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From this, by augment, the first aorist (àóρiστos πρŵτos).
Perfect tense (παρακείμενος).
Reduplication + affix.
Sé-Sw-xа[-μı], “I have given."
δέ-δο-μαι (from δεδώκα-μαι), “I have been given.”
From this, by augment, the plusquam-perfectum or pluperfect (ὑπερσυντελικός).
é-dedú-κel-v, “I had given." ἐ-δεδώκει-ν,
ἐδεδό-μην (from ἐδεδωκά-μην), “I had been given."
The perfect also admits of a future of the form B, which is then called the paulo-post futurum (ó μer' öλbyov μéλλwv Xpóvos). This is more common in the passive than in the active. It will be observed that the affix σaka, which is appended to tenses B and C, sometimes appears as the hard x-, sometimes as the soft σ-, and sometimes vanishes altogether, as in the perfect passive. This is due to the nature of the guttural, which, as we have seen, can pass through the sibilant to the mere aspirate, and so vanish (above, 107; below, 302, B, 2, (a)).
These are all the regular formations. They present themselves in pairs of simple and augmented tenses, the former expressing definite, the latter indefinite, relations of time. But besides these, we have, as we have seen, the secondary aorist (aópiσtos deútepos) and its peculiar passive formation, which are of course limited to the expression of indefinite time.
Second aorist (ἀόριστος δεύτερος). Augment without affix or reduplication. e-dw-v, "I gave."
With compound person-ending.
è-dó-Oŋv, "I was given.'
The shortened form, in -n only, does not appear when the verb-form ends in o or e, but is common enough when the root ends in a or a consonant. It is to be noticed that although the
aorists in -On and -ŋv are alike derived from the second aorist active, custom has given to the aorist in -On the name of the first aorist passive, while that in -ŋv is called the second aorist passive.
The improper, or secondary future passive, is formed from the passive aorist, contrary to all analogy, by the substitutions of -θήσομαι for -θην or -ήσομαι for -ην. Thus we have
So-Onσoμai, “I shall be given."
§ III. Differences of Mood.
292 Besides these formations, which are devoted to the expression of various relations of tense and voice, the accurate syntax of the Greek language has taken into use, for the expression of modal relations, forms of the future and aorist which bear the same analogy to the regular forms in -o-, that the usual genitive of the second declension does to its original form; namely, the analogy of -10 to -σlo. This new future and aorist are called the subjunctive and optative moods (ἐγκλίσεις ὑποτακτικὴ καὶ εὐκτική), and the tenses which we have hitherto discussed are said to belong to the indicative mood (ἔγκλισις ὁριστική).
293 By an affection of the person-endings only, which are either omitted or made more emphatic-according to the analogy of the vocative case of nouns-the indicative mood is converted into what is called the imperative mood (ἔγκλισις προστακτική).
294 When the third person plural in -v- of an indicative tense becomes the vehicle of a set of case-endings, the verb is said to become an active participle (μétoxos), as partaking of the nature of the noun and verb (above, 61). The crude verb, similarly inflected with the suffix -uevo-, becomes a passive participle. The aorist in -On-v, -n-v makes its participle in -VT. It is scarcely necessary to observe that the augment is always omitted in the participle, though the reduplication is retained. In addition to the participle, the verb is capable of a nominal inflexion when the termination -Téos (from -TéFos) or -Tós is appended to the root in the form which it assumes in the first aorist passive. Thus from πλέκ-ω, ἐ-πλέχθην, we have the verbals πλεκ-τέος and πλεκτός ; from φιλέω, ἐ-φιλήθην, the verbal φιλη-τέος; from χέω, root xef, ἐχύθην, χυ-τός ; τείνω, root τα-, ἐ-τάθην, τα-τέος. It seems probable
that these forms are derived from the verbal noun in -Tús, signifying the action of the verb, and corresponding in origin, as these forms do in use, to the Latin supines and gerunds. (See the Syntax, 421, for the use, and for the forms, 302, D, (h)).
295 An inflexion, analogous to the passive person-endings, becomes fixed adverbially for the expression of what is called the infinitive mood (ễykλiois àπapéμpaтos). The passive form of this inserts, according to an analogy not very easily explicable, the element which forms the passive aorist.
296 The following may serve as exemplifications of these processes.
Sídw-μ, “I am giving."
δίδομαι, “I am being given.”
Sido-0, "give thou."
Sido-oo, "be thou given."
διδῶ for διδοία-μι, “I am likely to give.”
διδοίην for ἐδιδοία-μι, “I was likely to give.”
Sidó-vai, "to give."
Sidó-olai, "to be given."
διδούς = διδόντες, “giving.”
διδόμενος, “ being given."
Soús = Só-vτ-s, “having given."
δοθείς = δοθέντος, “having been given.”
So-Tós, "capable of being given."
So-Téos, "required to be given."
§ IV. Different Classes of Verbs.
297 Having thus stated the general procedure in the genesis of verbal inflexions, the next step will be to give the practical rules for the application of these principles to the different tenses and moods of the same verb, and to the different kinds or forms of verbs.
298 There are two classes of verbs, discriminated by their person-endings: A. Primary verbs in -μ; B. Secondary verbs in -w. And class B is again subdivided, according to the crude forms, into (a) verbs of which the crude form terminates in a consonant or one of the vocalized consonants , v: (b) verbs of which the crude form terminates in one of the articulation-vowels a, e, 0.
299 According to the sub-varieties of the crude form, it is customary to subdivide these classes of verbs into conjugations (ovğvyíaı). This term, which properly refers to any class of words, whether nouns or verbs, which are inflected according to the same laws (for Dionysius says [Anecd. Bekk. p. 638, cf. 892]: ovšvyía ἐστὶν ἀκόλουθος ὀνομάτων κλίσις), is limited to the arrangement (diabeois) of verbs according to their root or characteristic letter. The flexion of the verb, like that of the noun, is called declension (distinguished as κλίσις ὀνομάτων and κλίσις ῥημάτων).
In class A there are four conjugations:
a. From labials, as πέσσω (πεπ-), fut. πέψω.
a. From gutturals, as κράζω (κραγ-), fut. κράξω.
β. From dentals, as φράζω (φραδ-), fut. φράσω.
6 Verbs in F, i.e. in a or v.
α. Simple, as τίω, λύω, fut. τίσω, λύσω.
β. Dipththong, as παύω, κλείω, κελεύω, ῥέω, fut. παύσω, κλείσω, κελεύσω, ῥεύσω.
In class B, (6), there are three conjugations:
1 Verbs in -a-, as
τιμάω, fut. τιμήσω; οι σπάω, fut. σπάσω. 2 Verbs in -e-, as
φιλέω, fut. φιλήσω; or καλέω, fut. καλέσω,
δηλόω, fut. δηλώσω; οι ἀρό-ω, fut. ἀρόσω.