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also with regard to the passive aorists of such verbs: ékтýonvÈKτησάμην, εἰργάσθην = εἰργασάμην, &c. There are even irregula rities in the use of the present tense: thus, vouμeva is passive in Plat. Phod. 69. Perhaps the greatest difficulty which can arise from these anomalies of signification, is the employment of a middle form, which is strictly discriminated by common usage from the active, in a merely deponent or active sense. See especially the case of didáσkoμaι, which is discussed in the Syntax (below, 434).
(II) Anomalies of Form.
351 Anomalies of form, or irregularities in the inflexions of verbs through their moods and tenses, arise either from the practice of making up the different tenses of verbs by forms derived from different but synonymous roots, as in the case of eiμí (above, 321); or from the use of some strengthening affix in the present tense, which is neglected in the other tenses: such affixes are --, -σK-, -v-, -vi-, -vn-, -vu-, -la-, -7-. The explanation of these forms is given in the next part of the Grammar (below, 366). But it belongs to the subject now before us to remark that the affixes -On(n) and -σê- are used to form tenses within the domain of a regular verb. Thus we have seen (above, 291), that the former is used regularly to make the passive aorist, and that the latter is employed by the Ionic writers to construct a set of iterative tenses from the imperfect and aorist tenses of the indicative mood (331, I, 1, (a)); e. g. imperf. xλaieσkov, "I continually bewailed," of a continuous act continually repeated; aor. MáßeσKOV, "I kept taking," of a single act continually repeated. As the augment is always omitted, these tenses may be compared with the optative mood, to one usage of which (i. e. the iterative) they fully correspond.
The following tables (from Krüger's Grammar) classify the irregularities found in the forms of anomalous verbs:
352 I. Verbs in -w, with collateral forms in -ew or -eoμai.
ἄχθομαι, “am vexed (at)” ἀχθέσθήσ)- ἠχθέσθην
βούλομαι, will, choose” βουλήσομαι
μάχομαι, “ fight”
οἴομαι, “ think "
οἴχομαι, “ am gone
II. Verbs in -έω, with a collateral form in -ω.
III. Verbs with -άν-ω, -άν-ομαι appended to the simple root, to which are added some verbs ending in -νω, -ίνω, -αίνω = -ανύω,
IV. Verbs with -άνω, -άνομαι appended to a root shortened and
strengthened by the insertion of v.
ληφθήσομαι ἐλήφθην εἴλημμαι
λαγχάνω, “receive by lot” λήξομαι
τυγχάνω, “ hit a mark” τεύξομαι
V. Verbs with
πυνθάνομαι, “ inquire”
-σκω appended to the simple root.
VI. Verbs with -σκω appended to the reduplicated root.
[βρώσομαι] [ἔβρωσα] βέβρωκα
1 Only in compounds with από, ἐξ and διά (as above, 313).