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contrary, the Ionians adopt contraction in verbs in -áw and -ów, but not in those in -é. On the peculiarities of the remaining dialects, in respect to contraction, see below, (6).

(5) Some verbs in -áw taken instead of a in contraction. This invariably happens in ζάω, “I live;” πεινάω, “I am hungry;” διψάω, “Ι am thirsty;" xpάoμaι, "I use," e. g.

ζάω, ζῇς, ζῇ, dual ζῆτον, ζῆτον, plur. ζῶμεν, ζῆτε, ζῶσι, inf. ζῇν, imperf. ἔζων, ἔζης, ἔζη, &c.

In κváw, "I rub;" σuá, "I smear;" áw, "I scour;" this, although κνάω, σμάω, not the only one in use, is the common mode of contraction.

(6) The following are the peculiarities of the different dialects in the use of contracted verbs:

(a) The epic dialect adopts or neglects contraction according to the exigencies of the metre. The following observations apply to the differ

ent classes of contracted verbs.

(a) In verbs in -éw, if e is followed by w, w, ot and ov, contraction does not take place; but if another sound follows, it is partly omitted, partly applied, and co is then contracted into ev. Frequently also e is lengthened into e, with the omission of contraction; e. g. Teλeíel, ¿teλείετο (from τελέω), πλείειν and θείειν for πλέειν and θέειν. In epic Greek the termination -eau of the 2 pers. sing. pres. pass. is not contracted into 7, but either remains in the resolved form, e.g. piλécal, or the e of the root is contracted with thee of the termination into e, e. g. pvoeîai for uvéea, or one e is rejected, e. g. uvoéat. In the 2 pers. sing. imperf. and imperat. either eo is contracted into ev, or, as most frequently happens, an e is rejected; e. g. αἰτέο, φοβέο for αἰτέεο, φοβέεο.

(B) Verbs in -ów are either contracted in the usual manner, or they neglect contraction, and change the characteristic vowel o into w; e.g. ὑπνώοντας (from ὑπνόω), &c. Also some forms in these verbs, as in verbs in -áo (see under (y)), exhibit a lengthening of the sound, which presupposes a contracted form, and generally takes place with ow and ow; e. g.

ἀρόωσι for ἀρόουσι, ἀροῦσι,

δηϊόωντο του δηϊόοντο, δηϊοῦντο,
δηϊέψεν for δηϊόοιεν, δηϊοῖεν.

(7) Verbs in -áw occur in epic Greek without contraction only in particular cases, chiefly when the root is monosyllabic, or the characteristic vowel a is long; e. g. ἔχρας (from χράω), διψάων (from διψάω), and from ναιετάω, ναιετάουσι, ναιετάοντα, &c. In general, however, these verbs undergo contraction, and then again the contracted sound is frequently

lengthened, a similar and, for the most part, short sound being inserted

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Whether a long or short vowel must be inserted, is determined by the nature of the word and by the relation of the syllables to the metre. The short sound is inserted when the preceding syllable is short, as in all the above examples; on the contrary, the long sound enters where a long syllable is essential to the metre, consequently chiefly in the middle of other long syllables; e. g.

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In rare instances, and only in certain forms of particular verbs, the inserted sound follows that of the contraction. This happens only in the mingled sound w, when succeeded by ντ, and in ῳ, which is then lengthened into ωοι ;. e. g.

ἡβάοντες coutr. ἡβῶντες epic lengthened form ἡβώοντες




Obs. I In epic Greek the third pers. dual in -Tŋ of some verbs contracts -ae into η; e.g. προσαυδήτην (from προσαυδάω). This contraction occurs in the same form of two verbs also in -έω, namely, in ἀπειλήτην (from ἀπειλέω) and ὁμαρτήτην (from ὁμαρ τέω). Also an η enters into infnitives of verbs in -άω and -έω, formed with the termination -μεναι; e. g. γοήμεναι, πεινήμεναι (from γοάω, πεινάω); so also φιλήμεναι (from φιλέω), &c.

Obs. 2 In the epic writers, the imperf. in some verbs changes a into e; e. g. μενοίνεον (from μενοινάω), ὁμόκλεον (from ὁμοκλάω), ἤντεον (from ἀντάω). On the further extension of this usage by the Ionians, see below, (b).

Obs. 3 In some verbs in -οάω, the Ionic contraction of on into ω (see below, (b)) occurs also in the epic language; e. g. ἐπιβώσομαι for ἐπιβοήσομαι (from ἐπιβοάω).

(b) In the Ionic dialect verbs in -éw are generally uncontracted, except that they frequently contract eo and cov into ev; e. g. Toleû for ποιού, ποιεύμενος for ποιούμενος. Also in Ionic, as has been shown above ((a), (α)) in the case of the epic dialect, an e is frequently rejected in the 3 pers. sing. imperf. pass. In verbs in -ow the Ionians make use of the contracted sound ev instead of ov; e. g. ἐδικαίευν for ἐδικαίουν (from δικαιόω). They also adopt the usual contractions in verbs in -όω. Verbs in -άw are likewise regularly contracted by them, although they frequently choose 7 instead of a as the mixed sound of contraction; e. g. opŷv for ὁρᾷν : this particularly happens if an i precedes; e. g. θυμιῆται, ἰῆσθαι for

θυμιᾶται, ἰᾶσθαι. But in many cases the a of these verbs changes in Ionic into, and contraction is then omitted; e. g. poɩréw for poiτáw, épúτeov for púτaov, &c. They frequently, however, adopt the contraction of ao into w, and insert an additional before the mixed sound; e.g. χρέωνται for χρῶνται (from χράομαι), ἐκτέωντο for ἐκτῶντο (from κτάομαι), &c. As therefore verbs in -áo become in this manner verbs in -éo, they also admit of contraction into ev (consequently for ao and aov); e.g. εἰρώτευν for εἰρώτων, ἀγαπεῦντες for ἀγαπῶντες.


It is remarkable that the Ionians, with whom the resolved form predominates, should adopt contraction in certain cases where the Attic writers reject it. This happens in the derivative tenses of verbs in -oáw, where on contracted into ω; eg. βώσω, ἔβωσα for βοήσω, ἐβόησα (from βοάω), ἀμβώσας for ἀναβοήσας. The epic prolongation in verbs in -άω and -δω is rarely used by the Ionians.

(c) The Doric dialect, like the Ionic, contracts co and cou into ev; e. g. ποιεῦντι for ποιέοντι = ποιέουσι. In verbs in -άω the Dorians contract ao, aou and an into a; e.g. πεινᾶμες for πεινάομεν, contr. πεινῶμεν, πεινᾶντι for πεινάουσι, contr. πεινῶσι. On the contrary, it is worthy of remark that ae and ae are contracted by them not into a but into ŋ; e.g. ἐρῇ and ἐρῇν for ἐρᾷ and ἐρᾷν, τολμῆτε for τολμάτε. Also verbs in - take the Doric infinitive termination -ny, contr. from -env; e. g. koʊμîν for κοσμεῖν. In very broad Doric we have φιλίω, φιλίομες, φιλίοντι for φιλέω, φιλέομες, φιλέουσι.

(d) On the Æolic dialect nothing can be advanced with safety, on account of the few and uncertain traces of its usage. A particular infinitive form of verbs in -áw and -ów with the terminations -aus and -ous is given as a peculiarity belonging to it; e. g. γέλαις for γελᾷν, ὕψοις for ὑψοῦν.

(7) With respect to the accent in contracted verbs, attention must be paid to the general rules for the accentuation of verbal forms combined with the observations on the change of the accent in contraction.

§ XIII. Anomalous Verbs.

334 Although the verbs which have been given in the paradigms are called regular, the student has already seen that they are all liable to defects and anomalies; and even TUTTO, the most complete specimen of a regular conjugation, will be found again in the list of irregular verbs. In fact, the more common the occurrence of a verb is, the more liable it is to casual affections; and

the study of the irregular verbs is, in fact, a study of those verbs which the learner will meet with most frequently in the course of his reading.

335 The irregularities with which the student has to make himself acquainted, may be classed under two different heads. (I) Anomalies of signification. (II) Anomalies of form.

(I) Anomalies of Signification.

336 Anomalies of signification arise from some apparent contradiction between the form of the person-endings and the action expressed. Properly speaking, the person-endings which are equivalent to an instrumental case, such as -μt, -μev, &c., are appropriated to the active voice; while those which are equivalent to a locative case are appropriated to the middle or passive voice. Thus Sidw-μ means, "a giving by me;" Sidoμev, "a giving by us;" but dido-pat, "a giving on or of me;' Sidó-μela, "a giving on or of us" (285). But the passive form of the person-endings is in many cases exclusively adopted by verbs which have no trace of a passive meaning, and which we call deponent, because they have entirely deponed or laid aside the signification proper to the person-endings. On the other hand we have seen that an insertion of the elements On or n supersedes the proper force of the active person-endings, as affecting the voice of a verb (289, (g)). And with regard to the future, we shall see that the form in -pai, from в (290), or what is commonly called the first future middle, may be used in particular verbs as a passive (342), and in other verbs as an active future (344). In considering, therefore, the anomalies of signification exhibited by the Greek verb, it will be desirable to notice first the deponent verbs, in which the form is throughout inconsistent with the signification, and then to pass on to the anomalous use of particular tenses.

(A) Deponent Verbs.

337 The meaning of the deponent verbs and their relation to the middle voice will be explained in the Syntax. Here it is merely necessary to say that (1) if the aorist is formed in -oáμny, according to the type of the middle voice, a verb of this class is

called "middle deponent" (deponens medium); as λoyíčoμai, “I set down to any one's account," aorist èλoyiσáμnv; but it is to be remarked that some of these verbs have by the side of their aorist middle with an active signification, also a passive aorist with a passive meaning; as edwpnoáμnv, "I made a present," but edwphony, "I received a gift.”

(2) If the aorist in use has only the passive endings, a verb of this class is called "passive deponent" (deponens passivum); as évovμéopaι, "I lay to heart, I ponder," 1 aor. éve@vμýonv.

But besides these there are

(3) Deponents with both passive and middle forms of the aorist, and among these (a) some prefer the passive form, as diaλέγομαι, “ I converse,” 1 aor. both διελέχθην and διελεξάμην, the former being most used; (b) others prefer the middle form, as ἀποκρίνομαι, “I answer,” 1 aor. both ἀπεκρίθην and ἀπεκρινάμην, the latter being most used; (c) others use both aorists indifferently, as πειράομαι, “ I attempt,” 1 aor. ἐπειράθην and ἐπειρασάμην.

(4) Deponents used only in the present and imperfect, as ἀναῤῥιχάομαι, “ I clamber.


The following lists give examples of all these different classes :

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ἀράομαι, “ pray.

άoτáloμai, "greet or welcome." Biáloμai, "compel."

βληχάομαι, “ bleat.”

βραυκανάομαι, βρυχανάομαι

(βρυχάομαι), “ roar.”

βριμάομαι, βριμόομαι, “ snort with anger."

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Bpwμáoμai, "bray like an ass."

ȧvaẞiáσkoμaι, "restore to life." yiyvoμai, "come into being, be

ἀναίνομαι, “ deny."

ȧvaπηvíçoμaι, “wind up, reel off (threads from a cocoon, &c.)." ἀποδιοπομπέομαι, " purify by an atoning sacrifice,"


come, exhibit or prove my


Seidioκoμai, "greet."

δειδίσσομαι, δεδίσσομαι, “ frighten, alarm."

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