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Obs. 3 Verbs of the class A, 2, and the aor. 1 and 2 pass. of all verbs, form their optative in -ειην; thus we have τιθείην, θείην, ἐτυφθείην, ἐτυπείην. The inflexions are
Obs. 4 Verbs of the class A, 1, form their optative in -αίην; thus we have ἱσταίην, φαίην. The inflexions are
(α) Present tense. In verbs of class A the infinitive termination -ναι, -σθαι is attached to the mere root; thus we have ἱστά-ναι, τι-θέ-ναι; ἵστα-σθαι, τίθεσθαι. In other verbs the vowel of connexion is e, combined with an hyperthesis of from the termination -ναι in the active, so as to make the ending -eur, but appearing alone before the passive ending; thus we have τύπτειν, τιμαεῖν (τιμᾶν), τύπτε-σθαι, τιμαέ-σθαι (τιμᾶσθαι).
(β) The future of all verbs follows in the infinitive the form of the present in class B; thus we have θήσειν, τύψειν, θήσεσθαι, τύψεσθαι.
(c) The 1 aor. act. and middle always ends in -σαι, -σασθαι; thus we have στῆσαι, τύψαι, στήσασθαι, τύψασθαι.
(α) The 2 aor. act. in class A ends in -ῆναι, είναι, -οῦναι, accord ing to the characteristic vowel of the verb; thus we have στῆναι, θεῖναι, δοῦναι. In other verbs it ends in -ely, as τυπ-εῖν, βαλ-εῖν, a form which indicates, like στῆναι, θεῖναι, δοῦναι, compared with ἱστάναι, τιθέναι, διδόναι, that the infinitive termination of the aorist was longer originally than that of the present; perhaps TúπTE was only τυπτέναι, but τυπεῖν was τυπεμέναι: cf. εἶναι, ἐμέναι, &c. The passive of aor. 1 and 2 follows a similar analogy, being always like στῆναι; thus we have τυφθῆναι, τυπῆναι. The 2 aor. middle ends in -έσθαι, and is always paroxytone, as βαλέσθαι.
(ε) The perf. always ends in -ένα or -σθαι, affixed to the characteristic; thus we have τεθεικ-έναι, γέγραφ-θαι, the σ being omitted according to the rule (86).
§ VII. Formation of the Tenses in the different Conjugations.
A. Present and Imperfect.
302 From the present, whether active or passive, the imperfect is formed by prefixing the augment, and adopting a weaker form of person-endings according to the following sections; thus we have
B, 1. Future.
The future is formed from the root by the affix σ-, with the interposition of a vowel of connexion when the root or crude form ends with a vowel, and with the affections of the characteristic resulting from the contact with -σ, which have been noticed in the dative plural of labial, guttural and dental nouns.
Thus (1) in class A we have
future στα-ε-σω = στήσω
And (2) in class B, (b), we have
root or crude form τιμα
δο-εσω = δώσω
θε-εσω = θήσω
(5) Liquid verbs form a class by themselves, for they do not retain the λ and p and simply drop the before the σ of the
future; but in all these contacts, and in that with the characterinto e, and represented only by Thus we have
istic, the σ is changed through a contraction of the termination.
future (αγγελ-σω) (αγγελ-ιω)
(κταν-σω) (σπαρ-σω) κτενιω (σπερ-ιω)
Obs. 1 All verbs in -ζω, which form their future in -ασω, -ίσω, -υσω, have a dental characteristic which is omitted before σ (92), so that the penultima is necessarily short. Compare παρασκευάζω, fut. παρασκευάσω with λαμπάσι for λαμπάδ-σι; and νομίζω, fut. νομίσω with ἐλπίσι for ἐλπίδωσι.
Obs. 2 Certain verbs in -aw, -ew, -ow, -vw, leave the vowel short before the future -σω. These verbs are the following:
in -αω : γελάω, θλάω, κλάω (“ I break”), σπάω, χαλάω.
in -εω : αιδέομαι, ἀκέομαι, ἀλέω, ἀρκέω, ἐμέω, ζέω, καλέω, ξέω, τελέω, τρέω.
in -ow: apów.
in -νω : ἀνύω, ἀρύω, μεθύω, πτύω,
In these cases the real characteristic, a dental or F, has been dropt altogether; for example, γέλωτος shows that the original form of γελάω was γελάτ-ω; σπάδων, σπάθη, σπέ-ν-δω, &c. show that σπάω was originally σπάθ-ω; with regard to καλέω, ξέω, ἀρόω, we have remains of the F in κλύω, ξύω, ξίφος, arvum, and the like. For ἀνύω we have actually the by-form ἀνύτ-ω. Conversely the v for F is restored in χέω, ῥέω, πλέω, πνέω, and θέω, fut. χεύσω, ρεύσω, πλευσοῦμαι, πνεύσω, θεύσω.
Obs. 3 Futures in -εσω, -άσω and -ἴσω from verbs in -εω, -αζω and -ιζω, may omit the . (above, 107) and receive synaresis in the forms - for -έω, -ὦ for -άω, and -t for -ιέω. Thus for καλέσω we have καλώ, -είς, -εἰ, &c. ; part. καλῶν for καλέσων ; for βιβάσω we have βιβῶ, βιβᾶς, βιβᾷ, &c. ; for νομίσω we have νομιώ, νομιεῖς, νομιεῖ, &c. Similarly in the middle forms we have μαχούμαι and ἑδοῦμαι from μάχομαι and ἕζομαι. This is called the Attic future, and it is common enough in most verbs of this
Rarer examples are such as ἐξετῶ for ἐξετάσω, Isocr. 9, 34; κολῶ for κολάσω, Aristoph. Eg. 456; Vesp. 244; στασιὦ for στασιάσω, Lysistr. 768; κατασκιῶ for κατασκιάσω, Soph. Cd. Τ. 406.
Conversely the future o- is sometimes lengthened into -σe for -o (a form which is supported by the desiderative verbs in -σew and the aorist optat. in -σela), and then contracted; thus from Tínтw and χέζω we have πεσοῦμαι, χεσοῦμαι ; and we find, by the side of the form in -σομαι, πλευσοῦμαι, φευξοῦμαι, νευσοῦμαι, κλαυσοῦμαι, παιξοῦμαι, πνιξε οῦμαι from πλέξω, φεύγω, νέFω, κλαίω, παίζω, πνίγω.
Obs. 5 From ἐσθίω and πίνω we have the futures ἔδομαι and πίομαι, in the former of which the future characteristic is lost without compensation, while in the latter it is represented by the lengthened vowel of the root.
B, 2. Aorist 1.
The first aorist is regularly formed from the future by changing -ow, -σels, -σel, &c. into -σa, -σas, -σe, &c. in the active, and σαμην, (-σασο, -σαο), -σω, -σατο, &c. in the middle. The exceptions to this rule are the following:
(a) Three important verbs of class A, Tíonμ, "I put down," inuu, "I send forth or throw," and Sidwμt, "I give," form the first aorist active and middle in -κα; thus: ἔθηκα, ἐθηκάμην; ἧκα, ἡκάμην; ἔδωκα, έδωκάμην. The manner in which k alternates with the mere aspirate in the perfect active, and the fact that the futures of these verbs have the usual formative σ-, for they are now, now and Swow, seem to support the conclusion that this is only an incidental strengthening of the aspirate into which the had as usual degenerated. The perfects of the first two of these verbs take e instead of the usual n; thus we have тéleɩka and elka; but δέδωκα has the same vocalization as ἔδωκα.
(b) In some few irregular verbs the σ of the aorist has passed away without any compensation; such are εἶπα, ἤνεγκα and ἔχεα from χέω = χέρω. The last is also written ἔχευσα and ἔχευα.
(c) In the liquid verbs the formative σ is not only vocalized into, as in the future, but it is also transferred by hyperthesis to the previous syllable, where it either remains as a diphthong, or is represented by a lengthening of the syllable (above, 104). Thus we have
(α) of the perfect active there are two forms generally distinguished as the 1st and 2nd perfect respectively.
(a) The first perfect is regularly formed from the root as it appears in the future or first aorist, with or an aspirate to represent the formative σ, and with a reduplication or syllabic augment of the root syllable. The x is preserved as a general rule in classes A and B, (b), and in the third, fourth, and sixth conjugations of class B, (a), whereas it is represented by a mere aspirate of the characteristic in the first and second conjugations (see above, 290). The assimilated verbs of course apply this rule with a reference to their original characteristics. Thus we have
To this general rule there are the following exceptions:
(1) The e of the present is changed into o in these verbs.