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εἰδέναι (Ep. and Ion. ἴδμεναι and ἴδμεν)


εἰδώς (Ep. fem. ἰδυῖα)

The verb onu is found only in the Doric poets, and is a later variation.

ΕΙΚ-, “ I resemble,” 2 perf. οἶκα, ἔοικα, pl. ἔοιγμεν, plup. ἐκειν; another Attic form is είκα, fut. εἴξω. For εἴκασιν the Attics said εἴξασιν.

Είλω*, εἴλλω οι εἵλλω, also εἰλέω, “ I roll together,” aor. ἔλσα, inf. ἔλσαι οι ἐέλσαι, perf. pass. ἔελμαι, 2 aor. pass. ἐάλην oι ἑάλην, 3 pl. ἅλεν, inf. ἀλῆναι or ἁλῆναι, also ἀλήμεναι, 3 sing. plup. pass. ἐόλητο, according to which Pindar has the 3 sing. imp. act. ἐόλει. Εἵμαρται, see μείρομαι.

Εἴρω*, “I say,” only epic; see under ΕΠ-.

Εἴρω, “ I string together,” aor. εἶρα and ἔρσα, perf. pass. ἔερμαι, plup. ἐέρμην.

Εκέκλετο, see κέλομαι.

Ελαύνω, “ I drive" (i.e. both veho and vehor), for ἐλα-νύω, root ΕΛΑ- (above, 144), fut. ἐλάσω, Attic ἐλώ, 1 aor. ἤλασα, perf. ἐλή λακα, perf. pass. ἐλήλαμαι, 1 aor. ἠλάθην.

Ελέγχω, “ I confute,” perf. pass. ἐλήλεγμαι.

Ἑλίσσω, “I wind,” perf. pass. εἵλιγμαι, and in the unattic writers ἐλήλιγμαι.

Ελκω, “I drag, forms 1 aor. and perf. as from ἑλκυ.

Ἔλπω, “I cause to hope,” ἔλπομαι, perf. ἔολπα, “I hope.”

ΕΛ-, “I take,” see αἱρέω.

ἘΛΥΘ-, “ I come,” see ἔρχομαι.

Ἐμέω, “ I vomit,” perf. ἐμήμεκα.

ΕΝΕΚ-, ΕΝΕΙΚ-, ΕΝΕΓΚ-, " I bear,” see φέρω.

Ἐνίπτω*, “I chide,” an Homeric word, has two forms of the

2 aor. ἠνῖπαπον and ἐνένιπον.

Εννυμι*, “I put on,” fut. ἔσω, ἕσσω, ἕσσομαι, 1 aor. ὅσα, ὅσσα, ἑσσάμην, perf. pass. είμαι, pluperf. 2 pers. sing. Εσσο, 3 ἕστο, 3 pl. εἴατο, aor. pass. ὥσθην (εἵαται and εἵατο are also from ἕζω).

In prose, only ἀμφιέννυμι occurs, fut. ἀμφιέσομαι and ἀμφιῶ (from ἀμφιέσω), 1 aor. ἠμφίεσα, perf. pass. ἠμφίεσμαι.

ΕΝΟΘ-*, “ Ι shake” (?), 2 perf. ἐνήνοθε, “ it lies upon.” Buttmann, Lexil. pp. 110, 133, Eng. Tr.).


Ἐπίσταμαι, “I understand,” middle of ἐφίστημι, Ionic ἐπίστημι, imperf. ἠπιστάμην, fut. ἐπιστήσομαι, 1 aor. ἐπιστήθην, Attic ἠπιστήθην.

'EII-, or more properly FEII-, "I say," évéπw, evvéπw, 2 aor. εἶπον, εἰπέ, εἴπω, εἴποιμι, εἰπεῖν, εἰπών, 1 aor. εἶπα, an Ionic form, whence the Attics said εἴπας (2 pers. sing. indic.), also εἰπάτω, εἰπάτων, εἴπατε, and sometimes εἶπον or εἰπόν, in the imperat.

For ἔπω the poets used ἔσπω, whence ἐνίσπω.

Tenses supplied from EP- are fut. ἐρέω (ἐρέσω) Ionic, ἐρῶ Attic; perf. act. εἴρηκα, perf. pass. εἴρημαι, 1 aor. pass. ἐῤῥήθην, Ionic ἐῤῥέθην, fut. εἰρήσομαι. The middle, in a causative sense, "I cause to speak,” is used to form tenses of ἐρωτάω, “I ask.” In this sense we have an aorist ἠρόμην, ἐροῦ, ἔρωμαι, ἐρέσθαι, and a fut. ἐρήσομαι. From εἴρημαι are derived ῥῆμα, ῥήτωρ, &c.

Ἐπαυρίσκομαι*, “I enjoy or derive advantage from,” in Theognis ἐπαυρίσκω, in Hesiod ἐπαυρέω. See above, ἀπούρας. Ἔπεφνον*, see ΦΕΝ-.


Επίσταμαι, “ I understand,” imper. ἐπίστασο and ἐπίστω, imperf. ἠπιστάμην, fut. ἐπιστήσομαι, aor. ἠπιστήθην.

Ἐπιτόσσαις*, see τεύχω.

Ἔπλευ*, ἔπλεο, ἔπλετο, see πέλω.

Επω*, “I am employed about anything” (in Homer, and the compounds in Attic prose), imperf. εἶπον, 2 aor. ἕσπον, as in ἔπεσπον, ἐπισπές, ἐπίσπω, ἐπίσποιμι, ἐπισπεῖν, ἐπισπών, fut. ἐφέψω. Whence the middle

Επομαι, “ I follow,” imperf. εἱπόμην, 2 aor. ἑσπόμην, imperat. σπέο, σπεῖο, fut. ψομαι. Poets after Homer had also ἕσπωμαι, ἑσποίμην, ἑσπέσθαι.

Ἐπώχατο* (Π. XIII. 340), see ἔχω.

Ἐράω, “I love” (in epic, &c. ἔραμαι, 1 aor. ἠρασάμην), 1 aor. ἠράσθην, amavi, part. pass. ἐρώμενος, “ loved.”

ΕΡΓ-, or more properly FΕΡΓ-, “I do,” fuit. ἔρξω, 1 aor. ἔρξα, 2 perf. ἔοργα: other forms of the present are ἔρδω and ῥέξω. Hence Εργάζομαι, “ I labour at” (see 354).

"Epyw, "I inclose," "keep off," in Homer and Herodotus; in the former frequently έργω. Hence ἔρχαται, ἔρχατο, ἀπέρξαι, ἀπεργμένος.

In Attic writers εἴργω, “I shut out,” εἴργω, εἵργνυμι (aspirated), "I shut in."

Ἔρδω, “I do,” see ῥέξω.

'Epeiow, "I lean against," plup. pass. 3 sing. pnpeloto, 3 pl. épnpédaтo, "was fixed firm" or "rested."


'Epeino, "I dash down," 2 aor. йperov, intr., but also in a passive form, as appears from the participle épineis, perf. èpnpera, intr., but also in a passive form, epýpiμμai.

Obs. These verbs, though almost contradictory in signification, are often confused by students, and sometimes even by lexicographers and commentators, as in Aristoph. Eq. 627, 8, where, and in Pind. Pyth. 264, 267, the two verbs occur in immediate contrast.

EPIA-, "I contend," 1 fut. èpionow, 1 aor. mid. èpidńoaodai*, perf. with pres. signification ἐρηρίσμαι. Hence ἐρίζω and ἐριδαίνω. "Eppo, "I go slowly, or to my sorrow," fut. èppnow, &c. Ἐρυγγάνω, “ Ι εructate,” also ερεύγομαι, aor. ἤρυγον.

Ερυθαίνω, “I make red,” ἐρεύθω, fut. ἐρεύσω, ἐρυθήσω, perf. ἠρύθηκα.

Ἐρύκω, “I draw back,” 2 aor. ἠρύκακον.

'Epúw, "I draw," has u short in flexion; unpów, though another form of the same word (117), has the u long. We have, however, εἰρύσατο, ῥῦσθαι, &c.

The forms and meanings of this word occasion some difficulty. (1) In the middle sense, "I draw to myself," we have fut. épúoooμαι and ἐρύομαι, aor. ῥυσάμην, ἐρυσσάμην, εἰρυσάμην, plup. 3 sing. εἴρῦτο, 3 pl. εἰρῦατο. (2) In the sense, “I deliver,” we have ῥύομαι, fut. ῥύσομαι, aor. ἐῤῥυσάμην, but in epic poetry also ῥυσάμην (Π. xv. 23). Other varieties occur, which explain themselves.

"Epxoμai (from 'EPX-, 'OPX-, connected with 'OPET-) “I make a straight line for myself," "I go forward," "I come," is the most irregular verb in the Greek language. The imperf. pxóun is never used by Attic writers (see Cobet, Var. Lect. p. 32). The complement of tenses is made up from 'I-, which furnishes the imperf. new or ya, and the fut. elu (322); from 'EATO-, which furnishes the aor. ἦλθον (Hom. ήλυθον), fut. ἐλεύσομαι (very rare in good Attic), perf. èλýλv¤a (Hom. eiλýλovea); from 'I-, which furnishes the perf. in the sense, "I am come," gen. кw, íxw, ixávw, invéopaι (above, 347, Obs.); in the sense, "I am gone," oixoμai, oxoxa, the past tenses of these verbs representing the pluperfect. The infin. pres. is gen. lévat, and the partic. iv.

'Eooiw, ow, "I eat," from 'EA-, perf. act. édýdoxa, perf. pass. ἐδήδεσμαι, 2 perf. ἔδησα, fut. ἔδομαι: from ΦΑΓ-, 2 aor. ἔφαγον. The fut. payopat is Hellenistic.

Εΰδω, καθεύδω, “I sleep,” fut. ευδήσω, καθευδήσω, imperf. ἐκάθε ενδον, more rarely καθηΰδον and καθεύδον.

Εὑρίσκω, “ I find,” from ΕΥΡ-, fut. ευρήσω, perf. act. εὕρηκα, perf. pass. εὕρημαι, 1 aor. εὑρέθην, 2 aor. act. εὗρον, mid. εὑρόμην. Verbal adjective εὑρετέος. See ἀπούρας.

"Exw, "I have in my hand, i.e. I possess," or, perhaps primarily, " I hold forth and give,” fut. Έξω, 2 aor. ἔσχον, imperat. σχές, subj. σχῶ, opt. σχοίην, inf. σχεῖν, part. σχών, 2 aor. mid. ἐσχόμην, σχοῦ, σχῶμαι, σχοίμην, σχέσθαι, σχόμενος. Also fut. σχήσω, mid. σχήσομαι, perf. ἔσχηκα, perf. pass. ἔσχημαι, 1 aor. ἐσχέθην, fut. σχεθήσομαι. Hence a new present σχέθω. From ἔχω are also formed ἴσχω = ἔχ-σκω and the compounds ὑπίσχομαι, ὑπισχνέομαι, “Ι promise.” Αμπέχω, “I clothe,” has a mid. ἀμπισχνέομαι. The perfect ὄκωχα, in the Homeric συνοχώτατε (Π. ΙΙ. 218), is a peculiar formation, and we have also ἐπώχατο as the 3 pl. pluperf. from ἐπέχω.

There are the following irregularities in the compounds of exw: (1) ἀνέχομαι makes imp. ἠνειχόμην, aor. ἠνεσχόμην, infin. ἀνασχέσθαι.

(2) ἀμπέχω makes imp. ἀμπεῖχον, fut. ἀμφέξω, aor. ἤμπισχον, inf. ἀμπισχεῖν, and the middle ἀμπέχομαι οι ἀμπισχνέομαι makes imp. ἠμπειχόμην, fut. ἀμφέξομαι, aor. ἠμπισχόμην.

(3) ὑπισχνέομαι οι ὑπίσχομαι has fut. ὑποσχήσομαι, aor. ὑπεσχόμην, imperf. ὑπόσχου, perf. ὑπέσχημαι.

'E-, "I place" or "set up," 1 aor. eloa, mid. eioáμnv, perf. pass. ήμαι, “ I sit, derivative forms ἕζομαι, ἵζω, q. v.

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Εψω, “I cook," fut. ἑψήσω and ἑψήσομαι, verbals ἑφθός, ἑψητός, ἑψητέος.


Ζάω, “I live” (ζω, ζῇς, ζῇ, above, 333, (5)), imperat. ζῆ and ζῆθι, imperf. ἔζων and ἔζην, -ης, -η, fut. ζήσω and ζήσομαι. The Attics use the aorist ἐβίων, βιῶναι, βιούς, and the perf. βεβίωκα.

Ζέω, “ I boil, fut. ζέσω, verbal ζεστός.


Ηγέομαι, “ I lead the way,” “ I consider” (like the two meanings of duco), perf. with pres. signification ἤγημαι, part. τὰ ἁγημένα, "that which is usual" (Demosth. in Macart. p. 1072, 28), where Dindorf writes ἀγημένα.

ΗΔ-, “I please,” see άνδάνω.

Ημαι, “ I sit, perf. pass. of E-, " I set,” pluperf. 3 pers. pl. ἕατο and εἵατο for ἦντο, imperat. σο, infn. ἧσθαι, part. ἥμενος, not ἡμένος, on account of the present signification.

Compound κάθημαι, κάθησο, καθοίμην, κάθωμαι, καθῆσθαι; imperf. ἐκαθήμην. See ἵζω.

Ημί, see φημί.

Ἠμύω, “I sink,” is irregular only in the Homeric perfect ὑπεμνήμυκε (Π. XXII. 491), which seems to present the Attic reduplication with a shortening of the first vowel.

Ἤνεγκα, ἤνεγκον, see φέρω.


℗AF-*, “I am astonished" or "perplexed," used only in the poets, 2 perf. τέθηπα, 2 aor. ἔταφον. Hence τάφος, " astonishment,” θαῦμα = θά-α-μα, θάομαι (only in the Doric poets and in the forms θάμεθα, θᾶσθε, θάσαι, &c.), θεάομαι, &c.


Θαλέθω*, “ I bloom or fourish,” a poetic variety for θάλλω, for which Homer uses θηλέω, and the later epic poets θαλέω, fut. θηλήσω, perf. τέθηλα, part. τεθαλυία.

Θάπτω, “I bury,” fut. θάψω, perf. pass. τέθαμμαι, 1 aor. ἐθάφθην, 2 aor. ἐτάφην.

Θέλω, see ἐθέλω.

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Θέρομαι*, “I warm myself, only in the pres. and imperf., in the fut. θέρσομαι, aor. ἐθέρην, subj. θερέω.

Θέω, “ I run,” fut. θεύσομαι. See τρέχω.

Θιγγάνω, “ I touch," ΘΙΓ-, fut. θίξω and θίξομαι, 2 aor. ἔθιγον.

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Θνήσκω, “I die, from ΘΑΝ-, fut. θανοῦμαι, 2 aor. ἔθανον, perf. τέθνηκα, plural τέθναμεν, -ατε, -ᾶσι, imperat. τέθναθι, subj. τεθνήκω, optat. τεθναίην, inf. τεθνάναι, part. τεθνεώς, τεθνηώς and τεθνείως. From τέθνηκα comes a new verb τεθνήκω, fut. τεθνήξω, τεθνήξομαι.


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Θρύπτω, “ I break up," 2 aor. pass. ἐτρύφην, fut. θρυφθήσομαι. Θρώσκω, “I leap, from ΘΟΡ-, fut. θοροῦμαι, 2 aor. ἔθορον, perf. τέθορα. Another form is θόρνυμαι.

Θύω, “ I sacrifice,” perf. τέθνκα, 1 aor. pass. ἐτύθην.

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Ιδρύω, “ I establish, has, instead of its 1 aor. pass. ἱδρύθην, the Homeric by-form ἱδρύνθην.

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