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General Observations on the Circumflexed Verbs.

(1) In the common language the secondary tenses of these verbs are wanting, and only a few traces of them are found even in the older language.

(2) For the more accurate definition of the rule, that contracted verbs lengthen the characteristic vowel in derivative tenses, namely, a into n, &c., the following remarks must be added :

(a) Verbs in -úw almost invariably lengthen the characteristic vowel in the derivative tenses; but when a is preceded by an e, or 1, or p, they take not ŋ, but long a; e.g.

ἐάω, “I permit,” fut. ἐάσω, 1 aor. εἴᾶσα.

ἑστιάω, “I entertain,” fut. ἑστιάσω, 1 aor. εἱστίασα.

δράω, “ I do, fut. δράσω, 1 aor. ἔδρασα.

χράω, χράομαι alone takes an η when p precedes. On the contrary, ἀκροάομαι, “ I hear,” and μακκοάω, “I am senseless,” take long a instead



of n; e.g. ȧkpoáσoμat, &c. The following verbs are to be observed as special exceptions, for they retain the short a in the derivative tenses: γελάω, δαμάω, ἐλάω, ἔραμαι, θλάω, ἱλάω, ἱμάω, κεράω, κλάω, κρεμάω (in the transitive sense), πάομαι, σπάω and χαλάω,—thus: fut. γελάσω, δαμάσω, ἐλάσω, &c.

(b) of verbs in -éo, the following retain in the derivative tenses the e unchanged: αἰδέομαι, ἀκέομαι, ἀλέω, ἀρκέω, ἐμέω, ζέω, καλέω, ξέω, τελέω, τρέω,—thus : fut. αἰδέσομαι, ἀκέσομαι, &c.

Other verbs in -éw take the long vowel in some tenses, while in others they retain the short one. These are as follow:

aivéw, "I praise," fut. ᾐνέθην, perf. pass. ᾔνημαι.

alvéow, 1 aor. veoa, perf. veka, 1 aor. pass. The epic forms are αἰνήσω, &c.

aipéw, "I take," retains the short vowel only in the 1 aor. pass. ᾑρέθην.

Séw, "I bind," has in the fut. Snow, 1 aor. ednoa, but in the perf. δέδεκα, perf. pass. δέδεμαι, 1 aor. pass. ἐδέθην.

Tоéw, “I desire,” interchanges, according to the difference of dialects, between ποθέσω and ποθήσω, &c. In the perfect only it always takes η, πεπόθηκα, πεπόθημαι.

Six verbs in -éw, all implying a continuous motion, change the characteristic into ev in the fut., namely, éw, "I run;" véw, "I swim;" Tλew, "I sail;" πvéw, "I blow;" péw, "I flow;" xew, "I pour;" fut. θευσοῦμαι, πλεύσω, ῥεύσω, &c.

(c) In verbs in -ów, the short vowel is retained in the derivative tenses only by apów, "I plough," fut. apóow, and oμów (obsolete radical form to όμνυμι), aor. ὤμοσα.

(3) The subjunct. and optat. perf. pass. appear only in certain trisyllabic perfects, particularly of those which have a present signification, such as Kékтnμaι, "I possess," from ктáoμa; péμvnμai, "I remember,” from μιμνήσκω; κέκλημαι, “I am called,” from καλέω; e. g.

κέκτημαι, subj. κέκτωμαι, opt. κεκτῄμην and κεκτώμην, -ῷο, -ᾧτο, &c. μέμνημαι, subj. μέμνωμαι, opt. μεμνήμην and μεμνώμην, -ᾠο, -το, &c.

(4) On the application and neglect of contraction, the following are the general rules. The Attic writers use exclusively the contracted form. But in verbs in -éw, whose root is monosyllabic, contraction does not take place ife is followed by one of the dull sounds o, w, ot, ov, or by an η; eg. πλέω, πλεῖς, πλεῖ, πλεῖτον, but πλέομεν, πλέουσι, πλέωσι, #déwσi, #déŋ, &c. An exception is formed by déw, “I bind,” which is contracted even when a dull sound follows; e. g. Séopaι, dovμai. On the

contrary, the Ionians adopt contraction in verbs in -áw and -ów, but not in those in -é. On the peculiarities of the remaining dialects, in respect to contraction, see below, (6).

(5) Some verbs in -áw taken instead of a in contraction. This invariably happens in ζάω, “I live;” πεινάω, “I am hungry;” διψάω, “Ι am thirsty;" xpάoμaι, "I use," e. g.

ζάω, ζῇς, ζῇ, dual ζῆτον, ζῆτον, plur. ζῶμεν, ζῆτε, ζῶσι, inf. ζῇν, imperf. ἔζων, ἔζης, ἔζη, &c.

In κváw, "I rub;" σuá, "I smear;" áw, "I scour;" this, although κνάω, σμάω, not the only one in use, is the common mode of contraction.

(6) The following are the peculiarities of the different dialects in the use of contracted verbs:

(a) The epic dialect adopts or neglects contraction according to the exigencies of the metre. The following observations apply to the differ

ent classes of contracted verbs.

(a) In verbs in -éw, if e is followed by w, w, ot and ov, contraction does not take place; but if another sound follows, it is partly omitted, partly applied, and co is then contracted into ev. Frequently also e is lengthened into e, with the omission of contraction; e. g. Teλeíel, ¿teλείετο (from τελέω), πλείειν and θείειν for πλέειν and θέειν. In epic Greek the termination -eau of the 2 pers. sing. pres. pass. is not contracted into 7, but either remains in the resolved form, e.g. piλécal, or the e of the root is contracted with thee of the termination into e, e. g. pvoeîai for uvéea, or one e is rejected, e. g. uvoéat. In the 2 pers. sing. imperf. and imperat. either eo is contracted into ev, or, as most frequently happens, an e is rejected; e. g. αἰτέο, φοβέο for αἰτέεο, φοβέεο.

(B) Verbs in -ów are either contracted in the usual manner, or they neglect contraction, and change the characteristic vowel o into w; e.g. ὑπνώοντας (from ὑπνόω), &c. Also some forms in these verbs, as in verbs in -áo (see under (y)), exhibit a lengthening of the sound, which presupposes a contracted form, and generally takes place with ow and ow; e. g.

ἀρόωσι for ἀρόουσι, ἀροῦσι,

δηϊόωντο του δηϊόοντο, δηϊοῦντο,
δηϊέψεν for δηϊόοιεν, δηϊοῖεν.

(7) Verbs in -áw occur in epic Greek without contraction only in particular cases, chiefly when the root is monosyllabic, or the characteristic vowel a is long; e. g. ἔχρας (from χράω), διψάων (from διψάω), and from ναιετάω, ναιετάουσι, ναιετάοντα, &c. In general, however, these verbs undergo contraction, and then again the contracted sound is frequently

lengthened, a similar and, for the most part, short sound being inserted

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Whether a long or short vowel must be inserted, is determined by the nature of the word and by the relation of the syllables to the metre. The short sound is inserted when the preceding syllable is short, as in all the above examples; on the contrary, the long sound enters where a long syllable is essential to the metre, consequently chiefly in the middle of other long syllables; e. g.

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In rare instances, and only in certain forms of particular verbs, the inserted sound follows that of the contraction. This happens only in the mingled sound w, when succeeded by ντ, and in ῳ, which is then lengthened into ωοι ;. e. g.

ἡβάοντες coutr. ἡβῶντες epic lengthened form ἡβώοντες




Obs. I In epic Greek the third pers. dual in -Tŋ of some verbs contracts -ae into η; e.g. προσαυδήτην (from προσαυδάω). This contraction occurs in the same form of two verbs also in -έω, namely, in ἀπειλήτην (from ἀπειλέω) and ὁμαρτήτην (from ὁμαρ τέω). Also an η enters into infnitives of verbs in -άω and -έω, formed with the termination -μεναι; e. g. γοήμεναι, πεινήμεναι (from γοάω, πεινάω); so also φιλήμεναι (from φιλέω), &c.

Obs. 2 In the epic writers, the imperf. in some verbs changes a into e; e. g. μενοίνεον (from μενοινάω), ὁμόκλεον (from ὁμοκλάω), ἤντεον (from ἀντάω). On the further extension of this usage by the Ionians, see below, (b).

Obs. 3 In some verbs in -οάω, the Ionic contraction of on into ω (see below, (b)) occurs also in the epic language; e. g. ἐπιβώσομαι for ἐπιβοήσομαι (from ἐπιβοάω).

(b) In the Ionic dialect verbs in -éw are generally uncontracted, except that they frequently contract eo and cov into ev; e. g. Toleû for ποιού, ποιεύμενος for ποιούμενος. Also in Ionic, as has been shown above ((a), (α)) in the case of the epic dialect, an e is frequently rejected in the 3 pers. sing. imperf. pass. In verbs in -ow the Ionians make use of the contracted sound ev instead of ov; e. g. ἐδικαίευν for ἐδικαίουν (from δικαιόω). They also adopt the usual contractions in verbs in -όω. Verbs in -άw are likewise regularly contracted by them, although they frequently choose 7 instead of a as the mixed sound of contraction; e. g. opŷv for ὁρᾷν : this particularly happens if an i precedes; e. g. θυμιῆται, ἰῆσθαι for

θυμιᾶται, ἰᾶσθαι. But in many cases the a of these verbs changes in Ionic into, and contraction is then omitted; e. g. poɩréw for poiτáw, épúτeov for púτaov, &c. They frequently, however, adopt the contraction of ao into w, and insert an additional before the mixed sound; e.g. χρέωνται for χρῶνται (from χράομαι), ἐκτέωντο for ἐκτῶντο (from κτάομαι), &c. As therefore verbs in -áo become in this manner verbs in -éo, they also admit of contraction into ev (consequently for ao and aov); e.g. εἰρώτευν for εἰρώτων, ἀγαπεῦντες for ἀγαπῶντες.


It is remarkable that the Ionians, with whom the resolved form predominates, should adopt contraction in certain cases where the Attic writers reject it. This happens in the derivative tenses of verbs in -oáw, where on contracted into ω; eg. βώσω, ἔβωσα for βοήσω, ἐβόησα (from βοάω), ἀμβώσας for ἀναβοήσας. The epic prolongation in verbs in -άω and -δω is rarely used by the Ionians.

(c) The Doric dialect, like the Ionic, contracts co and cou into ev; e. g. ποιεῦντι for ποιέοντι = ποιέουσι. In verbs in -άω the Dorians contract ao, aou and an into a; e.g. πεινᾶμες for πεινάομεν, contr. πεινῶμεν, πεινᾶντι for πεινάουσι, contr. πεινῶσι. On the contrary, it is worthy of remark that ae and ae are contracted by them not into a but into ŋ; e.g. ἐρῇ and ἐρῇν for ἐρᾷ and ἐρᾷν, τολμῆτε for τολμάτε. Also verbs in - take the Doric infinitive termination -ny, contr. from -env; e. g. koʊμîν for κοσμεῖν. In very broad Doric we have φιλίω, φιλίομες, φιλίοντι for φιλέω, φιλέομες, φιλέουσι.

(d) On the Æolic dialect nothing can be advanced with safety, on account of the few and uncertain traces of its usage. A particular infinitive form of verbs in -áw and -ów with the terminations -aus and -ous is given as a peculiarity belonging to it; e. g. γέλαις for γελᾷν, ὕψοις for ὑψοῦν.

(7) With respect to the accent in contracted verbs, attention must be paid to the general rules for the accentuation of verbal forms combined with the observations on the change of the accent in contraction.

§ XIII. Anomalous Verbs.

334 Although the verbs which have been given in the paradigms are called regular, the student has already seen that they are all liable to defects and anomalies; and even TUTTO, the most complete specimen of a regular conjugation, will be found again in the list of irregular verbs. In fact, the more common the occurrence of a verb is, the more liable it is to casual affections; and

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