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DERIVATION AND COMPOSITION.
§ I. Prefatory Remarks.
354 FROM the formation of individual words, and their inflexion through the various modifications of the noun and verb, Greek Grammar naturally passes on to consider the cognate, but subsequent, procedure, by virtue of which (1) an existing noun or verb develops itself into a secondary noun or verb, or (2) two distinct words are combined in one, and furnished with a single set of inflexions: the former we call derivation; the latter is termed composition.
§ II. (1) DERIVATION.
355 In considering the subject of derivation, which was at one time regarded as including the whole of etymology, but which comparative grammar has reduced to a subordinate position, we have two distinct questions proposed to us. We have to examine, on the one hand, the process of derivation, or the machinery by which the new form is produced; and, on the other hand, the origin of the new form, or the classification of the derivatives according to the kind of words of which they must be regarded as modifications or extensions. The former of these inquiries is the most profound and difficult that could be proposed to the philological student. We must therefore be contented in this place with indicating rather than developing the results'. The latter is a very easy and simple task, and it is of great practical utility to the student. It shall therefore be exhibited with all the necessary details.
§ III. (A) Process of Derivation.
The process of deriving one word from another is effected in the same way as the formation of words in the first instance,
1 The subject is fully discussed in the New Cratylus, book III. chap. 3.
namely, by the addition of pronominal elements, so that a new crude form becomes the vehicle of the inflexions. There is naturally more variety in the secondary formations of nouns than in those of verbs. For while the person-endings of the verb have anticipated one prominent distinctive use of all three pronominal elements, the cases of the noun are, as we have seen, connected only with a special development of the second and third elements. Hence, in the derivative forms we find the converse. In the nouns all three pronominal elements are used, in their distinctive senses, and in combination with one another, to form nominal derivatives, while the verbal derivatives are limited to that special development of the second and third elements, which we find in the cases of the noun.
(a) Derivative Nouns.
356 In the formation of nominal derivatives we observe that the first pronominal element expresses that the thing proceeds from, or immediately belongs to, the subject; the second, that it has a relation to the subject; the third, that it is a mere object, or something removed from the proximity of the subject.
a. The first pronominal element, in the derivative forms of nouns, appears generally as μ-; rarely, if ever, as π-.
b. The second very frequently as σ-, 1-, Y-, K-, TI-, TU-, v-, 0-,
C. The third only as τ- or v-.
d. The forms p-, -, as degenerations from the other dental liquid v, representing the third element, play a prominent part in
the formation of nouns.
The first element is combined with the third, under the forms μ-v, μ-T; with the second, after the third, in μ-v-l-, μ-v-к-. f. The second element is combined with the first under the form σ--; with the third as F-T-, σ-v-, I-V-, TI-T-, S-v-; with p-, as TI-ρ-.
g. The third element is combined with λ, p, in 7-λ-, 7-ρ, and doubled in -7-T-, -V-T.
357 The following are examples of these formations:
TI-μn, "an honouring" or "appreciation" proceeding from the subject; μvý-un, "a calling to mind;" Tóτ-μos, “a falling.”
Often with σ, prefixed (above, 91), as deσ-μós, “a binding;" Oeo-uós, "a placing." The force of this ending is well shown by a comparison between the Latin primus, "the first of a series beginning with the subject," and the Greek po-ros, "the last of a series ending with the subject:" between al-mus, "the nourisher," and alu-m-nus, "the nourished."
6. μίμησις, “ an imitation;” φιλία, “ a friendliness;” ἱππόTMns = iππi-kós = imme-ús, "equestrian" or "having relation to a horse;" èon-rús, "an eating;" μoipi-dios, "of or belonging to fate;" Enμó-σtos, "popular," and the like, are all relative or qualitative words, and recall the sense which properly attaches to the genitive case. Sometimes appears for -a, as in eux-n, "a
c. γραπτός, “written;” χριστός, “anointed;” δεινός, “dreaded;" σeμ-vós or ☛επ-тós, “revered," are all objective words, expressing the results of an action.
d. Words in -λos and -pos generally correspond to those in -νος; comp. δειλός with δεινός, and both with dirus ; μεγάλος with magnus; λυγρός with στυγνός; ἐχθρός with [ἐξένος, &c.
e. A combination of (a) and (c) expresses the action, as proceeding from the subject, in connexion with its results (above, 79): thus, from pay-ya-μ we might have pay-uós, “a doing,” and πрay-μην, "a doer" (a), and we have really woλu-πрáу-μwv, “he who does much,” πρᾶξις = πρᾶκ-σις, “a relative doing πрâyо-s=π рâуo-т and πрак-тós, “done” (c), and by a combination of (a) and (c) we have πράγμα-το = πραγ-μεντ- (107) and πεπрay-μé-vov, “done as the result of doing." This last combination πραγ-μένον, may take in addition (b), as in dp-μo-ví-a, ȧp-μo-vi-кós, in which case the quality connected with or produced by the result is expressed, as well as the result itself: for we have άp-μós="a joining;" áp-po-vi-a="the quality produced by such a joining;" ȧp-μo-vi-κós="the sort of person who possesses such a quality."
f. When (b) is combined with (a), the relative word becomes subjective, as ἅλωσις, “a taking;” ἁλώσιμος παιάν, “a song of triumph on taking." When we have (b+c), the relative word bemes objective, as pŵs=pá-Foτ, “that which is of the quality of "Kaλλo-σv-vη, "that which is of the quality of beauty" καλλο-σύνη, Sequal to κάλλος = κάλλο-τ); ἀληθινός, “ made up of that
which is true;” ἰσότης = ἰσό-τα-τ-ς, " equality;" άχθη-δών, noyance," i. e. that which is of the quality of grief or pain. When T- is combined with p-, we have only a qualitative extension of the meaning of τι-; compare οἰκή-τωρ with οἰκητής; δοτήρ, δώτειρα with δότης, &c.
g. We have the combination 7+p (sometimes Op) in the comparatives of adjectives, and in words signifying instrumentality, or a thing carried farther in a certain direction; 7+λ is more rarely used in the same sense; compare oopw-repos, "farther in wisdom;' σοφώτερος, βάραθρον, "farther in depth;" éxé-Tλn, "the handle at the end of the plough." The combination 7+7 marks the superlative, as σоpw-TαTоs, "first of a series of wise men." The combination V-T, which is the third person-ending of the plural verb, is of constant use in the formation of active participles; it implies collection: compare Tâs=πâ-VT-s with qua-ntus, and the names of towns, such as Tápas Tápa-vrs with Tarentum.
(B) Derivative Verbs.
358 In order to see what verbs are derivative and what are primitive, it is necessary to classify all verbs according to the genesis or origination of their crude forms. The conjugations given above (299) are arranged according to the characteristic of the root, and are designed for the convenience of the learner. The true classification, however, depends upon the contrivances adopted for the formation of a present tense from the root as exhibited in the second aorist.
359 I. Primitive verbs, or those which are not formed from existing nouns or verbs.
(a) The simplest and oldest verbs are those which are formed from a monosyllabic root, which is prefixed to the person-endings (a) without any change, as ei-uí=èo-μí; (b) with guna or some ectasis involving perhaps a vowel of connexion, as pn-uí-pa-ya-μi; (c) with reduplication without guna, as πí-πτw (root π€TM-); (d) with reduplication and guna, as τí-On-μı = тi-Oé-ya-μı; (e) with an hyperthesis of guna (above, 145), as στείβω for στίβ-γω, φεύγω for púyyw, Lat. fugio.
Obs. The vocalization shows that even such verbs as Aéyw and orpédo must have been formed by some strengthening insertion or affix (above, 20).
(b) Another class adds to the root, as in Téμ-v-w. This is sometimes accompanied by an euphonious ectasis of a labial or guttural in the root, as in λa-μ-ßá-vw, Tv-y-xá-vw, which is perhaps due to hyperthesis (above, 110). The same element sometimes appears as 7, after labials and gutturals: thus we have TÚT-T-w, root τυπ-, κρύπτω, root κρυβ-, τίκ-τ-ω, root τεκ-. In some verbs we have a combination of v and F in this strengthening adjunct: this appears as my = ν-ια in δάμνη-μι, πίλ-νη-μι, &c.; as vu in ζεύγ vv-u, where there is also a guna or expression of ta, indicated in such cases as oßé-v-vvμ by a reduplication of the v. The vowel in v-, and even in vv-, may precede the liquid which it articulates. Thus we have φαίνω, ἐλαύνω from the roots φα- and έλα
360 II. Secondary verbs, or those which are obviously derived from existing nouns or verbs.
The pronominal affixes used to form derivatives of this class are the same in kind with those used to strengthen the present in the other case, and most of them are found in the derivative nouns.
The terminations most in use for this purpose are the following: -άω, -έω, -όω, -άζω (=αδ-γω), -ίζω (= ιδ-γω), -υζω (= υδ-γω), -ίσκω, -ύσκω, -εύω, -αίνω, -ύνω; as τι-μά-ω from τιμή, φιλ-έ-w from φίλος, μισθ-ό-ω from μίσθος, σκευ-ά-ζω from σκευή, νομ-ί-ζω from νόμος οι νέμ-ω, γαμ-ί-σκω from γαμ-έω, μεθύ-σκω from μεθύω, παιδεύω from παῖς (παῖδ-ς), σημ-αί-νω from σῆμα, εὐθύνω from εὐθύς: the termination -é-Ow, -ú-0w seems to be appropriated to derivatives from simple verbs; for instance, φλεγέθω from φλέγω, φθινύ-θω from 40vw, where it will be observed that the e represents, which often follows y, and v belongs to the vv of the primitive form. The termination -L-σK-, -V-OK- is inserted between the root and the strengthening pronominal adjunct v in the verbs ỏpλ-10k-á-vw, aλ-v-σx-á-vw, &c.
Obs. 1 There are some verbs in -áo, -ew, which must not be classed among these secondary derivatives. Such are Spá-w= SpáƑw, which must be connected with δραπ-= θεραπ- : cf. δραπέτης: καλέω = καλέξω, connected with κλέος, κλύω, &c.
Obs. 2 On the other hand, a derivative affix is not unfrequently lost by assimilation, and the verb becomes a simple barytone; thus we have πράσσω for πράγ-γω from πράγος (79,103), ἀγγέλλω for ἀγγέλ-γω from ἄγγελος, ποικίλλω for ποίκιλ-γω from ποικίλος, καθαίρω for καθάρ νω from καθαρός, πυρέσσω for πυρέτ-γω from πυρετός, &c.