« PreviousContinue »
the study of the irregular verbs is, in fact, a study of those verbs which the learner will meet with most frequently in the course of his reading.
335 The irregularities with which the student has to make himself acquainted, may be classed under two different heads. (I) Anomalies of signification. (II) Anomalies of form.
(I) Anomalies of Signification.
336 Anomalies of signification arise from some apparent contradiction between the form of the person-endings and the action expressed. Properly speaking, the person-endings which are equivalent to an instrumental case, such as -μt, -μev, &c., are appropriated to the active voice; while those which are equivalent to a locative case are appropriated to the middle or passive voice. Thus Sidw-μ means, "a giving by me;" Sidoμev, "a giving by us;" but dido-pat, "a giving on or of me;' Sidó-μela, "a giving on or of us" (285). But the passive form of the person-endings is in many cases exclusively adopted by verbs which have no trace of a passive meaning, and which we call deponent, because they have entirely deponed or laid aside the signification proper to the person-endings. On the other hand we have seen that an insertion of the elements On or n supersedes the proper force of the active person-endings, as affecting the voice of a verb (289, (g)). And with regard to the future, we shall see that the form in -pai, from в (290), or what is commonly called the first future middle, may be used in particular verbs as a passive (342), and in other verbs as an active future (344). In considering, therefore, the anomalies of signification exhibited by the Greek verb, it will be desirable to notice first the deponent verbs, in which the form is throughout inconsistent with the signification, and then to pass on to the anomalous use of particular tenses.
(A) Deponent Verbs.
337 The meaning of the deponent verbs and their relation to the middle voice will be explained in the Syntax. Here it is merely necessary to say that (1) if the aorist is formed in -oáμny, according to the type of the middle voice, a verb of this class is
called "middle deponent" (deponens medium); as λoyíčoμai, “I set down to any one's account," aorist èλoyiσáμnv; but it is to be remarked that some of these verbs have by the side of their aorist middle with an active signification, also a passive aorist with a passive meaning; as edwpnoáμnv, "I made a present," but edwphony, "I received a gift.”
(2) If the aorist in use has only the passive endings, a verb of this class is called "passive deponent" (deponens passivum); as évovμéopaι, "I lay to heart, I ponder," 1 aor. éve@vμýonv.
But besides these there are
(3) Deponents with both passive and middle forms of the aorist, and among these (a) some prefer the passive form, as diaλέγομαι, “ I converse,” 1 aor. both διελέχθην and διελεξάμην, the former being most used; (b) others prefer the middle form, as ἀποκρίνομαι, “I answer,” 1 aor. both ἀπεκρίθην and ἀπεκρινάμην, the latter being most used; (c) others use both aorists indifferently, as πειράομαι, “ I attempt,” 1 aor. ἐπειράθην and ἐπειρασάμην.
(4) Deponents used only in the present and imperfect, as ἀναῤῥιχάομαι, “ I clamber.
The following lists give examples of all these different classes :
ἀράομαι, “ pray.
άoτáloμai, "greet or welcome." Biáloμai, "compel."
βληχάομαι, “ bleat.”
(βρυχάομαι), “ roar.”
βριμάομαι, βριμόομαι, “ snort with anger."
Bpwμáoμai, "bray like an ass."
ȧvaẞiáσkoμaι, "restore to life." yiyvoμai, "come into being, be
ἀναίνομαι, “ deny."
ȧvaπηvíçoμaι, “wind up, reel off (threads from a cocoon, &c.)." ἀποδιοπομπέομαι, " purify by an atoning sacrifice,"
come, exhibit or prove my
δειδίσσομαι, δεδίσσομαι, “ frighten, alarm."
κινύρομαι, “ utter a plaintive ὀφρύομαι, " act proudly."
ποτνιάομαι, " appeal to, implore.”
πραγματεύομαι, “am employed."
προφασίζομαι, "make excuse."
μηρυκάομαι, “ ruminate, chew προοιμιάζομαι, “ prelude.”
σκαριφάομαι, “ scratch with the φρυγανίζομαι, “ collect fire
In these verbs the middle future is either exclusively used, or is at least the prevailing form. And the same remark applies to the deponents of the third class, except that epapai has always ἐρασθήσομαι, and διαλέγομαι has both διαλεχθήσομαι and διαλέξομαι.
340 3 Deponents with Passive and Middle Aorist.
(α) The aor. pass. is the usual form.
ἄγαμαι, “ admire.”
αἰδέομαι, “ respect.
ἁμιλλάομαι, “ contend.”
ἀρνέομαι, “ deny."
διαλέγομαι, “ converse."
ἔραμαι, “ love.”
νεμεσάομαι, " am indignant."
φιλοτιμέομαι, “am ambitious."
341 4 Deponents used only in the Present and Imperfect.
μέδομαι, “ take thought."
μύρομαι, “ bewail.”
νεμεσίζομαι, “ become wroth.”
μώμαι, “ desire.”
νίσσομαι, “ g0."
ἔθομαι, “ have a care for.
βρενθύομαι (-ύνομαι), “ bear my- ὀπίζομαι, “ take thought."
δαιμονίζομαι, “ am possessed.”
ὀργιάζομαι, “ keep a revel.”
ὄσσομαι, “ conjecture.”
εἰλυσπάομαι, “ wriggle, crawl.” ἔλδομαι, “ desire.”
πένομαι, “ labour.”
πλίσσομαι, “ step out.”
σίνομαι, “ hurt.
σκύζομαι, “ am enraged."
σοῦμαι, “ rush.”