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and longer form of the root. The following are some of the commonest examples:
Το which may be added παίω, παλαίω, πρίω, πταίω, ῥαίω, σεύω,
ὕω, χρίω and ψαύω.
In the following verbs the inserted σ is sometimes dropt:
(g) The passive futures are regularly formed from the passive aorists by omitting the augment and adding -σομαι, &c. to θη
(h) To the derivatives from the 2 aor. must be added the verbals or gerundial adjectives in vos and -τέος. These adjectives, like the Latin gerundials in -ndus and the supines in -tum, -tu, which latter contain the same affix as the Greek verbals before us, bear the same meaning as the active infinitive of the verbs to which they belong, and being connected with a noun either as epithet or predicate, they convey the idea of capability or adaptation. Thus in English "a man to choose" is "a man
capable of being chosen, adapted for choice," or, as we express it by a Latin form, "an eligible man." This in Greek is signified by the verbal in -τός, as αἱρετός. As the qualification or capacity generally implies that the property is inherent in the person or thing so qualified or capable, we sometimes find that verbals in -τός express the result of the capability; thus aiperós may mean "chosen" as well as "choosable;" and in some few cases the qualification assumes an active form ; thus μεμπτός may signify " capable of blaming" as well as "culpable" (see Soph. Trach. 446). With the longer termination -Téos, the verbal expresses the infinitive with an implication of requirement and duty, which, however, belongs rather to the substantive verb, and its dative of limitation, than to the verbal itself, thus, as will be shown in the Syntax, ἀσκητέα σοί ἐστιν ἡ ἀρετή οι ἀσκητέον ἐστί σοι τὴν ἀρετήν means "virtue is for you to cultivate," or "it is for you to cultivate virtue," either of which implies "you have to, you must, cultivate virtue;" by the side of which we may place the well-known example of the form in -τός, διδακτόν ἐστιν ἡ ἀρετή, “ virtue is a thing capable of being taught."
The following table will show the relations between the 1 aor. pass. and the gerundial verb-forms:
§ VIII. Differences in the Person-endings.
303 The general differences in the person-endings of classes A and B refer chiefly to the primary or definite tenses: the secondary or derivative tenses, being affected by augments and additions of different kinds, present corresponding modifications of the personendings. The following tables will show the various forms of the person-endings in the two classes of verbs, and in the two sets of tenses:
§ IX. Differences in the Augment and Reduplication.
304 As the vowel at the end of the crude form affects the conjugation of verbs in class B, so a vowel, commencing a crude form, affects the augment and reduplication in verbs of every class. The augment (avnois), as we have seen, is the fragmentary remnant of the particle av or ává, signifying "remoteness," which is the idea of past time. The reduplication (αναδιπλασιασμός οἱ ἀναδίπλωσις) is a repetition of the root syllable for the purpose of expressing repeated and therefore continued action. Augment properly belongs only to the secondary tenses; simple reduplication belongs only to the primary tenses; but the reduplicated tenses are all liable to augmentation, because they may be used as secondary forms; and certain laws of euphony often necessitate the substitution of a mere augment for a complete and genuine reduplication. With reference then to their origin, augment and reduplication may always be distinguished by the class of tenses in which they are respectively found; but with reference to their form, pure reduplication is found only in those cases in which there is also a pure augment, and when besides this the verb root begins with a single consonant or with a mute and liquid. When the verb begins with a vowel, except in the Attic reduplication, and when the augment is followed by doubled consonants of a certain weight, the augment and reduplication concur. It is convenient therefore to speak first of the different modes of augmentation, before we advert to the reduplicated forms.
305 There are two kinds of augments:
(1) The syllabic (avçnois ovλxλaßikη) or proper augment increases the secondary tenses of verbs beginning with a consonant, by prefixing e-, as in e-TUTTOV from TÚTTW, and doubling the initial ῥ, as in ἔῤῥιπτον from ῥίπτω (105). In some few verbs the syllabic augment appears as ἠ-. Thus we have ἤμελλον, ἠδυνάμην, ἠβου λóuny (see however Herodian, ap. Valckn. Ammon. p. 195).
This augment takes the place of the reduplication