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(eev) ew; partly -μevai and -val. In the pres. and fut. infin. Homer interchanges the terminations -έμεναι, -έμεν and -ειν ; e. g. ἀκουέμεναι, ἀκουέμεν and ἀκούειν, ἀξέμεναι, ἀξέμεν and ἄξειν (from ἄγω). The inf 2 aor. has the terminations -έμεναι, -έμεν, -εῖν and -έειν ; e.g. ἐλθέμεναι, ἐλθέμεν, ἐλθεῖν (from ἦλθον), βαλέειν (from βάλλω). The inf. perf. appears in Homer only in forms where x has been rejected (comp. above, 1, (b)), and always takes with him the termination -μeva or -μev; e. g. τεθνάμεναι and τεθνάμεν, βεβάμεν, ἑστάμεν. Besides the common termination -e of the infinitive, verbs in -áw and -éw have also εμεναι, but contract the of the termination with the characteristic vowel into 7; e.g. φιλέειν, φιλεῖν and φιλήμεναι (from φιλέω), πεινήμεναι (from πεινάω). The inf. aor. pass. has, besides the common termination -îva, also -ήμεναι ; e. g. δαῆναι and δαήμεναι (from δάω). All the remaining infinitives, as that of the 1 aor. act., and the whole of those in the pass., retain their simple termination unchanged.

(i) The terminations which have the circumflex in the common language, as - and -ovμa in the fut. act. and mid., -ev in the inf. 2 aor. act., and - in the subj. of the aor. pass., are in epic frequently resolved; e.g.

ἀγγελέω (as fut. of ἀγγέλλω).

βαλέειν (inf. aor. of βάλλω).

πεσέεσθαι (inf. fut. mid. to πίπτω).

puyéwo (3 plur. subj. 2 aor. pass. to μíyvv).

In such resolved forms of the subj. 2 aor. pass. it not unfrequently happens that the is lengthened in a; e. g. dapeíw (subj. 2 aor. pass. to Sauáw), and also the modal vowel made short (see above, (e)); e.g. δαμείετε, as 2 pers. plur. to δαμείω.

(k) On the abbreviation of the termination -noav into -ev, see above, (c), and below, III. (5).

II. Peculiarities of the Ionic Dialect.

(1) The later Ionic dialect, as exhibited in the writings of Herodotus, possesses in common with the epic dialect just treated of, many peculiarities, which we shall therefore merely indicate by reference to the preceding. On the iterative tenses in -eσkov and -eσкóμŋv, see I. 1, (a). On the pluperfect -ea, see I. 1, (c). On -arai and -aro for -vraι and -VTO, See I. 3, (c). On the augment, see I. 2.

III. Peculiarities of the Doric Dialect.

(1) The change of 7 into a, so common to the Doric dialect, occurs in verbal forms in the dual termination - and the passive termination

μην, which in Doric are therefore -av and -μαν ; e. g. ἱκόμᾶν for ἱκόμην. This change is usual also in the derivative tenses of verbs in -áw and of some few in -éw, which lengthen the characteristic vowel into -7; e. g. ἀγαπάσω for ἀγαπήσω, ἐφίλασα for ἐφίλησα. Its occurrence however is extremely rare in the termination of the aor. pass. verbs beginning with a the a is retained even when the temporal augment is introduced, but then it is always long; e. g. ǎkow, aor.



(2) The Dorians frequently form the 2 pers. sing. indic. in -es instead of -εις ; e. g. τύπτες, συρίζες for τύπτεις, συρίζεις. Instead of -s at the end, the second person of all the moods of the act. had in the old language the termination -o0a, which is still of frequent use in the Doric dialect, and occurs in the epic writers chiefly in the 2 pers. subj., more rarely in the optat. The common language has retained this termination in the following forms: o0a, "thou wast" (from eiμí), ᾔεισθα, “thouwentest” (from εἶμι), οἶσθα and ᾔδεισθα, “ thou knowest, knewest" (from olda), and epŋoba, "thou saidst" (from ønμí).

(3) The 1 pers. plur. of the active conjugation terminates in the Doric dialect in -μες instead of -μεν ; e.g. ἐτύπτομες for ἐτύπτομεν. The Latin shows that this was the original form of the person-ending. In the passive they likewise use the fuller termination -peo0ov and -μeola for -pelov and -μela (see above, I. 3, (b)).

(4) The 3 pers. plur. act. terminates in Doric in -T with a short connective vowel instead of -ot preceded by a long sound; e.g.

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The Latin shows that this was the original form.

In the 2 fut. the termination -éovr is contracted by the Dorians into -εῦντι, e.g. μενέοντι, μενεῦντι for μενοῦσι, from μένω. Moreover it is to be remarked that this termination -ντι never receives the v ἐφελκυστικόν. Instead of the termination -ovo in the pres. and 1 fut., -out also occurs, particularly in the poets, and this requires the v peλкvσTIKÓV; e. g. φυλάσσοισιν fου φυλάσσουσιν. And in Holic we find -αισι for -ᾶσι.

(5) The termination -noav in the 3 pers. plur. of the aor. pass. and of the optat. is shortened in Doric into -ev, e. g. ĕtup0ev for érúþ0noav. This peculiarity is common also to the epic, where e.g. тpáper for érpádnσav, and such like forms, are quite usual; and in the optat. this

abbreviated termination predominates throughout in the common language also ; e. g. τυφθεῖεν for τυφθείησαν.

(6) The infin. act. instead of the termination -ew has in Doric -eμev or generally -ev, and more rarely the lengthened -v; e. g. Túπtev and τύπτεμεν for τύπτειν, λαβέν and λαβῆν for λαβεῖν.

In the infin. perf. act. we have sometimes -e for -evai, as yeyákelv for yeyakéval (Pind. Ol. vi. 49). And the Eolic has even an infin. in -ιs, as γέλαϊς for γελάειν.

(7) In the terminations of participles the Dorians use -o instead of -ov, and -au instead of ā; e. g.

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The partic. perf. act. is sometimes formed by the Dorians with the termination of the partic. pres. ; e.g. πeopíkovтes (Pind. Pyth. IV. 183) for Teppikóτes. In some instances epic writers also adopt this formation; as e. g. κεκλήγοντες for κεκληγότες.

(8) On the formation of the I fut. act. and mid. we observe the following as Doric peculiarities: (a) All verbs in -o form the 1 fut. in -έw. The same peculiarity is transferred also to the 1 aor. (b) The termination of the 1 fut. act. and mid. is circumflexed by the Dorians and conjugated throughout entirely like the termination of the Attic. fut.; e.g.

τυψώ, -εῖς, -εῖ, plural τυψοῦμεν oι -εῦμεν, -είτε, -οῦντι οι -εῦντι.

Fut. mid. τυψοῦμαι or -εῦμαι, &c.

This contraction seems to have originated in an old fut. in -ow or -σιομαι, which is found in some forms ; as πραξίομες for πράξομεν, χαριξιό μεθα for χαριούμεθα, προλειψίω for προλείψω.

In some verbs, which form a fut. mid. with an active signification, this fut. has retained the Doric termination even in the common language, e. g. πεσοῦμαι and πευσοῦμαι, fut. of πίπτω and πυνθάνομαι. Το also, besides the two already mentioned, are formed the fut. of béw, κλαίω, νέω, παίζω, πλέω, πνέω, πνίγω, φεύγω and χέζω ; thus, θευσοῦμαι, κλαυσοῦμαι, &c.

IV. Peculiarities of the Attic Dialect.

(1) The epic termination of the pluperf. -ea (see above, I. 1, (c)) passed also into the Attic dialect, assuming the contracted form in -ŋ, to which -ns (for -eas) corresponds in the 2 pers. and -eɩ or -e (for -ee

or -cev) in the third. This termination, however, can be referred to with certainty only in the pluperf. of olda, of which the following forms are usual in Attic Greek : 1 pers. ᾔδειν and ᾔδη, 2 pers. ᾔδεις οι ᾔδεισθα and ᾔδης οι ᾔδησθα, 3 pers. ᾔδει and ᾔδειν.

(2) In the 2 pers. sing. pass. the Attics, after rejecting σ, contract -eat into -eu This appears to have been the only termination made use of in the older Attic language; subsequently it was interchanged with, though in the 2 fut. mid. - is the predominant termination. According to modern critics the ending - is to be preferred in Aristophanes, - is most common in the MSS. of the tragedians, Thucydides, and Xenophon, and both endings are supported by authority in Plato and the orators (see Kühner, Excurs. 11. ad Xen. Memor.). The -«ɩ appears without change in the fut. ove, and in Bovλe, "thou art willing," and oie, "thou thinkest;" so that the use of Bouλy and on is invariably confined to the subjunctive.

(3) On the Attic future, see 302, B. 1, Obs. 3.

V. Peculiarities of the Alexandrian Dialect and of the later


(1) In the 3 pers. plur. imperf. and 2 aor. the later language makes use of the termination -οσαν instead of -ov; e. g. εἴποσαν for εἶπον, &c.

(2) In the 3 pers. plur. perf. act. the termination -av occurs instead of -ᾶσι ; e. g. εἴρηκαν for ειρήκασι, &c. Also in Cretan inscriptions

we find ἀπέσταλκαν for ἀπεστάλκασι.

§ XII. Class B. (b) or Circumflexed Verbs.


332 The derivative verbs Tiμáw, "I honour," from Tμń, "honour;" πovéw, "I beget," "make of a certain kind" (from the root found in πῶν, ποι-μήν, ὀ-πυίω, φυίω, φύω, fac-io, fto, pu-er, pu-bes, Sanscrit pu-tra, &c.'); and μiobów, "I let out for hire,' from μolós, "hire;" are thus inflected:

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1 It is not derived from rocós, for in that case the verb would be roców, a form which actually occurs, e.g. Arist. Eth. Nic. III. § 16, olov el äρTOS TOÛTO ǹ TÉTEπtal πεποίωται ὡς δεῖ: and we have ποιούς τινας ποιῆσαι, Id. ibid. I. 9, § 8.

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1 The unusual contraction of -όειs and -ons into -ois, as also of -όει and -ón into -o, is founded upon the principle, that, as the chief vowel in the termination of the pres. and subj., must not be lost in the contraction.

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