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following have a guttural characteristic: κράζω, στενάζω, οἰμώζω, ἀλαλάζω, στάζω, στίζω, στηρίζω, μαστίζω, σφύζω, ἀλαπάζω; the following have γγ: σαλπίζω, κλάζω ; and the following vacillate between δ and γ: παίζω, ἁρπάζω, βαστάζω, νυστάζω.

§ VI. The Vowel of Connexion.

301 In almost all cases the crude or uninflected form of the verb contains, besides the root, a vowel of connexion, which is the vehicle of the person-endings.

(1) Indicative Mood.

In verbs of class A, the vowel of connexion is represented only by a lengthening of the root-vowel, but there is reason to believe that these verbs were originally connected with the person-ending by an intervening & or e, so that ἵστημι represents ἱστααμι (ἱσταεμι), τίθημι represents τιθεαμι (τιθεεμι), δίδωμι represents διδοαμι (διδοεμι), and δείκνυμι represents δεικνύαμι (δεικνύεμι). In obedience to a law of euphony, which is known as the influence of the weight of the person-endings, this connecting vowel is retained only in the singular of the active voice. Thus, while we have ἵστημι, ἵστης, ἵστησι, we have ἵστατον, ἵσταμεν, ἵσταμαι, ἱστάμεθα,


In verbs of class B, (a), the vowel of connexion is dropt in the perfect and pluperfect passive, which connect the person-endings immediately with the root, according to the following rules:

(α) If the verb character is or v, this is followed unaltered by the person-endings; as

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(b) If the verb character is a mute, it is liable to be affected by contact with the person-endings, according to the rules given above (86, &c.). Thus we have

γέγραμμαι, πέπλεγμαι, πέπεισμαι for γέγραφ-μαι, πέπλεκ-μαι, πέπειθ-μαι

γέγραψαι, πέπλεξαι, πέπεισαι for γέγραφ-σαι, πέπλεκ-σαι, πέπειθ


γέγραπται, λέλεκται, πέπεισαι for γέγραφεται, λέλεγεται, πέπειθ



And the participial ending -μévos is affixed to the root in the same way as the first personal ending in all three numbers, as γεγραμμένος for γεγραφ-μένος, where the accentuation of the penultima shows that the vowel of connexion has been dropt. When yy or μμ would, according to rule, appear before μ in these cases, the middle γ or a is elided; thus we have ἐλήλεγμαι for ἐλέλεγμαι, ἐλέλεγχμαι, κέκαμμαι for κέκαμμμαι, κέκαμπμαι. The middle - is elided (according to rule 86) in τέτυφθε for τέτυφσθε, and πέπεισθε is written for πέπειθ-σθε. In the same way we form ἔσπεισμαι, ἔσπεισθε from σπένδω, on the analogy of the fut. σπείσω; cf. πάσχω = πένθ-σκω, fut. πείσομαι. In the plural v is turned into a in the endings -νται, -ντο (above, 107); thus we have τετύφαται, ἐφθάραται, κεχωρίδατο, τετάχαται, τετράφατο, where also the aspirate, which is the representative of the tense in the active form, is restored to its proper place in connexion with the labial or guttural of the characteristic.

For the other tenses the following rules apply:

(a) In the pres., imperf., fut., 2 aor. act. and mid., the vowel of connexion is o, when the suffix is or begins with-μ or v, and e in all other cases; thus we have τύπτεις (for τύπτεσι), ἔτυπτες, ἐτύπ τομεν, ἐτύπτετε, ἔτυπτον.

(6) In the perf. and 1 aor. act. the connecting vowel is a for all persons, except the 3 sing., when it is e; thus we have ἔτυψα, τέτυφας, ἔτυψε, τετύφαμεν. In the 1 aor. mid. a is the vowel of connexion throughout; thus we have ἐτυψάμην, ἐτύψω = ἐτύψαο, ἐτύψατο.

(c) In the plup. act. the original ea, e appear as et; thus we have ἐτετύφεα, έτετύφειν, ἐτετύφεε, ἐτετύφει.

In verbs of class B, (b), the vowel of connexion, as included in the contractions, is the same as that in class B, (a). But the perf. and plup. pass. append the person-endings to the long vowel which appears before -κa in the perf. act., and before θην in the 1 aor. pass. Thus we have

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(2) Imperative Mood.

The imperative mood observes the same rules for the vowel of connexion as the indicative, except that (α) in the 2 sing. of the 1 aor. act. we have -σον for -σαθι, as λῦσον, λυσάτω, cf. σήμερον for σημέραθι οι σημέραι (above, 262, Obs. 2); (6) in the 2 sing. of the 1 aor. middle we have -σαι for -σασο, as λῦσαι, λυσάσθω ; (c) in the 2 sing. perf. pass. we have the termination -σo of the pluperfect, and in the other tenses the forms of the secondary instead of the primary tense; thus we have τύπτομαι, τύπτει, τίθεμαι, τίθεσαι ; but in the imperative, τύπου like ἐτύπτου, and τίθεσο like ἐτίθεσο.

(3) Subjunctive Mood.

In the subjunctive mood we have a where the indicative has o or ou, and ʼn where the indicative has e; thus for


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The vowel, which distinguishes this mood, is regularly appended to the o or a in the corresponding tense of the indicative, the combination or or a being retained throughout the persons; thus we have

indic. λύω, λύεις, λύει, λύομεν, λύουσι; ἔλυσα, ἔλυσας, ἔλυσαν. opt. λύοιμι, λύοις, λύοι, λύοιμεν, λύοιεν; λύσαιμι, λύσαις, λύσαιεν.

Obs. 1 For the 1 aor. opt. act. in -σαιμι, -σαις, -σαι, the best Attic writers generally, and Thucydides almost exclusively, used the so-called #olic form in -σεια, -σειας, -σεις, -σειαν; as τύψεια, τύψειας, τύψειε, τύψειαν.

Obs. 2 Verbs of the classes A, 3, в, (b), the perfect of verbs of the class B, (a), 1, 2, 3, and the future of verbs of the class B, (a), 4, with some other instances, as the aorist oxoinv from exw, prefer an optative in -στην to one in -οιμι ; thus we have διδοίην, φιλοίην, τιμώην, πεφευγοίην, ἐροίην. The inflexions are

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Obs. 3 Verbs of the class A, 2, and the aor. 1 and 2 pass. of all verbs, form their optative in -ειην; thus we have τιθείην, θείην, ἐτυφθείην, ἐτυπείην. The inflexions are

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Obs. 4 Verbs of the class A, 1, form their optative in -αίην; thus we have ἱσταίην, φαίην. The inflexions are

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(α) Present tense. In verbs of class A the infinitive termination -ναι, -σθαι is attached to the mere root; thus we have ἱστά-ναι, τι-θέ-ναι; ἵστα-σθαι, τίθεσθαι. In other verbs the vowel of connexion is e, combined with an hyperthesis of from the termination -ναι in the active, so as to make the ending -eur, but appearing alone before the passive ending; thus we have τύπτειν, τιμαεῖν (τιμᾶν), τύπτε-σθαι, τιμαέ-σθαι (τιμᾶσθαι).

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(β) The future of all verbs follows in the infinitive the form of the present in class B; thus we have θήσειν, τύψειν, θήσεσθαι, τύψεσθαι.

(c) The 1 aor. act. and middle always ends in -σαι, -σασθαι; thus we have στῆσαι, τύψαι, στήσασθαι, τύψασθαι.

(α) The 2 aor. act. in class A ends in -ῆναι, είναι, -οῦναι, accord ing to the characteristic vowel of the verb; thus we have στῆναι, θεῖναι, δοῦναι. In other verbs it ends in -ely, as τυπ-εῖν, βαλ-εῖν, a form which indicates, like στῆναι, θεῖναι, δοῦναι, compared with ἱστάναι, τιθέναι, διδόναι, that the infinitive termination of the aorist was longer originally than that of the present; perhaps TúπTE was only τυπτέναι, but τυπεῖν was τυπεμέναι: cf. εἶναι, ἐμέναι, &c. The passive of aor. 1 and 2 follows a similar analogy, being always like στῆναι; thus we have τυφθῆναι, τυπῆναι. The 2 aor. middle ends in -έσθαι, and is always paroxytone, as βαλέσθαι.

(ε) The perf. always ends in -ένα or -σθαι, affixed to the characteristic; thus we have τεθεικ-έναι, γέγραφ-θαι, the σ being omitted according to the rule (86).

§ VII. Formation of the Tenses in the different Conjugations.

A. Present and Imperfect.

302 From the present, whether active or passive, the imperfect is formed by prefixing the augment, and adopting a weaker form of person-endings according to the following sections; thus we have

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B, 1. Future.

The future is formed from the root by the affix σ-, with the interposition of a vowel of connexion when the root or crude form ends with a vowel, and with the affections of the characteristic resulting from the contact with -σ, which have been noticed in the dative plural of labial, guttural and dental nouns.

Thus (1) in class A we have

root στα

future στα-ε-σω = στήσω

And (2) in class B, (b), we have

root or crude form τιμα

δο-εσω = δώσω



θε-εσω = θήσω



= φιλήσω

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(5) Liquid verbs form a class by themselves, for they do not retain the λ and p and simply drop the before the σ of the

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