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“I rush,” plup. ἐσσύμην, 1 aor. ἐσσύθην οι ἐσύθην (Eurip. Hel. 1302). From σόω come the 3 pres. imperat. mid. σούσθω, 2 pl. σοῦσθε, and the 3 pres. ind. σοῦται, pl. σοῦνται. There is a Laconic form ἀπεσσούα, “ he is gone” (Xen. Hell. I. 1, § 23).
Σκεδάννυμι, “ I disperse,” fut. σκεδάσω, Attic σκεδώ, perf. pass. ἐσκέδασμαι. Another form is σκίδνημι, σκίδναμαι; also κεδάω*, κεδαίω* and κίδνημι".
Σκέλλω, “I dry up, transitive, fut. σκελώ, mid. σκελοῦμαι, fut. σκαλώ or σκαλήσω, 1 aor. ἔσκηλα, perf. ἔσκληκα, part. ἐσκληώς, “ being dried up,” 2 aor. ἔσκλην, “I was dried up," fut. mid. σκλήσομαι.
Σκέπτομαι, “ I consider,” generally in Attic takes its pres. and imperf. from σκοπέω, but fut. σκέψομαι, aor. ἐσκεψάμην, perf. pass. ἔσκεμμαι.
Σμάω, σμήχω, “ I smear,” fut. σμήσω, from σμάω, Ionic σμέω; I aor. pass. ἐσμήχθην. Σμήχω is not Attic in the present.
Σπένδω, “I pour out,” “ I draw forth,” root ΣΠΑΘ- = ΣΠΕΝΘ-, fut. σπείσω, perf. pass. ἔσπεισμαι. Cf. πέπονθα, πείσομαι.
Στερέω and στερίσκω, “I deprive,” in pass. στέρομαι, aor. ἐστέρην, part. στερείς.
Στορέννυμι, στόρνυμι, “I strew” or “lay down,” and στρών νυμι, fut. στορέσω and στρώσω, 1 aor. ἐστόρεσα οι ἔστρωσα, perf. pass. ἔστρωμαι, aor. pass. ἐστορέσθην.
Στυγέω*, “I abominate,” 2 aor. ἔστυγον. But 1 aor. ἔστυξα, "I cause to shudder."
Σφάζω, “ I slaughter,” 2 aor. pass. ἐσφάγην.
Σώζω, see σαόω.
ΤΑΛ- - ΤΛΑ-, " I bear,
“ dare,” fut. m. τλήσομαι, 1 aor. in Homer ἐτάλασσα, perf. τέτληκα, pl. τέτλαμεν, part. τετληώς in the poets; 2 aor. ἔτλην, τλῆθι, τλῶ, τλαίην, τλῆναι, τλάς (in Homer τέτλαθι, τετλαίην, τετλάναι).
TA-, "I stretch out the hand to," imperat. T. Hence 2 perf. τέταγα and a new pres. τετάγω. From this verb τείνω borrows its perfects τέτακα and τέταμαι. Cf. ΓΕΝ- γέγαα, ΜΕΝ- μέμαα ; and see above (107).
Ταράσσω, “I disturb, has the by-form θράττω (chiefly in Attic poetry), and the epic perfect τέτρηχα*.
Τέμνω, “I cut, fut. τεμώ, Ionic ταμέω, 2 aor. ἔτεμον, rarely
ἔταμον in Attic, 2 aor. mid. ἐτεμόμην, more frequently ἐταμόμην, perf. τέτμηκα, perf. pass. τέτμημαι.
Τέρπω, “I delight," has the pass. aor. ἐτάρφθην, ἐτάρπην, besides the regular ἐτέρφθην, and in the epic the 1 pl. subj. τραπείομεν*.
Τερσαίνω*, “ I dry, has 2 aor. pass. τερσῆναι, and 1 aor. act. ἕτερσα.
Τέτμον*, “ I found,” has the subj. τέτμω, &c.
Τεύχω, “ I make” or “construct,” is regular, τεύξω, ἔτευξα, τέτυγμαι, ἐτύχθη. But although we have τετεύχαται, “ they are made,” the active form τέτευχα is also used in a passive sense (above, 347, Obs.). Hence we have the secondary verb τυγχάνω, "I hit the mark," "I light upon," "I am successful in obtaining" or “I happen on a place or person, ," "I am somewhere just at a particular time : fut. τεύξομαι, aor. ἔτυχον (epic ἐτύχησα), fut. τετύχηκα. In Pindar τόσσαι is an aor. synonymous with τυχεῖν: cf. τόξον, which contains the same root.
The form τιτύσκομαι unites the meanings of τεύχω and τυγχάνω; for τιτύσκεσθαί τι is “ to make ready something, but τιτύσκεσθαί τινος, “to aim at something."
Τίκτω, “ I bring forth, fut. τέξω, τέξομαι, 2 aor. ἔτεκον, perf.
Τίνω, " I pay, “ expiate,” fut. τίσω, perf. τέτικα, perf. pass. τέτισμαι, mid. τίνομαι, “ to punish :” τίνω Ionic, τίνω Attic.
TOP-, " I pierce,” found only in the aor. ἔτορον, τοροῖν. Hence (1) Τιτράω, “I bore,” Attic τετραίνω, fut. τετρανέω, Ionic 1 aor. ἐτέτρηνα, also ἔτρησα, 1 aor. pass. ἐτετράνθην, perf. pass. τέτρημαι. (2) Τιτρώσκω, “I wound,” from fut. τρώσω, perf. pass. τέτρωμαι, 1 aor. ἐτρώθην, fut. pass. τρωθήσομαι and τρώσομαι.
Τόσσαι, see τεύχω.
Τμήγω*, “I cut,” 1 aor. ἔτμηξα, 2 aor. ἔτμαγον, intransitive 2 aor., part. pass. τμηγείς, these two in compounds. See τέμνω. Τρέπω, “ I turn,” perf. τέτραφα, perf. pass. τέτραμμαι.
Τρέφω, “ I nourish,” fut. θρέψω, perf. act. τέτροφα, perf. pass. τέθραμμαι, 1 aor. ἐθρέφθην, 2 aor. ἐτράφην. The 2 aor. ἔτραφον has in Homer a passive sense, as "τραφεν, “ he was bred.”
Obs. The forms τέτροφα and τέτραφα are interchanged in this verb and τρέπω, but it seems that the o belongs to τρέφω, and the a to τρέπω, More com
Τρέχω, “ I run,” fut. θρέξομαι, 1 aor. ἔθρεξα rare.
monly from ΔΡΑΜ-, fut. δραμοῦμαι, 2 aor. ἔδραμον, perf. act. δεδράμηκα, pass. δεδράμημαι, perf. m. δέδρομα.
Τρώγω, “I nibble” or “ eat with the front teeth," fut. τρώξο μαι, 2 aor. ἔτρωγον.
Τυγχάνω, see τεύχω.
Τύπτω, “I strike,” fut. τυπτήσω, perf. τετύπτημαι, but also regular.
Ὑφαίνω, “I weave, aor. ὕφηνα, perf. φαγκα, perf. pass. ύφασμαι.
Ὑπεμνήμυκε*, see ἠμύω.
Ὑπισχνέομαι, “ I promise,” from ὑπίσχομαι, fut. ὑποσχήσομαι, perf. ὑπέσχημαι, 1 aor. ὑπεσχέθην, imperat. ὑποσχέθητι, 2 aor. ὑπεσχόμην. See ἔχω.
ΦΑΓ-, “I eat,” has only the fut. φάγομαι (which is Hellenistic), and 2 aor. ἔφαγον. The other tenses are formed from ἐσθίω and ΕΔ
Φαίνω, “ I show,” aor. ἔφηνα; intransitive ἐφάνθην, ἐφάνην, φανοῦμαι, φανήσομαι, πέφασμαι, πέφηνα, “I am manifest” (above, 347).
Φείδομαι, “ I spare,” fut. φείσομαι, perf. πέφεισμαι, epic aor. πεφιδόμην*.
ΦΕΝ-, “I kill,” has aor. ἔπεφνον, and perf. pass. πέφαμαι, 3 sing. πέφαται, 3 pl. πέφανται, inf. πεφάσθαι, fut. πεφήσομαι. Cf. MEN-, &c. and see above, (107).
Φέρω, “I bear,” root ΦΕΡ-, only in the pres. and imperf.; the other tenses are supplied from OI- = FET- (comp. "weigh," &c.), ΕΝΕΚ-, ΕΓΚ-, Ionic ἐνείκω, fut. οἴσω, οἴσομαι (also as a pres. inf. οἴσειν, imperat. οἶσε), aor. ἤνεγκα and ἤνεγκον (Ionic ἤνεικα), perf. act. ἐνήνοχα, pass. ἐνήνεγμαι (Ionic ἐνήνειγμαι), 1 aor. ἠνέχθην (Ionic ἠνείχθην), fut. pass. ἐνεχθήσομαι and οἰσθήσομαι. The derivative popéw is conjugated regularly, but there is an epic infin. φορῆναι.
Φεύγω, “I fee, fut. φεύξομαι and φευξούμαι, perf. πέφευγα, 2 aor. ἔφυγον, perf. pass. πέφυγμαι.
Φημί, " I say,” root ΦΑ-, like ἵστημι; but the imperfect ἔφην is generally an aorist like εἶπον, the frequentative φάσκω, ἔφασκον
being used to express the continuous act of speaking. In conversations we find the shorter form ημί, as in ὦ ἠμί, παῖ, παῖ, " boy ! boy! I say;" v 8' ey, "said I;"&os, "said he," and in epic writers," he said."
Pláva, "I come before," " anticipate,” from φθάω, fut. φθάσω, 1 aor. ἔφθασα, perf. act. ἔφθακα. Also fut. φθήσομαι, 2 aor. ἔφθην, φθῶ, φθαίην, φθῆναι, φθάς, 2 aor. mid. part. φθάμενος.
poiw, "I destroy," trans., and p0ivw, "I fall" or "waste away," which takes its tenses from the middle voice of p0iw, fut. φθίσομαι, pass. ἔφθίμαι (3 pl. ἔφθινται), part. φθίμενος. Hence φθινέω and φθινύθω.
Φράζω, “I say,” 2 aor. epic πέφραδον* οι ἐπέφραδον*. The mid. and pass. signify "to remark," and the middle also means "to consider."
Þpéw*, “I carry quickly," from popéw, occurs only in composition, ἐκφρεῖν, εἰσφρεῖν, διαφρεῖν, imperat, εἶσφρες, as if from a verb in -μl.
Þvšávaı (= þvyeîv, Hesych. as from þúŋμi), “to flee," 2 perf. part. Tepus* (Hom. Il. xxI. 6, &c.). The grammarians also give a form ovčáw, whence part. aor. pass. pušŋlévtes, Nic. Ther.
Puλáoow, “I watch," is regular, but in Hom. Hymn. Apoll. 538, we have the imper. 2 aor. πроpúλaxoε.
Φύω, “I bring forth, fut. φύσω and φύσομαι, perf. πέφυκα, πέφνα*, 2 aor. ἔφυν, “I am by nature” (above, 323). Εφύην is a later form.
Χάζομαι, see κήδω.
Χαίρω, “I rejoice,” fut. χαιρήσω, in later writers χαρήσομαι, 2 aor. ἐχάρην, perf. act. κεχάρηκα, pass. κεχάρημαι and κέχαρμαι. In epic, 2 aor. кexарóμηv, 1 fut. Kexaρnow, and 1 aor. mid. ἐχηράμην.
Xavdáva, "I grasp" or "contain" (as a vessel), 2 aor. exadov, perf. κέχανα, fut. χείσομαι. Cf. σπένδω.
Χέω, “I pour,” fut. χεύσω, Attic χέω, 1 aor. ἔχευα, ἔχευσα, Attic ἔχεα, perf. act. κέχυκα, pass. κέχυμαι, 1 aor. ἐχύθην.
Χραισμεῖν *, “to help,” indic. 2 aor. ἔχραισμον, fut. χραισμήσω, 1 aor. ἐχραίσμησα.
1 In Hom. Od. v. 110, 133, VII. 251, we should read ë010ev for ep010ov.
Χράω has five different formations and meanings:
(1) Χράω, “I deliver an oracle,” infin. χρῆν, aor. pass. ἐχρήσθην, perf. κέχρησμαι.
(2) Κίχρημι, “I lend,” fut. χρήσω, mid. κίχραμαι, I borrow,” fut. χρήσομαι, aor. ἐχρησάμην.
(3) Χράομαι, “I use,” is regular; but κέχρημαι in epic Greek means "I stood in need."
(4) - Χρή, “ it is necessary,” oportet (impers.), opt. χρείη, subj. χρῇ, inf. χρῆναι, χρῆν, imperf. ἐχρῆν, more frequently χρῆν, part. χρέων, Attic for χράον, fut. χρήσει.
(5) Απόχρη, “ it is enough," 3 pl. ἀποχρῶσιν, inf. ἀποχρῆν, part. ἀποχρῶν, -ώσα, -ῶν, imperf. ἀπέχρη, fut. ἀποχρήσει. The Ionians wrote ἀπέχρα.
Χρώννυμι, χρωννύω, " I colour,” from χρόω, χρώω, χρώζω (all properly signifying " to touch the skin” or “ surface”), fut. χρώσω, 1 aor. ἔχρωσα, perf. pass. κέχρωσμαι.
Ψάω, “ I rub,” inf. ψῇν, fut. ψήσω, &c.
Ωθέω, “I push, fut. ώσω οι ὠθήσω, imperf. ἐώθουν, 1 aor. ἔωσα, inf. ὦσαι, perf. act. ἔωκα, pass. ἔωσμαι, 1 aor. ἐώσθην, fut. pass. ὠσθήσομαι.
Ωνέομαι, “I buy,” has the pass. aor. ἐωνήθην with syllabic augment, and the perf. ἐώνημαι both passive and deponent. The Attic writers also used, as the aor. of this verb, ἐπριάμην, πρίασο or πρίω, πρίωμαι, πριαίμην, πρίασθαι, πριάμενος, from the same root as πιπράσκω.