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abbreviated termination predominates throughout in the common language also ; e. g. τυφθεῖεν for τυφθείησαν.

(6) The infin. act. instead of the termination -ew has in Doric -eμev or generally -ev, and more rarely the lengthened -v; e. g. Túπtev and τύπτεμεν for τύπτειν, λαβέν and λαβῆν for λαβεῖν.

In the infin. perf. act. we have sometimes -e for -evai, as yeyákelv for yeyakéval (Pind. Ol. vi. 49). And the Eolic has even an infin. in -ιs, as γέλαϊς for γελάειν.

(7) In the terminations of participles the Dorians use -o instead of -ov, and -au instead of ā; e. g.

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The partic. perf. act. is sometimes formed by the Dorians with the termination of the partic. pres. ; e.g. πeopíkovтes (Pind. Pyth. IV. 183) for Teppikóτes. In some instances epic writers also adopt this formation; as e. g. κεκλήγοντες for κεκληγότες.

(8) On the formation of the I fut. act. and mid. we observe the following as Doric peculiarities: (a) All verbs in -o form the 1 fut. in -έw. The same peculiarity is transferred also to the 1 aor. (b) The termination of the 1 fut. act. and mid. is circumflexed by the Dorians and conjugated throughout entirely like the termination of the Attic. fut.; e.g.

τυψώ, -εῖς, -εῖ, plural τυψοῦμεν oι -εῦμεν, -είτε, -οῦντι οι -εῦντι.

Fut. mid. τυψοῦμαι or -εῦμαι, &c.

This contraction seems to have originated in an old fut. in -ow or -σιομαι, which is found in some forms ; as πραξίομες for πράξομεν, χαριξιό μεθα for χαριούμεθα, προλειψίω for προλείψω.

In some verbs, which form a fut. mid. with an active signification, this fut. has retained the Doric termination even in the common language, e. g. πεσοῦμαι and πευσοῦμαι, fut. of πίπτω and πυνθάνομαι. Το also, besides the two already mentioned, are formed the fut. of béw, κλαίω, νέω, παίζω, πλέω, πνέω, πνίγω, φεύγω and χέζω ; thus, θευσοῦμαι, κλαυσοῦμαι, &c.

IV. Peculiarities of the Attic Dialect.

(1) The epic termination of the pluperf. -ea (see above, I. 1, (c)) passed also into the Attic dialect, assuming the contracted form in -ŋ, to which -ns (for -eas) corresponds in the 2 pers. and -eɩ or -e (for -ee

or -cev) in the third. This termination, however, can be referred to with certainty only in the pluperf. of olda, of which the following forms are usual in Attic Greek : 1 pers. ᾔδειν and ᾔδη, 2 pers. ᾔδεις οι ᾔδεισθα and ᾔδης οι ᾔδησθα, 3 pers. ᾔδει and ᾔδειν.

(2) In the 2 pers. sing. pass. the Attics, after rejecting σ, contract -eat into -eu This appears to have been the only termination made use of in the older Attic language; subsequently it was interchanged with, though in the 2 fut. mid. - is the predominant termination. According to modern critics the ending - is to be preferred in Aristophanes, - is most common in the MSS. of the tragedians, Thucydides, and Xenophon, and both endings are supported by authority in Plato and the orators (see Kühner, Excurs. 11. ad Xen. Memor.). The -«ɩ appears without change in the fut. ove, and in Bovλe, "thou art willing," and oie, "thou thinkest;" so that the use of Bouλy and on is invariably confined to the subjunctive.

(3) On the Attic future, see 302, B. 1, Obs. 3.

V. Peculiarities of the Alexandrian Dialect and of the later


(1) In the 3 pers. plur. imperf. and 2 aor. the later language makes use of the termination -οσαν instead of -ov; e. g. εἴποσαν for εἶπον, &c.

(2) In the 3 pers. plur. perf. act. the termination -av occurs instead of -ᾶσι ; e. g. εἴρηκαν for ειρήκασι, &c. Also in Cretan inscriptions

we find ἀπέσταλκαν for ἀπεστάλκασι.

§ XII. Class B. (b) or Circumflexed Verbs.


332 The derivative verbs Tiμáw, "I honour," from Tμń, "honour;" πovéw, "I beget," "make of a certain kind" (from the root found in πῶν, ποι-μήν, ὀ-πυίω, φυίω, φύω, fac-io, fto, pu-er, pu-bes, Sanscrit pu-tra, &c.'); and μiobów, "I let out for hire,' from μolós, "hire;" are thus inflected:

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1 It is not derived from rocós, for in that case the verb would be roców, a form which actually occurs, e.g. Arist. Eth. Nic. III. § 16, olov el äρTOS TOÛTO ǹ TÉTEπtal πεποίωται ὡς δεῖ: and we have ποιούς τινας ποιῆσαι, Id. ibid. I. 9, § 8.

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1 The unusual contraction of -όειs and -ons into -ois, as also of -όει and -ón into -o, is founded upon the principle, that, as the chief vowel in the termination of the pres. and subj., must not be lost in the contraction.

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"On the use of this accessory form of the opt. the following is to be observed: (1) It is most common in verbs in -dw, but in both the other classes also the singular

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of this form occurs in Attic Greek more frequently than the usual one in -οιμι. the contrary, in the plural its use is almost wholly confined to verbs in - άω. (2) From the appellation Attic form it must not be inferred, that it belonged exclusively to the Attic writers, since it also occurs, although less frequently, in the other dialects.

1 The subscribed under the infinitive termination -ậy should properly be omitted, because its admission into the termination -ew is owing solely to the contraction of -ee into - el. As however it is invariably retained in the editions of Greek writers, its use may be regarded as conventionally established.

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