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Often with σ, prefixed (above, 91), as deσ-μós, “a binding;" Oeo-uós, "a placing." The force of this ending is well shown by a comparison between the Latin primus, "the first of a series beginning with the subject," and the Greek po-ros, "the last of a series ending with the subject:" between al-mus, "the nourisher," and alu-m-nus, "the nourished."

6. μίμησις, “ an imitation;” φιλία, “ a friendliness;” ἱππόTMns = iππi-kós = imme-ús, "equestrian" or "having relation to a horse;" èon-rús, "an eating;" μoipi-dios, "of or belonging to fate;" Enμó-σtos, "popular," and the like, are all relative or qualitative words, and recall the sense which properly attaches to the genitive case. Sometimes appears for -a, as in eux-n, "a


c. γραπτός, “written;” χριστός, “anointed;” δεινός, “dreaded;" σeμ-vós or ☛επ-тós, “revered," are all objective words, expressing the results of an action.

d. Words in -λos and -pos generally correspond to those in -νος; comp. δειλός with δεινός, and both with dirus ; μεγάλος with magnus; λυγρός with στυγνός; ἐχθρός with [ἐξένος, &c.


e. A combination of (a) and (c) expresses the action, as proceeding from the subject, in connexion with its results (above, 79): thus, from pay-ya-μ we might have pay-uós, “a doing,” and πрay-μην, "a doer" (a), and we have really woλu-πрáу-μwv, “he who does much,” πρᾶξις = πρᾶκ-σις, “a relative doing πрâyо-s=π рâуo-т and πрак-тós, “done” (c), and by a combination of (a) and (c) we have πράγμα-το = πραγ-μεντ- (107) and πεπрay-μé-vov, “done as the result of doing." This last combination πραγ-μένον, may take in addition (b), as in dp-μo-ví-a, ȧp-μo-vi-кós, in which case the quality connected with or produced by the result is expressed, as well as the result itself: for we have άp-μós="a joining;" áp-po-vi-a="the quality produced by such a joining;" ȧp-μo-vi-κós="the sort of person who possesses such a quality."

f. When (b) is combined with (a), the relative word becomes subjective, as ἅλωσις, “a taking;” ἁλώσιμος παιάν, “a song of triumph on taking." When we have (b+c), the relative word bemes objective, as pŵs=pá-Foτ, “that which is of the quality of "Kaλλo-σv-vη, "that which is of the quality of beauty" καλλο-σύνη, Sequal to κάλλος = κάλλο-τ); ἀληθινός, “ made up of that

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which is true;” ἰσότης = ἰσό-τα-τ-ς, " equality;" άχθη-δών, noyance," i. e. that which is of the quality of grief or pain. When T- is combined with p-, we have only a qualitative extension of the meaning of τι-; compare οἰκή-τωρ with οἰκητής; δοτήρ, δώτειρα with δότης, &c.

g. We have the combination 7+p (sometimes Op) in the comparatives of adjectives, and in words signifying instrumentality, or a thing carried farther in a certain direction; 7+λ is more rarely used in the same sense; compare oopw-repos, "farther in wisdom;' σοφώτερος, βάραθρον, "farther in depth;" éxé-Tλn, "the handle at the end of the plough." The combination 7+7 marks the superlative, as σоpw-TαTоs, "first of a series of wise men." The combination V-T, which is the third person-ending of the plural verb, is of constant use in the formation of active participles; it implies collection: compare Tâs=πâ-VT-s with qua-ntus, and the names of towns, such as Tápas Tápa-vrs with Tarentum.


(B) Derivative Verbs.

358 In order to see what verbs are derivative and what are primitive, it is necessary to classify all verbs according to the genesis or origination of their crude forms. The conjugations given above (299) are arranged according to the characteristic of the root, and are designed for the convenience of the learner. The true classification, however, depends upon the contrivances adopted for the formation of a present tense from the root as exhibited in the second aorist.

359 I. Primitive verbs, or those which are not formed from existing nouns or verbs.

(a) The simplest and oldest verbs are those which are formed from a monosyllabic root, which is prefixed to the person-endings (a) without any change, as ei-uí=èo-μí; (b) with guna or some ectasis involving perhaps a vowel of connexion, as pn-uí-pa-ya-μi; (c) with reduplication without guna, as πí-πτw (root π€TM-); (d) with reduplication and guna, as τí-On-μı = тi-Oé-ya-μı; (e) with an hyperthesis of guna (above, 145), as στείβω for στίβ-γω, φεύγω for púyyw, Lat. fugio.

Obs. The vocalization shows that even such verbs as Aéyw and orpédo must have been formed by some strengthening insertion or affix (above, 20).

(b) Another class adds to the root, as in Téμ-v-w. This is sometimes accompanied by an euphonious ectasis of a labial or guttural in the root, as in λa-μ-ßá-vw, Tv-y-xá-vw, which is perhaps due to hyperthesis (above, 110). The same element sometimes appears as 7, after labials and gutturals: thus we have TÚT-T-w, root τυπ-, κρύπτω, root κρυβ-, τίκ-τ-ω, root τεκ-. In some verbs we have a combination of v and F in this strengthening adjunct: this appears as my = ν-ια in δάμνη-μι, πίλ-νη-μι, &c.; as vu in ζεύγ vv-u, where there is also a guna or expression of ta, indicated in such cases as oßé-v-vvμ by a reduplication of the v. The vowel in v-, and even in vv-, may precede the liquid which it articulates. Thus we have φαίνω, ἐλαύνω from the roots φα- and έλα

360 II. Secondary verbs, or those which are obviously derived from existing nouns or verbs.

The pronominal affixes used to form derivatives of this class are the same in kind with those used to strengthen the present in the other case, and most of them are found in the derivative nouns.

The terminations most in use for this purpose are the following: -άω, -έω, -όω, -άζω (=αδ-γω), -ίζω (= ιδ-γω), -υζω (= υδ-γω), -ίσκω, -ύσκω, -εύω, -αίνω, -ύνω; as τι-μά-ω from τιμή, φιλ-έ-w from φίλος, μισθ-ό-ω from μίσθος, σκευ-ά-ζω from σκευή, νομ-ί-ζω from νόμος οι νέμ-ω, γαμ-ί-σκω from γαμ-έω, μεθύ-σκω from μεθύω, παιδεύω from παῖς (παῖδ-ς), σημ-αί-νω from σῆμα, εὐθύνω from εὐθύς: the termination -é-Ow, -ú-0w seems to be appropriated to derivatives from simple verbs; for instance, φλεγέθω from φλέγω, φθινύ-θω from 40vw, where it will be observed that the e represents, which often follows y, and v belongs to the vv of the primitive form. The termination -L-σK-, -V-OK- is inserted between the root and the strengthening pronominal adjunct v in the verbs ỏpλ-10k-á-vw, aλ-v-σx-á-vw, &c.

Obs. 1 There are some verbs in -áo, -ew, which must not be classed among these secondary derivatives. Such are Spá-w= SpáƑw, which must be connected with δραπ-= θεραπ- : cf. δραπέτης: καλέω = καλέξω, connected with κλέος, κλύω, &c.

Obs. 2 On the other hand, a derivative affix is not unfrequently lost by assimilation, and the verb becomes a simple barytone; thus we have πράσσω for πράγ-γω from πράγος (79,103), ἀγγέλλω for ἀγγέλ-γω from ἄγγελος, ποικίλλω for ποίκιλ-γω from ποικίλος, καθαίρω for καθάρ νω from καθαρός, πυρέσσω for πυρέτ-γω from πυρετός, &c.

§ IV. (B) Classification of Derivatives.

(a) Derived Substantives.

361 Substantives are derived (1) from verbs, (2) from adjectives, (3) from other substantives.

(1) Substantives derived from Verbs.

(a) Substantives denoting the agent or person who carries out the action of the verb.



(aa) The most common termination is -7ns (gen. -Tov), fem. -τρις (gen. -τριδος), -τρος (gen. -τρου), -τωρ (gen. -τορος) οι -τρια (gen. -τριας) or -τις (gen. -τιδος); less common is -τηρ (gen. -τηρος), fem. -Teipa (gen. -Teipas). These nouns are formed in the same way as the verbals in -rós and -Téos, and there is no doubt that the terminations are connected. Thus we have αὐλήτης, “a fute player” (from αὐλεῖν), fem. αὐλητρίς and αὐλήτρια; κελευστής, “α commander" (from Keλevw); μants, "a disciple" (from pa-vκελεύω); μαθητής, θάνειν), fem. μαθητρίς; ὀρχήστης and poet. ὀρχηστήρ, " a dancer" (from ὀρχεῖσθαι), fem. ὀρχήστρια; δράστης οι δρηστήρ, “a labourer (from δρᾶν), fem. δρῆστις; προδότης, “ a traitor” (from προδιδόναι), fem. προδότες; ἰατρός, “ a healer” (from ἰᾶσθαι); σωτήρ, “ a saviour” (from σαοῦν, σώζειν), fem. σώτειρα; εὐναστήρ, εὐνητήρ οι εὐνατήρ, “ a husband” (from εὐνᾶν, εὐνά-ζειν), fem. εὐνάστειρα, εὐνάτειρα, εὐνήτειρα, εὐνήτρια; ῥήτωρ, “ an orator” (from the root of εἴ-ρη-κα); and secondary derivatives like ἀπάτωρ, ἀμήτωρ from πατήρ, μήτηρ. Words formed with the ending -της have sometimes, but rarely, a passive sense; thus yevéтns means "a son" (Soph. Ed. T. 470); ȧtítns, “dishonoured" (Esch. Agam. 72); Kiσσodéτηs, “bound with ivy" (Pind. Fr. 45, 9).

Obs. With regard to the accentuation of these derivatives, it is to be observed (a) that the nouns in -Tns are paroxytone when they are proper names, when they are dissyllable, or when, being polysyllable, they have a short penultima; thus we find Ορέστης, ψεύστης, δεσπότης. But if the penultima is long, the word is oxytone; thus we find wointys, δικαστής. Exceptions : κριτής (but in compounds with any other word than a preposition it draws back its accent, as in ὀνειροκρίτης), εὑρετής, δυνάστης; and in Attic Greek derivatives from liquid verbs, as ψαλτής, TOLKIλTÝS, &c. (b) The nouns in -Tηp and -Tpis are oxytones. (c) Those in τρια and -TEɩpa are proparoxytones.

(bb) The terminations -ns (gen. -ov) from verbs in -éw, -as (gen. -ov) from verbs in -áw, and -os (gen. -ov) from consonantal

verbs, are less common and are generally confined to compounds; such are σιτοπώλης, “a corn-factor” (from πωλεῖν); ὀρνιθοθήρας, "a fowler" (from Onpâv); σтparnyós, "a general" (from ayev); but we have simple nouns, such as тpopós, "a nurturer" (from τρέφω); ταγός, “a marshaller (from τάσσω); πομπός, “ a conductor" (from Téμπew); ȧodós, "a singer" (from deídew). πέμπειν); ἀοιδός,

Obs. Nouns in -ns and -as are paroxytone, but verbal derivatives in -os are oxytone, perhaps to indicate the loss of a consonant affix; this distinguishes them from words like ζωγράφος and λιθοβόλος, which, as we shall see, are not derived from γράφω and βάλλω, but from γραφή and βολή.

(cc) It is difficult to decide whether the nouns of agency in -cús are derivatives from verbs, or from other nouns; according to their meaning they are verbal derivatives; thus iππe's, though it is anterior to ἱππεύω and ἱππεία, cannot come immediately from Tos, but must involve some derivative verb, now lost; similarly σκαφεύς, " a digger” (from σκάπτειν); κναφεύς, “α fuller” (from κνάπτειν); γραφεύς and γραμματεύς, " a writer;" πоμжЄÚя, "an attendant" (cf. Tоμπós1), &c., bear verbal significations quite as immediate as the corresponding verbals in -ŋ or -eía (below, (hh)). See however (3), (d), (aa).

(b) Substantives denoting the action or result of the action.


(aa) Nouns in -σis (-is, -is) and -oía (all fem.) denote generally the action itself, as incomplete or in progress; thus we have πράξις, “the doing” (from πράσσειν); αὔξησις, “the increasing" (from avgáveiv); Ovoía, "the sacrifice" (from Ovew); Sokiμaoía, "the scrutiny" (from Sokiμáčew). But some of these denote the result of the action, as dóous, which means both "a gift" and "a giving" (cf. the English “dose”).


(bb) Nouns in -oa (fem.) have the same meaning as those in -σις. Compare δόξα with δόκησις, both from δοκεῖν.

(cc) Nouns in -Ts and -TUS (all fem.) correspond in meaning and in origin with those in -σs and -Tŋs, only they are rarer and more poetical; of these we have páris, "a speaking" (from pávai); μῆτις, “a thinking" (from μαίεσθαι); πύστις, “an inquiring" (from πυνθάνεσθαι); ἐδητύς, “ an eating” (from ἐσθίειν); ἐπητύς,

Πομπεύς, in the sense "" one who goes in a procession," is found only in 1. VI. 58.

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