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Perfect. (Comp. στρώννυμι)

[έστορέσθην] έστόρεσμαι κεράννυμι, mix” κεράσω (2) έκέρασα

κέκρακα (2) Passive

(εκράθην (κέκράμαι

έκεράσθην [κεκέρασμαι] Middle

έκερασάμην κρεμάννυμι, “hang”


έκρέμασα ? (trans.) Passive

εκρεμάσθην (κεκρέμαμαι) κρέμαμαι, "hang” (in- κρεμήσομαι

trans.) πετάννυμι, spread out, πετάσω, πετώ επέτάσα [πεπέτάκα)

extend” Passive

έπετάσθην πέπτάμαι σκεδάννυμι, scatter σκεδώ έσκέδασα Passive

έσκεδάσθην έσκέδασμαι ζώννυμι, gird” ζώσω έζωσα [έζωκα] Passive

έζωσμαι Middle

έζωσάμην ρώννυμι, “strengthen” ρώσω

? Passive

ρωσθήσομαι ερρώσθην έρρωμαι στρώννυμι, “strew” στρώσω

έστρωσα Passive

έστρώθην έστρωμαι Middle

έστρωσάμην χρώννυμι, colour

έχρωσα ? Passive

έχρώσθην κέχρωσμαι

IX. Verbs with tenses derived from other roots.

Present. Root.


Perfect. αιρέω, “ take” έλ- αίρήσω είλον ήρηκα

αιρεθήσομαι ήρέθην ήρημαι ειπείν, «gay” έρ


είπον ()

είρηκα Passive


έρρήθην είρημαι

ειρήσομαι έρχομαι, go” ελευθ- ελεύσομαι ήλθον ελήλυθα εσθίω, « eat” έδ-, φαγ- έδoμαι έφαγον εδήδοκα Passive

(ήδέσθην) εδήδεσμοι έχω, “have”

σχ-,σχε- έξω, σχήσω έσχον Passive

[έσχέθην] έσχημαι


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ειδόμην πίνω, « drink” πε-, πο- πίομαι

έπίον Passive

πoθήσομαι επόθην τρέχω, “run” δραμ- δραμούμαι έδραμον

Passive φέρω, “bear” ένεκ-, οί- οίσω 6 ”

ήνεγκον Passive

(ενεχθήσομαι ήνέχθην

οισθήσομαι Middle

οίσομαι ήνεγκάμην

πέπωκα πέπομαι δεδράμηκα δεδραμήσθαι ενώνοχα ενήνεγμαι

§ XIV. List of Defective and Irregular Verbs. 353 Roots are distinguished by capitals ; poetical words by an asterisk.


AA-, «I damage or stultify,” άασα, contr. ασα, αάσθην, αασάμην, of which the 3 sing. άσατι is used in an active sense, as is also the 3 sing. pres. middle ααται. Both α’s may be made Iong or short according to the exigencies of the metre.

'Αγαίομαιand άγαμαι, “I admire,” αγάσομαι, ήγάσθην and ήγασάμην.

'Αγείρω, I collect,” another form of εγείρω, 3 pl. 2 aor, mid. αγέροντο, 3 pl. plup. pass. αγωγέρατο, lengthened forms ηγερέθονται, ήγερέθεσθαι, aor. part. αγρόμενος, all with passive significations.

'Αγνοέω, «I am ignorant,” epic άγνοιέω*, fut. αγνοήσομαι, according to the grammarians (see Thom. M. 7), but dryvonow in Demosth. (885, 1; 1266, 19), who uses αγνοήσομαι as passive (310, 7), 2 sing. aor. iterat. αγνώσασκε (above, 331, Ι, 1, (a)).

"Αγ-νυ-μι, “I break,” root FAΓ- (cf. ρήγ-νυ-μι), fut. άξω, aor. έαξα, εάγην, 2 perf. έάγα with pass. signification. Instead of κατάξαις, 2 sing. 1 aor. opt. act. We have καυάξαις = καFFάξαις. *Αγω, “I lead,” 2 aor. ήγαγον, perf. ήχα and αγήρχα.

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'Αείδω, “I sing,” contr. άδω, imperf. ήειδον, contr. ηδον, fut. άσομαι.

'Αείρω, “I raise,” contr. αίρω: see αιρέω. "Anjut, “I blow," takes no augment and retains the n in the

Αημι, dual and plural, and in the derived tenses, e. g. dual ăntov, inf. άήναι, pass. pres. part. αήμενος, imperf. άητο, but in the 3 pl. pr. act. άεισι (with irregular accent), part. αείς. Ιn Homer we have an aorist άεσα.

Αιδέομαι, «I reverence,” fut. αιδέσομαι, epic αιδήσομαι, aor. ήδεσάμην, ήδέσθην. There are epic by-forms αίδομαι, imp.

, . αίδετο.

Αϊνέω, «I praise,” fut. αινέσω or αινέσομαι, perf. pass. ήνημαι, 1 aor. pass. ήνέθην. Ηesiod, Op. et D. 683, has the Eolic by-form αϊνημι.

Αϊνυμαι, “I take,” exists only in the preg. and imperf., and the latter has no augment.

Αιρέω, “I take,” αιρήσω, 1 aor. pass. ήρέθην, 2 aor. act. (from root ‘EA-) cirov. In the middle, aipoūmai signifies “I choose," i.e. take for myself. Distinguish this from deipw or aipw, “I raise,” for άείρω, 1 aor. act. άειρα, 3 sing. subj. αέρση, 1 aor. mid. ήράμην for άειράμην, plup. pass. άωρτο.

Αισ-θά-νομαι, “I perceive,” fut. αισθήσομαι, 2 aor. ήσθόμην.

’Atw, “I hear,” only in the pres. and imperf., the latter unaugmented. The Ionic prose writers have the compound étato with the irregular 3 per. pl. 1 aor. επήϊσαν.

'ΑΚ-, “I point,” ακαχμένος*, pointed.

'Ακαχίζω*, “I humble or aflict,” from AX-, aor. ήκαχον, fut. ακακήσω, 1 aor. ηκάχησα, perf. pass. ακάχημαι, ακακώμενος Or άκηγέμενος, with irregular accent.

'Ακέομαι, «I heal,” fut. ακέσομαι, 1 aor. ηκέσθην, with pass. signification.

'Ακούω, “I hear,” fut. ακούσομαι, 1 aor. ήκουσα, perf. act. ακήκοα, perf. pass. ήκουσμαι.

'Αλάομαι, «I wander,” perf. with pres. signification αλάλημαι". 'Αλδή-σκω, “I nourish,” from ΑΛΔΕ-, ΑΛΔ-, fut. αλδήσω. 'Αλείφω, “I anoint,” perf. αλήλιφα, perf. pass. αλήλιμμαι,

, later ήλειμμαι, 1 aor. pass. ήλείφθην, rarer form ηλίφην.

'Αλέξω*, «I ward off,” fut. αλεξήσω and αλέξομαι, 1 aor. mid. αλέξασθαι, from AΛEK-, ΑΛΚ-, probably strengthened by θι-; Comp. αύξω.


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'Αλέομαι*, «I avoid,” also αλεύομαι, 1 aor. ήλευάμην, inf. αλέασθαι and αλεύασθαι. Another form in Homer is αλεείνω".

'Αλέω, “I grind,” later αλήθω, fut. αλέσω, Attic αλώ, perf. pass. αλήλεσμαι.

Αλ-ίσκομαι, “I am taken,” fut. αλώσομαι, 2 aor. ήλων or εάλων, «I was taken,” infin. αλώναι, part. άλούς, perf. εάλωκα, ήλωκα, from “ΑΛΟ-; comp. άμβλ-ίσκω.

'Αλιταίνω*, «I offend,” fut. άλιτήσω, 2 aor. ήλιον, part. perf. pass. άλιτήμενος, with deponent signification.

"Αλλομαι, «I leap, fut. άλούμαι, 1 aor. ηλάμην, άλασθαι. Hence in Homer άλσο, άλτο, άλμενος for ήλασο, ήλατο, αλάμενος.

'Αλφαίνω”, “I find, acquire,” 2 aor. ήλφον.

Αμαρτ-άνω, “I err,” fut. αμαρτήσομαι, perf. ήμάρτηκα, pass. ημάρτημαι (as if there were also a form ΑΜΑΡΤΕ-), 2 aor. ήμαρτον (in Homer ήμβροτον); the fut. αμαρτήσω is Ionic.

'Αμβλίσκω, “I make an abortion,” fut. αμβλώσω, &c., 2 aor. ήμβλων.

'Αμπλακίσκω*, “I fail, miss,” 2 aor. ήμπλακον, inf. άμπλακείν, fut. άμπλακήσω.

Avalvojai, "I deny or refuse,” only pres. and imperf. and the aor. άνηνάμην, inf. ανήνασθαι.

'Ανάλ-ίσκω, ανάλόω, “I take up and consume,” fut. αναλώσω, aor. ανάλωσα, perf. act. ανάλωκα, perf. pass. ανάλωμαι, 1 aor. pass. αναλώθην. Comp. αλίσκομαι, which contains the same root, although the quantity of the first syllable differs.

Obs. As the second a in this verb is already long, it receives no augment in the old Attic writers, though ανήλωσα appears to have been said in the language of common life.

Ανδάνω, “I please,” from FAΔ- with double nasal, imperf. ήνδανον, εάνδανον and έήνδανον*, 2 aor. έάδον, perf. έάδα, fut. αδήσω.

'Ανήνoθενή, «it stands up, as if derived from the root 'AΝΘin άνθος. 'Ανοίγω and ανοίγνυμι, “I open,” fut. ανοίξω, 1 aor. ανέωξα,

” perf. act. ανέφχα, perf. pass. ανεωγμαι, 2 perf. ανέργα; less frequently ήνοιξα, &c.

'Ανώγω, ανωγέω, “I order,” imperf. άνωγον, fut. ανώξω, 1 aor. ήνωξα, a secondary verb from an old perf. άνωγα*, with a present meaning, pluperf. ήνώγειν, Ionic ηνώγεα, imperat. άνωχθι and άνωγε.

So Γεγώνω, γεγονέω, “I speak aloud,” from the old perf. γέγωνα*, ήκω from είκα, &c.

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deceive,”2 αρ. ήπαφον, inf. απαφεϊν, subj. φα,

απατάω. νομαι, am hated,” fut. απεχθήσομαι, perf. απήχθημαι, 2aor. απηχθόμην. 'Aπούρας*, « having separated,” and απουράμενος", "being de

* prived,” in a passive sense, 1 aor. part. from OTP-=ATP-=FAP-, which is also found in επ-αυρ-ίσκομαι, “I derive advantage from,” fut. επ-αυρ-ήσομαι, aor. έπηυρον. Comp. also ευρ-ίσκω.

We have from the same root the imperf. απηύρων", 1 aor. απηύρα*, part. απηύρας, 1 aor. mid. απηυράμην.

'Αράομαι, “I pray,” is regular, except the 2 aor. pass. inf. άρήμεναι* (Ηom. Οd. XXII. 322).

'Αρέσκω, from 'AP-, “I please,” fut. αρέσω, aor. ήρεσα, aor. pass. ήρέσθην. From the same root in the sense, “ I annex” or “adapt” (fut.


(. άρσω), 1 aor. ήρσα*, perf. pass. άρήρεμαι, 1 aor. pass. ήρθαν, 2 perf. ήρηρα, Ionic ήραρα, Doric άράρα, mostly intrans. “to fit, to be fast,” 2 . 2 aor. ñpapov. Homer has the participle apăpvia. From åpnpa

. άρηρα came αράρω and άραρίσκω.

Also in the sense, "I render favourable,” fut. αρέσω*, αρέσομαι, aor. ήρεσα, mid. αρέσασθαι. 'Αριστάω, “I breakfast,” in colloquial Attic had ήρίσταμεν and

“I ,
ηριστάναι as 1 pl. and inf. perf. (Athen. Χ. p. 423).

*Αρνυμαι*, «I gain,” has only the pres. and imp.
'Αρόω, “I plough,” fut. αρόσω, perf. pass. άρήρομαι.
Αρπάζω, “I snatch,” has αρπάμενος** in the later poets.

Αυξάνω, αέξω, αύξω, “I increase,” fut. αυξήσω, 1 aor. ηύξησα, perf. pass. ηυξημαι, aor. pass. ηυξήθην.

'Αυτέω*, “I cry out,” fut. αύσω, aor. ήύσα.
'Αφάσσω, «I touch,” 1 aor. ήφασα.

*Αχθομαι, «I am angry,” fut. αχθέσομαι and άχθεσθήσομαι, 1 aor. ηχθέσθην.

*Aω*, “I satisfy,” inf. άμεναι, contr. for αέμεναι, fut. άσω, aor. άσα. We have άάται (Hesiod, Scut. 101), for which it is proposed to read αται, « he satisfies himself.”


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Β. Baiva, “I go," from BA-, with affix vi and metathesis, fut. βήσομαι, perf. βέβηκα, pl. βέβαμεν, βέβατε, βεβάσι, subj. βεβώ, inf. βεβάναι, part. βεβώς, -ώσα, 2 aor. έβην, imperat. βήθι, in com

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