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(β) with ρ: ὄρνυμι (όρ-).
(II) Verbs of which the 2 aorist belongs to class Α.
(α) In -av or -ην: ἔβην, βῆναι (root βa-, pres. βαίνω).
ἔδραν, δρᾶναι (δρα-, pres. διδράσκω).
ἔσκλην, σκλῆναι (σκλα-, pres. σκέλλω).
ἔτλην, τλῆναι (τλα-, pres. τολμάω).
ἔφθην, φθῆναι (φθα-, pres. φθάνω).
ἔκτᾶν, κτάναι (κτα-, pres. κτείνω: cf. κτίν
3 pers. οὗτα (ούτα-, pres. οὐτάζω).
ἐῤῥύην, ῥυῆναι (ῥef-, pres. ῥέω).
ἔσβην, σβῆναι (σβε-, pres. σβέννυμι).
Obs. The imperatives σχέs and φρές really belong to this class : cf.
(6) In -ων: ἑάλων and ἥλων, ἁλῶναι (ἁλο-, pres. ἁλίσκομαι). ἐβίων, βιῶναι (βιο-, pres. βιόω).
ἔγνων, γνῶναι (γνο-, pres. γιγνώσκω).
(c) In -vv: ědūv, dûvai (dv-, pres. dúw).
ἔφῦν, φῦναι (φυ-, pres. φύω).
Obs. The imper. πῖθι from πίνω points to an analogous form in t
(III) Verbs of which the perfect and pluperfect follow class A in the dual and plural.
δέδια (root δι-) : δέδιτον, δέδιμεν, δέδιτε, δεδίασι.
τέθνηκα (θαν-): τέθνατον, τέθναμεν, τέθνατε, τεθνᾶσι.
316 The relation between the original conjugation in -με and that in -w, which comprises most of the verbs in the Greek language, will be best shown by a complete exhibition of some typical verb of class A. It will be most convenient to take ἵστημι, the first verb in the list just given. But the student will observe that it presents some striking irregularities both in form and meaning. The 2 aor. active given below is merely assumed on the analogy of čoŋv and edwv. And the perfect and pluperfect, though classed with the active, to which their forms refer them, are always used as intransitive tenses, just as the German stehe and stand, the present and past tense of the same verb, have become in English the transitive and intransitive verbs “stay” and “stand” respectively. The tenses, which have assumed the same form as the corresponding inflexions of the barytone verbs, are marked with an asterisk.
(A, 1) Present, I set up or cause to stand.
(Β, 1) Future, I shall set up or cause to stand.
(C, 1) Perfect, I have set up (myself) = I stand.
(C, 2) Pluperfect, I had set up (myself) = I stood.
II. Imperative Mood.
(A) Present, set thou up (i.e. continuously).
(B) 1 aor., set thou up (i.e. as a single act).
III. Subjunctive Mood.
(A) Present, I may set up (continuously).
(A) Present, I might set up (continuously).
(B) 1 aor., I might set up (as a single act).
Present, ἱστάς, setting up (209).
Future, στήσων, being about to set up (211).
(Β, 2) 1 aor.,
στήσας, having set up (209).
Perfect, ἑστηκώς, ἑστάως οι ἑστώς, standing (213).
PASSIVE AND MIDDLE VOICE.
I. Indicative Mood.
(A, 1) Present, I am standing or causing myself to stand.
(B, 1) 1 fut. (middle) and (D, 4) 2 fut. (passive), I shall stand
(A, 2) Imperfect, I was standing or causing myself to stand.
(B, 2) 1 aor. (middle), I did cause myself to stand.