actions in the future tense, although it is ultimately the same element. For Sw-ow = Sw-oo-μ signifies, "there will be a giving by me;" and e-dw-v= δώ-σο-μι ě-do-μ means, "there was a solitary act of giving by me:" but ἔ-δο-μι é-dó-On-v=é-dó-[Oya-μ] implies, "there was a solitary act of giving in relation to me," (i.e. it took place in the line from position 2 to position 1, above, 77). So that the pronominal element belongs to the verb-root in the first aorist active, and to the person-ending in the passive aorist. Of this passive aorist there are two forms, the On- being occasionally softened or weakened into n.
(h) By a subsequent extension, when the original significance of this insertion was no longer felt, it was arbitrarily used to make a distinction between middle and passive, even in forms which already exhibited differences of inflexion in the person-endings; and thus arose a passive future in -θήσομαι, as δοθήσομαι, “ I shall be given."
290 The following examples will suffice to exhibit the process of formation which has been described.
Present tense (χρόνος ἐνεστώς).
Reduplication of the root.
St-Sw-μ, "I am giving."
δί-δο-μαι, “I am being given.”
From this, by augment, the imperfect tense (xpóvos πаρaτа
é-dídw-v, "I was giving."
Future tense (μέλλων).
Affix of o- sometimes represented by к.