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329 Fifth Conjugation.
These assimilated verbs are conjugated according to their original characteristic; i.e. πέσσω like τύπτω, πράσσω like πλέκω,
330 Sixth Conjugation.
Perf. Pluperf. Paulo-p. fut.
κεκέλευσο κεκελευσμένος ὦ κεκελευσμένος εἴην κεκελεῦσθαι
The verbs of this conjugation have no secondary tenses. For the σ in the perf. and 1 aor. pass. of this particular
verb, see above, 302, D, (f).
κεκελευσοίμην κελευσθείην κελευσθησοίμην
κεκελεύσεσθαι κεκελευσόμενος κελευσθείς
General Observations on the Barytone Verbs1.
I. Peculiarities of the older language in general, as preserved in the poets, and particularly in the epic dialect.
1 On the variation in the formation of particular tenses, we observe as follows:
(a) Besides the usual form of the imperf. and of the 2 aor. act. and mid., another also occurs in the sing. and in the 3 pers. plur. with a strengthened ending. It is called Ionic, because it is used also by Ionic prose writers. Its peculiarity consists in this, that it affixes -εσκον, -εσκόμην instead of -ov, -ομην, and -ασκον, -ασκόμην instead of -a, -áμny, and generally omits the augment; e. g.
In some instances, in the epic writers, the termination -aσkov, otherwise appended only to the tense-form of the 1 aor., is affixed to the unchanged root of the present. In Homer the only forms of this kind are κρύπτασκον and ῥίπτασκον (from κρύπτω and ῥίπτω), together with ávaσocíaoke (from avaoσeíw, Hymn. in Apoll. 403). The Homeric form ἀγνώσασκε (as we should write it for αγνώσσασκε) is an epic contraction from ayvonoαoke, and consequently of regular formation.
With this strengthened form a strengthened or intensive signification is also connected, all such forms being iterative, i. e. denoting the repetition of an action or a custom3.
Obs. These forms sometimes occur in the Attic tragedians.
(b) The 2 perf. is so prevalent in epic language, that a 1 perf appears only in vowel verbs, while all the rest invariably use the 2 perf. Even in some vowel verbs κ is rejected in epic Greek, and the form
1 From Rost.
3 There are very few cases in which the augment appears. In the common text of Homer only two instances occur: рoασкev (Il. XVII. 423) and èμoyéσкovTO (Od. XX. 7). The Harleian MS. however often inserts the augment, and it appears regularly in Apollonius Rhodius. Herodotus (IV. 130) has λáßeσкOV.
3 See New Cratylus, § 386.
is thus assimilated to the 2 perf.; this occurs e. g. in the partic. ßeßaρηώς (from the obsolete βαρέω), κεκαφηώς (from the unusual radical form kadéw, “to breathe with distress”), kekopnús (from kopévvvμɩ, “I satiate”), κεχαρηώς (from χαίρω, “I rejoice”), πεπτηώς (from πίπτω, “ I fall”), τετιηώς (from Tɩéw, “I am grieved”), tetλŋws (from tλîμɩ, “I endure"); and in the 3 pers. plur. and partic. of ẞéßŋka (from ẞaívw, “I go”), čotyka, "I stand" (from loтnμi), téduka, "I am" (from púw), and τéðvŋka (from Ovýσкw, “I die”); but in these always by shortening the long vowel before the termination, so that we have βεβαᾶσι, βεβαώς, ἑστᾶώς, πεφυᾶσι, πεφυυΐα, τεθνάσι,
(c) The pluperf. had originally the endings -ea, -eas, -ee(v), which are universally retained in epic Greek, and of which traces still occur also in the Ionic and Attic dialects; e. g. dea, "I knew," Att. contr. non, 2 pers. ndeas, contr. yons and nonoba, 3 pers. ydee(v), contr. ñde(v) or dŋ. In the third person the epic dialect generally adopts the contracted form in - and even in -eu.
(d) Respecting the irregular formation of the fut. and 1 aor. much is to be observed in the older language. Verba liquida, in the first place, whose characteristic is à or p, frequently form a fut. with σ; e.g. Keipw, “I shear,” fut. κέρσω, aor. ἔκερσα ; ἄρω, “I join,” fut. ἄρσω, aor. ἄρσα and ἦρσα. From κέλλω, “I drive,” the fut. κέλσω and aor. ἔκελσα have retained this formation even in the general language. On the contrary, in epic Greek the reverse of this also occurs, vowel verbs forming an aor. without σ ; eg. καίω, " I burn,” aor. ἔκηα ; σεύω, “ I drive,” aor. ἔσσευα ; Xéw, "I pour," aor. xeva or exeva (Att. exea). In the fut. the σ is omitted, not only in forms like avriów (Il. XIII. 752) and крeμów (Ib. vii. 85), but also in ẻģuvów (Ib. XI. 365) and ¿púovσɩ (Ib. 454). As a special irregularity in the formation of particular aorists it must be observed that the terminations of the two aorists are sometimes interchanged with each other, the termination -ov being appended to the tense-form of the 1 aor. (with σ), and, conversely, the termination -a to the root of the 2 aor. The first is exemplified in ἔπεσον (from πίπτω for πι-πέτω), and in the following Homeric forms:
deíoeo (as imperat. aor. mid. of deídw, "I sing").
aέere (as imperat. aor. of ayw, "I lead").
Býσero or ẞnoero (3 sing. aor. mid. of Baívw, "I go"); besides Broco, as imperat. So also
δύσετο οι ἐδίσετο, besides the imperat. δύσεο (from δύομαι, " I put on").
igov, iέes (as aor. act. of ikw, "I come").
Aéέeo or déço, "lie down" (as imperat. aor. mid. of λéyw).
ὄρσεο, ὄρσευ and ὄρσο, “ rise” (as imper. aor. mid. of ὄρω or opνυμι).
Of the opposite case, where the termination -a is added to the root of the 2 aor., we have the familiar examples eina, besides elmov, "I said," and ἤνεγκα, epic ἤνεικα or ἔνεικα, besides ἤνεγκον (as aor. to φέρω, I bear”). Lastly, in the epic dialect the reduplication of σ, when a short vowel precedes, is everywhere allowed and frequently adopted to meet the exigencies of the verse ; e. g. καλεσσάμενος (from καλέω, " I call”), όμοσσε (for ὤμοσε from ὄμνυμι, “ I swear”), ἐγέλασσε (from γελάω, " I laugh"), κόμισσα (from κομίζω, “ I bring”), ὀλέσσει (from ὄλλυμι, “ I destroy”), ὀνόσσεται (from ὄνομαι, “ I shame”), &c.
2 With regard to the augment in general, see above, 311. Homer retains it, unless metre, euphony, or the structure of the sentence makes its omission desirable. This subject has been fully discussed by Grashof in a Programme of the Gymnasium at Düsseldorf (1852). Homer is followed by the other poets, with certain limitations. In the MSS. of Herodotus there is a good deal of caprice, especially with regard to the temporal augment. Its omission is most regular in those verbs which have a specially Ionic form, as ἀγινέω, ἀεθλέω, ἀλυκτάζω, ἀναισιμόω, ἀῤῥωδέω, ἀρτέομαι, ἐλινύω, ἔρδον and ἔρξαν, ἔργω (instead of είργω) and iorów (see W. Dindorf, Commentatio de dialecto Herodoti, prefixed to his edition, Paris, 1844, pp. xxi-xxiii). The temporal augment is sometimes omitted in forms beginning with a vowel, especially in olda, and also in Homeric perfects like ανωγα, αλιτήμενος, &c.; Herodotus omits it in w0a, oikĥobat, and in the 3 plur., perf. and plup., when the endings -αται and -aro are substituted for -νται and -ντο, as in ἀγωνίδαται, ἀρτέαται, διοιχέαται, κατοικέαται, ὁρμέατο, &c. The regular reduplication is omitted in a very few epic perfects, as δέγμαι, δέχαται, δεγμένος. On the other hand, there are some forms in Homer in which the reduplication is strengthened by changing e into eu, e. g. in δείδια, δείδιμεν, δείδιθι (instead of δέδια, &c.), δειδέχαται (instead of δεδέχαται), δείδεκτο (instead of dédeкTO), &c. The use of reduplication, confined in the general language to the perf. and pluperf., is extended by the epic dialect to other tenses. This is used most frequently in the 2 aor. act. and mid., less frequently in the 1 fut. act. and mid.; e.g. Témɩlov and weжionow (from πείθω), ἤραρον (from ἄρω), λελάβεσθαι (from λαμβάνω), δεδέξομαι (from Séxouai), &c. Of the 1 aor. with reduplication, the only certain examples are dκáxnoe (Il. XXIII. 223) and έarápnoev (Hymn. in Apoll. 376).
1 Oloe is the present tense. See below, in the list of irregular verbs.
3 The following observations apply to the person-endings and modal inflexions :
(a) The 3 pers. dual imperf. act. is formed by Homer in some instances like the second person, and consequently has the termination -τον instead of την. Such forms are διώκετον (Π. x. 364), λαφύσσετον (Ib. XVIII. 583), and TETEúXETOV (Ib. XIII. 346).
(b) Besides the terminations -μelov and -μela of the dual and plur. pass., the full-sounding -μeo@ov and -μcoba are used according to the exigencies of the metre, not only by the epic writers, but also by the Doric and Attic poets.
(c) In the 3 pers. plur. pass. the perf. and pluperf. very generally, and the optat. frequently, substitute the terminations -arai and -ατο for -νται and -ντο; e. g. κεχωρίδαται (from χωρίζω), τυπτοίατο for τύπτοιντο. The labial and guttural characteristics are aspirated; e. g. we have τετράφαται, όρωρέχαται, &c.
(d) In the 2 pers. sing. pass. the σ which follows a connecting vowel is rejected; but in that case eat generally, and ao frequently, remain without contraction, and the termination -co is either uncontracted, or takes the Ionic contraction into ev, or the e is even lengthened into et, as e.g. ἔρειο (from ἔρομαι).
(e) In the 3 plur. of the pass. aor. the termination -ησαν is changed into ev, regularly in Æolic and Doric, and frequently in epic Greek.
(f) The following peculiarities are to be observed in the subjunctive mood: (a) the epic dialect retains the fuller inflexions in -μι This is very common in the 3 pers. sing.; e. g. we have λáßnow and aynor for λáßy and ayy. As examples of the 1 pers. with the ending -w we have εἴπωμι (Od. XXII. 392), ἴδωμι (II. XVIII. 63), κτείνωμι (Od. ΧΙΧ. 490), ἀγάγωμι (Π. χχιν. 717), ἵκωμι (Ιb. ΙΧ. 14), ἐθέλωμι (Od. XXI. 348), τύχωμι (Ib. xxii. 7). (B) Instead of -s the 2 pers. sing. subj. has generally the fuller termination -σθα; e. g. ἐθέλῃσθα, εἴπῃσθα, for ἐθέλῃς, εἴπῃς. (7) According to the exigencies of the metre, epic writers often shorten the modal vowel of the subj., so that e is substituted for 7, and o for w, and the form of the subj. in many cases assimilated to that of the indic. ; e. g. εἴδομεν for εἴδωμεν, ἴομεν for ἴωμεν, φθίεται for φθίηται, &c.
(g) In epic the 3 pers. plur. imperat., both act. and pass., is always formed with the terminations -ντων and -σθων ; e. g. πινόντων (not πινέτωσαν), ἑπέσθων (not ἑπέσθωσαν).
(h) The complete termination of the infin. act. was -eμevai, by the abbreviation of which were formed partly -euev, and, by rejecting μ,