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Obs. The classification of verbs according to the genesis or origination of the crude form by derivation, belongs to a different part of the subject (below, Part IV. 358, 363).

§ V. Determination of the Characteristic.

300 It will be observed that these classes or conjugations depend on the form of the root (0éμa), or rather on its last letter or characteristic. In each case it is assumed that this characteristic is known or determined. But it is not always easy to determine the characteristic or eliminate the root from an existing form of the verb, and it is often most disguised in the present indicative, under which the verb is registered in the dictionaries. In the other tenses, the affections of consonants in contiguous syllables (above, 86 sqq.) deprive us of any criterion as to the particular labial, guttural, or dental, which is the characteristic of the verb; thus in κρύψω, ἐκρύφθην, κρυπτός, the characteristic might be π or φ, but it is β; in βάψω, ἐβάφθην, βαπτός, it might be π or β, but it is p. And even the vowel verbs do not always leave the genuine thema when the termination is removed; thus ékeλevσOŋv and KeλevOTÓS leave it doubtful whether the original form of the root was κελευ- οι κελευθ-, and ἐπλεύσθην and πλευστός undoubtedly contain an inserted σ- in addition to the root λeυ- for TλEF-. The following principles will assist the student in extricating the root from any verb-form presented to him.

(a) That the second aorist is the simplest form of the verb appears not only from the consideration already mentioned (289, (g)), that it conveys the unqualified notion of the word, that of a single act, and from the fact that it furnishes the basis of the passive aorists and of the verbal, which gives the meaning of the verb with the implication of capability or requirement (302, D, (h)); but also because it generally exhibits the vowel of articulation in its heaviest or least affected form a (above, 20, a). Thus we often observe the following changes in the vowels:

Second Aorist. Second Perfect or Verbal Noun. Present.

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Second Aorist. Second Perfect or Verbal Noun. Present.

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And when the present is strengthened by ectasis, whether it be the insertion of v(γ) or of a vowel, with or without the further influence of an hyperthesis, we find these elements wanting in the Thus we have

2 aor.

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(3) When the 2 aor. does not appear either in the active or passive, we may generally determine the characteristic by means of the verbal noun; thus we know that & and not π or ẞ is the characteristic of βάπτω, βάψω, because we have the verbal noun βαφή, and that y and not e or χ is the characteristic of τάσσω, τάξω, because we have the verbal nouns ταγός and τάγμα.

Applying one or other of these criteria, we ascertain,

(α) That in class B, (α), 1, the following verbs in πr have β for their characteristic: βλάπτω, κρύπτω ; the following have φ: βάπτω, θάπτω, ῥάπτω, σκάπτω, θρύπτω.

(β) That in class B, (α), 5, the following verbs in σσ have a dental characteristic: ἐρέσσω, πάσσω, πλάσσω, βράσσω, πτίσσω, βλίσσω, ἁρμόττω, νάσσω, ἀφύσσω; that φρίσσω has for its characteristic instead of y or x; and that of the verbs in the

following have a guttural characteristic: κράζω, στενάζω, οἰμώζω, ἀλαλάζω, στάζω, στίζω, στηρίζω, μαστίζω, σφύζω, ἀλαπάζω; the following have γγ: σαλπίζω, κλάζω ; and the following vacillate between δ and γ: παίζω, ἁρπάζω, βαστάζω, νυστάζω.

§ VI. The Vowel of Connexion.

301 In almost all cases the crude or uninflected form of the verb contains, besides the root, a vowel of connexion, which is the vehicle of the person-endings.

(1) Indicative Mood.

In verbs of class A, the vowel of connexion is represented only by a lengthening of the root-vowel, but there is reason to believe that these verbs were originally connected with the person-ending by an intervening & or e, so that ἵστημι represents ἱστααμι (ἱσταεμι), τίθημι represents τιθεαμι (τιθεεμι), δίδωμι represents διδοαμι (διδοεμι), and δείκνυμι represents δεικνύαμι (δεικνύεμι). In obedience to a law of euphony, which is known as the influence of the weight of the person-endings, this connecting vowel is retained only in the singular of the active voice. Thus, while we have ἵστημι, ἵστης, ἵστησι, we have ἵστατον, ἵσταμεν, ἵσταμαι, ἱστάμεθα,


In verbs of class B, (a), the vowel of connexion is dropt in the perfect and pluperfect passive, which connect the person-endings immediately with the root, according to the following rules:

(α) If the verb character is or v, this is followed unaltered by the person-endings; as

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(b) If the verb character is a mute, it is liable to be affected by contact with the person-endings, according to the rules given above (86, &c.). Thus we have

γέγραμμαι, πέπλεγμαι, πέπεισμαι for γέγραφ-μαι, πέπλεκ-μαι, πέπειθ-μαι

γέγραψαι, πέπλεξαι, πέπεισαι for γέγραφ-σαι, πέπλεκ-σαι, πέπειθ


γέγραπται, λέλεκται, πέπεισαι for γέγραφεται, λέλεγεται, πέπειθ



And the participial ending -μévos is affixed to the root in the same way as the first personal ending in all three numbers, as γεγραμμένος for γεγραφ-μένος, where the accentuation of the penultima shows that the vowel of connexion has been dropt. When yy or μμ would, according to rule, appear before μ in these cases, the middle γ or a is elided; thus we have ἐλήλεγμαι for ἐλέλεγμαι, ἐλέλεγχμαι, κέκαμμαι for κέκαμμμαι, κέκαμπμαι. The middle - is elided (according to rule 86) in τέτυφθε for τέτυφσθε, and πέπεισθε is written for πέπειθ-σθε. In the same way we form ἔσπεισμαι, ἔσπεισθε from σπένδω, on the analogy of the fut. σπείσω; cf. πάσχω = πένθ-σκω, fut. πείσομαι. In the plural v is turned into a in the endings -νται, -ντο (above, 107); thus we have τετύφαται, ἐφθάραται, κεχωρίδατο, τετάχαται, τετράφατο, where also the aspirate, which is the representative of the tense in the active form, is restored to its proper place in connexion with the labial or guttural of the characteristic.

For the other tenses the following rules apply:

(a) In the pres., imperf., fut., 2 aor. act. and mid., the vowel of connexion is o, when the suffix is or begins with-μ or v, and e in all other cases; thus we have τύπτεις (for τύπτεσι), ἔτυπτες, ἐτύπ τομεν, ἐτύπτετε, ἔτυπτον.

(6) In the perf. and 1 aor. act. the connecting vowel is a for all persons, except the 3 sing., when it is e; thus we have ἔτυψα, τέτυφας, ἔτυψε, τετύφαμεν. In the 1 aor. mid. a is the vowel of connexion throughout; thus we have ἐτυψάμην, ἐτύψω = ἐτύψαο, ἐτύψατο.

(c) In the plup. act. the original ea, e appear as et; thus we have ἐτετύφεα, έτετύφειν, ἐτετύφεε, ἐτετύφει.

In verbs of class B, (b), the vowel of connexion, as included in the contractions, is the same as that in class B, (a). But the perf. and plup. pass. append the person-endings to the long vowel which appears before -κa in the perf. act., and before θην in the 1 aor. pass. Thus we have

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(2) Imperative Mood.

The imperative mood observes the same rules for the vowel of connexion as the indicative, except that (α) in the 2 sing. of the 1 aor. act. we have -σον for -σαθι, as λῦσον, λυσάτω, cf. σήμερον for σημέραθι οι σημέραι (above, 262, Obs. 2); (6) in the 2 sing. of the 1 aor. middle we have -σαι for -σασο, as λῦσαι, λυσάσθω ; (c) in the 2 sing. perf. pass. we have the termination -σo of the pluperfect, and in the other tenses the forms of the secondary instead of the primary tense; thus we have τύπτομαι, τύπτει, τίθεμαι, τίθεσαι ; but in the imperative, τύπου like ἐτύπτου, and τίθεσο like ἐτίθεσο.

(3) Subjunctive Mood.

In the subjunctive mood we have a where the indicative has o or ou, and ʼn where the indicative has e; thus for


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The vowel, which distinguishes this mood, is regularly appended to the o or a in the corresponding tense of the indicative, the combination or or a being retained throughout the persons; thus we have

indic. λύω, λύεις, λύει, λύομεν, λύουσι; ἔλυσα, ἔλυσας, ἔλυσαν. opt. λύοιμι, λύοις, λύοι, λύοιμεν, λύοιεν; λύσαιμι, λύσαις, λύσαιεν.

Obs. 1 For the 1 aor. opt. act. in -σαιμι, -σαις, -σαι, the best Attic writers generally, and Thucydides almost exclusively, used the so-called #olic form in -σεια, -σειας, -σεις, -σειαν; as τύψεια, τύψειας, τύψειε, τύψειαν.

Obs. 2 Verbs of the classes A, 3, в, (b), the perfect of verbs of the class B, (a), 1, 2, 3, and the future of verbs of the class B, (a), 4, with some other instances, as the aorist oxoinv from exw, prefer an optative in -στην to one in -οιμι ; thus we have διδοίην, φιλοίην, τιμώην, πεφευγοίην, ἐροίην. The inflexions are

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