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monly from ΔΡΑΜ-, fut. δραμοῦμαι, 2 aor. ἔδραμον, perf. act. δεδράμηκα, pass. δεδράμημαι, perf. m. δέδρομα.

Τρώγω, “I nibble” or “ eat with the front teeth," fut. τρώξο μαι, 2 aor. ἔτρωγον.

Τυγχάνω, see τεύχω.

Τύπτω, “I strike,” fut. τυπτήσω, perf. τετύπτημαι, but also regular.

Υ.

Ὑφαίνω, “I weave, aor. ὕφηνα, perf. φαγκα, perf. pass. ύφασμαι.

Ὑπεμνήμυκε*, see ἠμύω.

Ὑπισχνέομαι, “ I promise,” from ὑπίσχομαι, fut. ὑποσχήσομαι, perf. ὑπέσχημαι, 1 aor. ὑπεσχέθην, imperat. ὑποσχέθητι, 2 aor. ὑπεσχόμην. See ἔχω.

Φ.

ΦΑΓ-, “I eat,” has only the fut. φάγομαι (which is Hellenistic), and 2 aor. ἔφαγον. The other tenses are formed from ἐσθίω and ΕΔ

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Φαίνω, “ I show,” aor. ἔφηνα; intransitive ἐφάνθην, ἐφάνην, φανοῦμαι, φανήσομαι, πέφασμαι, πέφηνα, “I am manifest” (above, 347).

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Φείδομαι, “ I spare,” fut. φείσομαι, perf. πέφεισμαι, epic aor. πεφιδόμην*.

ΦΕΝ-, “I kill,” has aor. ἔπεφνον, and perf. pass. πέφαμαι, 3 sing. πέφαται, 3 pl. πέφανται, inf. πεφάσθαι, fut. πεφήσομαι. Cf. MEN-, &c. and see above, (107).

Φέρω, “I bear,” root ΦΕΡ-, only in the pres. and imperf.; the other tenses are supplied from OI- = FET- (comp. "weigh," &c.), ΕΝΕΚ-, ΕΓΚ-, Ionic ἐνείκω, fut. οἴσω, οἴσομαι (also as a pres. inf. οἴσειν, imperat. οἶσε), aor. ἤνεγκα and ἤνεγκον (Ionic ἤνεικα), perf. act. ἐνήνοχα, pass. ἐνήνεγμαι (Ionic ἐνήνειγμαι), 1 aor. ἠνέχθην (Ionic ἠνείχθην), fut. pass. ἐνεχθήσομαι and οἰσθήσομαι. The derivative popéw is conjugated regularly, but there is an epic infin. φορῆναι.

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Φεύγω, “I fee, fut. φεύξομαι and φευξούμαι, perf. πέφευγα, 2 aor. ἔφυγον, perf. pass. πέφυγμαι.

Φημί, " I say,” root ΦΑ-, like ἵστημι; but the imperfect ἔφην is generally an aorist like εἶπον, the frequentative φάσκω, ἔφασκον

being used to express the continuous act of speaking. In conversations we find the shorter form ημί, as in ὦ ἠμί, παῖ, παῖ, " boy ! boy! I say;" v 8' ey, "said I;"&os, "said he," and in epic writers," he said."

Pláva, "I come before," " anticipate,” from φθάω, fut. φθάσω, 1 aor. ἔφθασα, perf. act. ἔφθακα. Also fut. φθήσομαι, 2 aor. ἔφθην, φθῶ, φθαίην, φθῆναι, φθάς, 2 aor. mid. part. φθάμενος.

poiw, "I destroy," trans., and p0ivw, "I fall" or "waste away," which takes its tenses from the middle voice of p0iw, fut. φθίσομαι, pass. ἔφθίμαι (3 pl. ἔφθινται), part. φθίμενος. Hence φθινέω and φθινύθω.

Φράζω, “I say,” 2 aor. epic πέφραδον* οι ἐπέφραδον*. The mid. and pass. signify "to remark," and the middle also means "to consider."

Þpéw*, “I carry quickly," from popéw, occurs only in composition, ἐκφρεῖν, εἰσφρεῖν, διαφρεῖν, imperat, εἶσφρες, as if from a verb in -μl.

Þvšávaı (= þvyeîv, Hesych. as from þúŋμi), “to flee," 2 perf. part. Tepus* (Hom. Il. xxI. 6, &c.). The grammarians also give a form ovčáw, whence part. aor. pass. pušŋlévtes, Nic. Ther.

825.

Puλáoow, “I watch," is regular, but in Hom. Hymn. Apoll. 538, we have the imper. 2 aor. πроpúλaxoε.

Φύω, “I bring forth, fut. φύσω and φύσομαι, perf. πέφυκα, πέφνα*, 2 aor. ἔφυν, “I am by nature” (above, 323). Εφύην is a later form.

Χάζομαι, see κήδω.

X.

Χαίρω, “I rejoice,” fut. χαιρήσω, in later writers χαρήσομαι, 2 aor. ἐχάρην, perf. act. κεχάρηκα, pass. κεχάρημαι and κέχαρμαι. In epic, 2 aor. кexарóμηv, 1 fut. Kexaρnow, and 1 aor. mid. ἐχηράμην.

Xavdáva, "I grasp" or "contain" (as a vessel), 2 aor. exadov, perf. κέχανα, fut. χείσομαι. Cf. σπένδω.

Χέω, “I pour,” fut. χεύσω, Attic χέω, 1 aor. ἔχευα, ἔχευσα, Attic ἔχεα, perf. act. κέχυκα, pass. κέχυμαι, 1 aor. ἐχύθην.

Χραισμεῖν *, “to help,” indic. 2 aor. ἔχραισμον, fut. χραισμήσω, 1 aor. ἐχραίσμησα.

1 In Hom. Od. v. 110, 133, VII. 251, we should read ë010ev for ep010ov.

Χράω has five different formations and meanings:

(1) Χράω, “I deliver an oracle,” infin. χρῆν, aor. pass. ἐχρήσθην, perf. κέχρησμαι.

(2) Κίχρημι, “I lend,” fut. χρήσω, mid. κίχραμαι, I borrow,” fut. χρήσομαι, aor. ἐχρησάμην.

(3) Χράομαι, “I use,” is regular; but κέχρημαι in epic Greek means "I stood in need."

(4) - Χρή, “ it is necessary,” oportet (impers.), opt. χρείη, subj. χρῇ, inf. χρῆναι, χρῆν, imperf. ἐχρῆν, more frequently χρῆν, part. χρέων, Attic for χράον, fut. χρήσει.

(5) Απόχρη, “ it is enough," 3 pl. ἀποχρῶσιν, inf. ἀποχρῆν, part. ἀποχρῶν, -ώσα, -ῶν, imperf. ἀπέχρη, fut. ἀποχρήσει. The Ionians wrote ἀπέχρα.

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Χρώννυμι, χρωννύω, " I colour,” from χρόω, χρώω, χρώζω (all properly signifying " to touch the skin” or “ surface”), fut. χρώσω, 1 aor. ἔχρωσα, perf. pass. κέχρωσμαι.

Ψ.

Ψάω, “ I rub,” inf. ψῇν, fut. ψήσω, &c.
Ψύχω, “I cool,” 2 aor. pass. ἐψύγην, &c.

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Ω.

Ωθέω, “I push, fut. ώσω οι ὠθήσω, imperf. ἐώθουν, 1 aor. ἔωσα, inf. ὦσαι, perf. act. ἔωκα, pass. ἔωσμαι, 1 aor. ἐώσθην, fut. pass. ὠσθήσομαι.

Ωνέομαι, “I buy,” has the pass. aor. ἐωνήθην with syllabic augment, and the perf. ἐώνημαι both passive and deponent. The Attic writers also used, as the aor. of this verb, ἐπριάμην, πρίασο or πρίω, πρίωμαι, πριαίμην, πρίασθαι, πριάμενος, from the same root as πιπράσκω.

PART IV.

DERIVATION AND COMPOSITION.

§ I. Prefatory Remarks.

354 FROM the formation of individual words, and their inflexion through the various modifications of the noun and verb, Greek Grammar naturally passes on to consider the cognate, but subsequent, procedure, by virtue of which (1) an existing noun or verb develops itself into a secondary noun or verb, or (2) two distinct words are combined in one, and furnished with a single set of inflexions: the former we call derivation; the latter is termed composition.

§ II. (1) DERIVATION.

355 In considering the subject of derivation, which was at one time regarded as including the whole of etymology, but which comparative grammar has reduced to a subordinate position, we have two distinct questions proposed to us. We have to examine, on the one hand, the process of derivation, or the machinery by which the new form is produced; and, on the other hand, the origin of the new form, or the classification of the derivatives according to the kind of words of which they must be regarded as modifications or extensions. The former of these inquiries is the most profound and difficult that could be proposed to the philological student. We must therefore be contented in this place with indicating rather than developing the results'. The latter is a very easy and simple task, and it is of great practical utility to the student. It shall therefore be exhibited with all the necessary details.

§ III. (A) Process of Derivation.

The process of deriving one word from another is effected in the same way as the formation of words in the first instance,

1 The subject is fully discussed in the New Cratylus, book III. chap. 3.

namely, by the addition of pronominal elements, so that a new crude form becomes the vehicle of the inflexions. There is naturally more variety in the secondary formations of nouns than in those of verbs. For while the person-endings of the verb have anticipated one prominent distinctive use of all three pronominal elements, the cases of the noun are, as we have seen, connected only with a special development of the second and third elements. Hence, in the derivative forms we find the converse. In the nouns all three pronominal elements are used, in their distinctive senses, and in combination with one another, to form nominal derivatives, while the verbal derivatives are limited to that special development of the second and third elements, which we find in the cases of the noun.

(a) Derivative Nouns.

356 In the formation of nominal derivatives we observe that the first pronominal element expresses that the thing proceeds from, or immediately belongs to, the subject; the second, that it has a relation to the subject; the third, that it is a mere object, or something removed from the proximity of the subject.

a. The first pronominal element, in the derivative forms of nouns, appears generally as μ-; rarely, if ever, as π-.

8-.

b. The second very frequently as σ-, 1-, Y-, K-, TI-, TU-, v-, 0-,

C. The third only as τ- or v-.

d. The forms p-, -, as degenerations from the other dental liquid v, representing the third element, play a prominent part in

the formation of nouns.

e.

The first element is combined with the third, under the forms μ-v, μ-T; with the second, after the third, in μ-v-l-, μ-v-к-. f. The second element is combined with the first under the form σ--; with the third as F-T-, σ-v-, I-V-, TI-T-, S-v-; with p-, as TI-ρ-.

g. The third element is combined with λ, p, in 7-λ-, 7-ρ, and doubled in -7-T-, -V-T.

357 The following are examples of these formations:

a.

TI-μn, "an honouring" or "appreciation" proceeding from the subject; μvý-un, "a calling to mind;" Tóτ-μos, “a falling.”

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