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αμπέχομαι imperf. ήμπειγόμην 2 aor. ημπισχόμην and

ήμπεσχόμην
ανέχομαι
ήνειλόμην

ήνεσχόμην
ανορθόω
γνώρθουν

γνώρθωσα
ενοχλέω

ηνώχλουν perf. ηνώληκα
παροινέω
επαρώνουν

πεπαρωνικά Some other verbs, especially among the later writers, follow this superHuous augmentation, such as audiyvoéw, &c. (See Lobeck, Phryn. p. 153 sqq.).

And some editors have written nvtedikel, vivtedikyoev in the text of Demosthenes.

Obs. 6 By a false analogy, some verbs not really or not immediately referable to prepositional compounds receive an augment after the assumed preposition, or have the double augmentation; such are

διαιτάω imperf. διήτων and έδιήτων plup. έδεδιητήμην
διακονέω

διηκόνουν and έδιηκόνουν perf. δεδιηκόνημα
αμφισβητέω ήμφεσβήτουν

...

309 (6) In synthetic or inseparable compounds, the augment or reduplication precedes the whole compound formn: as in TEKVOποιέω, έτεκνοποίoυν; πλημμελέω, πεπλημμέληκα και άφρονέω, ήφρόνουν και οικοδομέω, ώκοδόμησα, ώκοδόμηκα.

Obs. 1 There are some few examples of double augment in the case of Synthetic compounds ; thus from oδoποιείν we have ωδοπεποιημένος (Χen. Anab. v. 3, § 1) by the side of wdopolnuévos (Id. v. 4, § 39), and from μελοποιέω we find μεμελοπεποιημένος (Athen. Χ. p. 453 D). To this class we must refer (TTTTOTETpórka (Lycurg. in Leocr. c. 35, ø 139), where the first augment is of course not indicated in writing.

Obs. 2 In double compounds, both synthetic and parathetic, the augment follows the preposition, or if there is more than one, the last preposition, and precedes the synthetic compound; thus we have kateζευγοτρόφηκα, συγκαταναυμάχησα.

310 Compounds with εύ and δυσ- are generally considered as synthetic; but they vary in regard to the augment according to the letter which follows the particle: if this is a mutable vowel, it takes the syllabic augment; thus we have ευηργέτουν from ευεργετέω: if it be a consonant or immutable vowel, the augment precedes the whole form, as in έδυστύχησα, έδυσώπουν, ηυτύχουν.

Obs. Some compounds with co, which ought, according to this rule, to take the augment in the first syllable, remain unaugmented. Thus we have ευωχούμαι, imperf. ευωχούμην. Even in the other cases there is an occasional deviation from the regular practice, and ευεργέτουν is more common than ευηργέτουν. .

(4) Omission of the Augment.

311 (a) In the pluperfect the syllabic augment is sometimes omitted in the best editions of the Attic prose writers, generally when a vowel precedes. But as the dramatists always take account of this augment in their metres, and as the best MSS. preserve the augment in those passages where it has dropt out of the received texts, it seems that it ought always to be restored.

(6) The temporal augment of the pluperfect may be omitted in the case of Attic reduplication, especially when the root begins with e-, as in el-nad-unv, ény-nyép-kelv, &c.; but we also find όλ-ώλεσαν and άκ-ηκόεσαν.

(c) The omission of the syllabic augment in the imperf. and aor. indicative is a poetical license, except in the case of xonu for expîiv. And even in poetry the Attic writers rarely allow themselves to adopt this deviation from the rules of their language, which, however, is common enough in epic poetry. Matthiä has attempted to show (Gr. Gr. $ 160, Obs.) that the augment is omitted by the dramatists only in the speeches of messengers, which have an epic character, and then only at the beginning of the verse or at the beginning of some new sentence. Hermann (Præf. ad Bacch. Eurip. p. xxv. sqq.) has given some special rules for this omission.

(d) The temporal augment is never omitted in the dialogues of Attic tragedy. Homer regularly uses the temporal augment, and omits it only when the metre or euphony renders it necessary; but these motives have often been made an excuse for the omission of the augment, whether syllabic or temporal, and in some forms it never appears. In Herodotus, who to a certain extent adopts an epic standard of language, there is great laxity in the use or disuse of the temporal augment.

Paradigms of Regular Verbs.

$ X. Class A, or Verbs in -fl. 312 Although class A contains only a limited number of verbs, and even these are irregular, defective, or both, it is clear from the following considerations that it represents the oldest and purest form of the Greek verbal inflexions.

(1) It has the fullest forms of the person-endings, which not only admit of pronominal explanation, but must be anterior to the shorter suffixes; for no one would derive -hi from -w or -oav from -v, though the abbreviations may be easily explained by the laws of language. The forms of the suffixes peculiar to this conjugation

are

-ul
for the 1 p. sing. pres. indic. act.

.
-σι(ν) 3 p. sing.
-σαν

3 p. pl. of the secondary tenses.
-θι

2 p. sing. imper. (2) The verbs which belong to class A contain the simplest roots, and express those predications which must have belonged to the earliest condition of the language, such as “ being," "going," "setting up," "putting down," " giving," "saying,” “throwing," &c.

(3) This form of conjugation is predominant in the Sanscrit and other ancient languages of the same family. It must therefore have been the common form of inflexion before the different branches of the family were separated. The identity of the form is shown by the following table:

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313 The antiquity of this conjugation, and the fact that it has been superseded in the great majority of Greek verbs, are sufficient to explain the fact that it is limited only to a few tenses of the verbs which still exemplify it, the other tenses, when they exist, being inflected according to the prevalent forms of barytone verbs. In point of fact, the conjugation in -pe is applicable only to the present and imperfect of the three voices, to the 2 aor. act. and middle, and to the dual and plural of certain perfects and pluperfects active. And there are only a few verbs which follow this conjugation through the whole of the tenses just mentioned.

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314 The oldest and purest of these verbs have the vowel a, e or o for their characteristic. And it will be observed, that all the old consonantal or quasi-consonantal verbs, which still keep up this primitive mode of inflexion, add -w or -» to the root, with the exception of είμι, root εσ-, είμι, root ι-, and έρύ-μαι, root ερυ-. The ν is doubled in several verbs in a, e, o: such as okedávvul, Kopévvumi, στρώννυμι. Also in τίννυμι for τίνυμι, which is a solitary case.

315 The following are all the verbs in the Attic dialect which still retain traces, more or less distinct, of the conjugation in -je:

(I) Verbs of which the present or imperfect belongs to class A.
(1) a verbs : lotul (root ota-); pres., imp., 2 aor.

φημί (φα-); preg., imp.
Trhutanui (

Ta-); pres., imp.; poet. 2 aor. pass. επλήμην; optat. πλείμην; imp. πλήσο; in

fin. πλήσθαι; part. πλήμενος.
πίμπρημι (πρα-); pres., imp.
óvimui (óva-); pres. act.; pres., 2 aor. middle.
κίχρημι (χρα-); pres.
χρή (χρα-) and αποχρή; preg., imp.
ärajai (årya-); pres., imp.
δύναμαι (δυνα-); pres., imp.
επίσταμαι (επιστα-); pres., imp.
έραμαι (έρα-); pres., imp.
intapai (ita-); pres., imp., 2 aor. act. and

middle.
κρέμαμαι (κρεμα-); pres., imp.
Trpiaolai (TT pia-); 2 aor. or imp. middle.

(2) e verbs: tionue (root 0e-); pres., imp., 2 aor.

ίημι (έ-); pres., imp., 2 aor.
δίδημι (δε-); 3 p. pl. pres, διδέασι; 3 p. sing.

imp. εδίδη.
ήμαι (έ-); pres., imp.

κείμαι (κε-); pres., imp. (3) o verb: δίδωμι (δο-); pres., imp., 2 aor. (4) ι verb: είμι (-); pres. and imp. used as fut. and imp. (5) υ verb: έρύμαι (έρυ-); 3 sing. imp. pass. έρύτο.

3 (6) Verb in εσ-: είμι (έσ-); pres., imp. (7) Verbs in -νυμι :

all

pres. and imp. only.
(α) In -αννυμι: κεράννυμι (root κερα-, κρα-).

κρεμάννυμι (κρεμα-).
πετάννυμι (πετα-).
σκεδάννυμι (σκεδα-).

(0) In -εννυμι: έννυμι (root ε-).

ζέννυμι (ζε-).
κορέννυμι (κορε-).
σβέννυμι (σβε-).
στορέννυμι (στορ-).
όλλυμι = όλνυμι for όλε-ννυμι (όλε-).

(c) In -ωννυμι: ζώννυμι (root ζο-).

ρώννυμι (ρο-).
στρώννυμι (στρο-); cf. στορέννυμι.
χρώννυμι (χρο-).
χώννυμι (χο-).

όμνυμι (όμο-). (d) In -ιννυμι : τίννυμι (τι-).

κτίννυμι or κτείνυμι (κτι- or κτα-). (e) In -νυμι (α) with guttural: άγνυμι (root Fαγ-).

δείκνυμι (δεικ-).
είργνυμι (είργ-).
ζεύγνυμι (ζυγ-).
μίγνυμι (μιγ-).
οίγνυμι (οίγ-).

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