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fem. -ήτις (gen. -ήτιδος), -ώτης, fem. -ὦτις (gen. -ώτιδος), or as adjectives in -ιoς (-αιος, -ειος), -ανός, -ηνός, -ῖνος, the latter being generally appropriated to places beyond the limits of Greece proper; thus we have Μεγαρεύς, fem. Μεγαρίς, from Μέγαρα ; ̓Αβδηρίτης, fem. ̓Αβδηρίτις, from ̓Αβδήρα; Σπαρτιάτης, fem. Σπαρτιάτις, from Σπάρτη; Αιγινήτης, fem. Αἰγινῆτις, from Αἴ γινα; Σικελιώτης, fem. Σικελιώτις, from Σικελία; Κορίνθιος from Κόρινθος; Αθηναῖος from ̓Αθῆναι; ̓Αργεῖος from "Αργος; Ασια νός from 'Ασία; ̓Αβυδηνός from ̓́Αβυδος; Ταραντῖνος from Τάρας ; Φλιάσιος for Φλιούντιος from Φλιούς (above, 107).
(66) Patronymics are formed with the endings -ίδης (-ειδης, -οίδης), fem. -ίς (gen. -ίδος); -αδης, -ιαδης, fem. -άς (gen. -άδος), and in the poets -ίων (gen. -ωνος), fem. -ιώνη and -ίνη; thus, Δαρ δανίδης, fem. Δαρδανίς, a descendant of Δάρδανος; Πηλείδης, Πηληϊάδης and Πηλείων, a descendant of Πηλεύς; Πανθοίδης, a son οι Πάνθοος; Βορεάδης, fem. Βορεάς, a child of Βορέας; Κρονίων, a son of Κρόνος ; ̓Ακρισιώνη, a daughter of Ακρίσιος; ̓Αδραστίνη, a daughter of "Αδραστος.
(e) Conversely the name of the locality is derived from that of the person ; thus we have Ἰταλία from Ἴταλος; Λακωνία from Λάκων. The designation Ελλάς is sometimes used as the feminine of Έλλην, in the signification “Grecian,” and more frequently, with perhaps an ellipsis of y or xewv, it denotes the land in which the Ελληνες dwelt. There are also derivative adjectives, Ελληνικός, Ἑλλήνιος and Ἑλληνίς, and the first and last of these are used as proper names.
(f) Words signifying diminution or exaggeration are thus derived :
(αα) Diminutives are formed in -ιον, -ίδιον, -ις, -ίσκος, -ίσκη, -άριον, -ύλλιον, -υλλίς, -ύδριον, -ύφιον, and in the case of lower animals in -ιδεύς, all of which seem to belong to the same class as the gentile names and patronymics; thus we have παιδίον, παιδάριον, παιδίσκος, παιδίσκη from παῖς; μειράκιον and μειρακύλλιον from μείραξ; νησίδιον, νησίς and νησύδριον from νῆσος; ἀκανθυλλίς from ἄκανθα; γενετυλλίς from γενέτης; ἰχθύδιον from ἰχθύς; ζωύφιον from ζώον; ἀετιδεύς from ἀετός.
Obs. 1 The accentuation of the other diminutives is invariably as given above; for those in -ov the following rule holds, with the single
exception of medíov: if the diminutive has more than three syllables, or if all its three syllables are short, it is proparoxytone, as maιdápiov, μЄipákov, μópiov; but trisyllables which constitute a dactyl are paroxytone; as βιβλίον, θηρίον, κρανίον, φορτίον, παιδίον.
Obs. 2 Some of these diminutive forms are used without any diminutive meaning; as Onpíov, "a wild beast;" Bißiov, "a book;" popτíov, "a burthen;" πedíov, ": a plain," &c. Just so a diminutive has become the only designation for the thing, and the primitive is lost, in other languages; e. g. puella is the only Latin word for "a girl," puera being obsolete; and the French abeille represents the Low Latin apicula.
(bb) Amplificatives are formed in -wv (gen. -wvos) and -ağ, as γάστρων from γαστήρ, κεφάλων from κεφαλή, πλούταξ from πλοῦ
(g) Appropriated places are indicated by derivatives.
(aa) In -v (rarely ev), and from names of plants in -wvrá (Arcad. p. 99), as ayev, "a place of assembly" (cf. ayopá and ἀγέλη), πυλών, “ a place of gates ;” ἀνδρών, " a man's apartment ; “a yuvaikov, "the women's apartment;" iTv, "the stable;" πeptστερεών, σтерev, "a dove-cot;" Sapvov, "a laurel-hedge;" podóv and ροδωνιά, “ a bed of roses;” κρινών and κρινωνιά, “ a bed of lilies.”
(bb) In -lov (-alov, -elov, -wov), chiefly as designations of places and temples dedicated to gods and heroes; as 'Aπoλávov, Ἡραῖον, Θησείον, Λητῷον, Ασκληπιείον οι Ασκληπείον. A word of class (aa), IIap@evov, properly "the virgin's chamber," was used to denote the temple of 'Αθηνα Παρθένος at Athens.
(B) Derived Adjectives.
362 Adjectives are derived (1) from substantives, (2) from verbs.
(1) Adjectives derived from Substantives.
(a) Qualitative adjectives are formed, probably from the old genitive, by adding -tos for -σtos, generally to the root, but more properly to the crude form ; thus we have δημόσιος from δῆμος, gen. δημόσιο, more recently δήμοιο; ποτάμιος from ποταμός ; πλούσιος from πλοῦτος (18, d); εἰρηναῖος from εἰρήνη; βασίλειος from βασιλεύς; αἰδοῖος from αἰδώς; ἡρῷος from ἥρως. There is also a common form in -xós; thus we have both pinos and piλκός; both εἰρηναῖος and εἰρηνικός; both βασίλειος and βασιλικός. Some of the adjectives in -alos and -elos do not immediately connect themselves with any known crude form, and we must
suppose that some other crude form or some longer affix is involved; thus we have 'Oμnpeios, "Homeric;" ȧveρúπeios, “human;” γυναικείος, “ feminine ;” σκοταῖος, “ dark ;” χερσαίος, “ terrestrial;" where we do not recognize the e or a in the crude form of the nouns, though the accentuation, as we shall see, shows that this must have been the case in the last three.
Obs. In the accentuation of these derivatives it is to be observed that, if there is a combination of a or ‹ with the of the affix, the adjective is properispome, otherwise proparoxytone; thus we have ȧyoραῖος from ἀγορά, ἀγελαῖος from ἀγέλη, σπουδαῖος from σπουδή, νομαῖος, "belonging to the pasture," from vou (to be thus distinguished from νόμαιος, “ customary,” from νόμος), νυμφεῖος from νύμφη, σπονδεῖος from OTоvon. The exceptions are (1) Of those in -alos; (a) proparoxytones like βέβαιος (from root βα), βίαιος (from βία), δίκαιος (from δίκη), μάταιος (from μάτην) ; (b) properispomes like σκοταῖος, σκοτιαῖος (probably from the dat. or loc. σκοτίᾳ, " in the darkness”), χερσαῖος (perhaps from χερσῇ or χερσία), and derivatives from the ordinals δευτέρα, τρίτῃ, &c., with ἡμέρᾳ implied, as δευτεραῖος, τριταῖος, &c.; (c) oxytones like σκαιός, γηραιός and γεραιός, παλαιός, αραιός, δηναιός, ἠβαιός, κραταιός, which probably result from an original consonantal ending, cf. the Latin scavus; to these may be added δεξιός, σκολιός, βαλιός and πολιός. (2) Of those in -elos, the properispomes ἀνδρεῖος, γυναικεῖος, παιδεῖος, παρθενεῖος, ἠθεῖος, ἑταιρεῖος, οἰκεῖος, ὀθνεῖος, μεγαλεῖος, Καδμεῖος, in which there seems to be an absorption of the ending -kós, cf. the case of the second perfect. Of the adjectives in -otos, oμolos and yéλotos are proparoxytone in the Attic dialect only.
(b) Adjectives denoting the material are formed in -eos and -wvos; thus we have xpúo-eos, "golden;" xáλ-cos, “made of bronze or copper;" ȧpyúp-eos, "of silver;" úλ-wos, “of wood;" λίθινος, “ of stone;” ἀληθινός, “ of genuine or true materials.” The former seem to be derived from the genitive, the latter from the old locative in -v. These formations in -vós or -wós, being in this secondary use oxytone like aλnowvós, are used also to denote not so much the materials as the time and the place; thus we have χθεσινός, Xocσivós, "belonging to yesterday;" Oepivós, "in the summer;" ὀπωρινός, “ in the autumn ;” χειμερινός, " in the winter;” φαεινός, Æolic paevvós, “in the light" (pá¤ɩ); opeɩvós, “in the mountain;' and even ταχινός, " with speed” (from τάχει).
(c) Adjectives denoting the complete possession of the quality, and often expressed in English by the affixes -ful or -able, are formed in -ρός (-ερός, -ηρός), -αλέος, -εις (-ίεις, -ήεις, όεις); as οἰκτρός, "full of oixтos," piti-ful, piti-able; AUTηpós, "sorrowful;" apσαλέος, “full of confidence;” φθονερός, “full of envy;” χαριείς, "graceful;" vλneis, "abounding in wood;" dσrepoeís, “full of stars."
(d) Adjectives in -ns derived from nouns in -os (-ovs) are generally compounds, as evteixns, "well-walled," &c. (above, 193), εὐτείχης, and to this class we must refer σαφής, “ clear,” from σα = σύν and φάος. There are a few, like ψεύδης, " false,” from ψεῦδος, πλήρης, "full," πpávns, "prone," which are either derived from simple nouns, or have lost their immediate primitives.
(2) Adjectives derived from Verbs.
(a) Adjectives in -opos or -μos express suitableness or capability for the action of the verb, and may be regarded as derived either directly from the verb itself or from some abstract noun in -σις, -ις or -η; thus we have χρήσιμος, “ useful” (cf. χρήσις); ἐδώδιμος, “eatable;” πότιμος, “drinkable;" θανάσιμος, “deadly" (cf. εὐθανασία) ; τρόφιμος, " nutritious” (cf. τροφή).
(b) Adjectives in -vós, -ós, -λós, -wλós, -pós and -ás express the meaning of the verb either transitively or intransitively; thus we have pa-vós, "shining" (cf. paei-vós); λoiπ-ós, "left, remaining;” στυγνός, “ odious ;” ποθεινός, “ longed for ;” δειλός, “ cowardly;" de-vós, "fearful;" aπarn-λós, "deceitful" or "deceiving;" δεινός, ἀπατη-λός, φειδωλός, “sparing, parsimonious;” χαλαρός, “ relaxed;” ἀνιαρός, distressing;" Spoμ-ás (gen. -ádos), "running;" pop-ás (gen. -ádos), "carrying."
(c) Adjectives in -μwv, like the nouns of agency in -μúv, make the action of the verb the prominent attribute of the person; thus we have αιδήμων, “bashful;” ἐλεήμων, “compassionate;” μνήμov, "mindful;" èπiλýσ-μwv, "forgetful." There are also many compounds of this form, as ἱππο-βά-μων, προβατο-γνώμων, ἀλλοτριο-πράγμων, &c.
(d) Regular verbals in -Tós and -Téos, which have been already exemplified (above, 302, D, (h)).
363 Verbs are derived (1) from nouns, (2) from other verbs. Verbs derived from Nouns.
(a) Verbs which imply to be or to have that which the name signifies are formed in -άω, -έω, -εύω, -ώσσω or -ώττω, -άζω and -w; thus from xoλn, "gall," we have xoλáw, “I have gall;" from kóμn, "long hair," kopáw, "I have long hair;" from Tóλun,
"daring," Toμáw, "I have daring;" from pixos, "a friend," piλéw, “I am a friend;" from coíρavos, “a ruler,” koɩpavéw, “I am a ruler;" from poveús, “a murderer," poveúw, “I am a murderer;" from aλnons, “true," àλŋleúw, “I am truthful;" from VπVOS, "sleep," vπvúσσw, "I am sleeping;" and verbs in -woow are generally intransitive, though we have vypooow, "I moisten :" from Δώριος, “ Doric,” δωριάζω or δωρίζω, “I am Doric in speech or action;" from "EXλŋv, “Greek," éλnviw, "I speak Greek or play the Greek;" from Midos, "a Mede or Persian," undicw, “I favour the Persians."
(b) Causative verbs, which express that we carry into act that which is proper to the noun, are formed in -ów, -íšw, -ółw, -úvw (-aivo); thus from douxos, "a slave," we have dovλów, "I make a (-αίνω); δοῦλος, slave;" from Tóλeμos, "war," Toλeμów, "I make hostile," and TоλEμiç, "I make war" (but Toλeμéw, "I am at war," according to (a)); from aiμa, "blood," aipariçw, “I make bloody;" from TλOÛTOS, "riches," Tλovτiw, "I make rich" (but πλoνтéw, “I am rich"); from ápuós, "a joining," appów, "I fit;" from dus, "sweet," dúvo, "I sweeten;" from oua, "a sign," onpaivo, σημαίνω, "I signify;" from coîλos, "hollow," Koiλaivw, "I make hollow."
Obs. There are some traces of verbs in -aw being causative by the side of verbs in -co, which retain their usual signification. Thus Tová seems to have signified "I effect by labour," while Tové always means "I suffer toil." (See Böckh ad Pind. Pyth. 1v. 236; Hermann, de dial. Pind. p. 15; Opusc. 1. p. 259). It seems that some verbs in -ew had a causative meaning; this at least is clear in Trotéw (above, p. 253). And verbs in -aww are often immediately connected with nouns in -ŋv; thus we have ποιμήν, ποιμαίνω, φρήν, εὐφραίνω, πε
(2) Verbs derived from other Verbs.
(a) Frequentatives are formed in -açw, -isw, -úçw and sometimes in -éw, -áw, with a change of the root vowel e or o into o or @ ; thus from στένω we have στενάζω; from ὠθέω, ὠθίζω; from ἕρπω, ἑρπύζω ; from φέρειν, φορεῖν ; from στρέφειν, στρωφᾶν.
(b) Inchoatives are formed in -σκω; thus we have ἡβά-σκω from ἡβάω ; μεθύσκω from μεθύω, and the like.
(c) Desideratives are either an old future in -σew, of which the corresponding aorist is found in the so-called Æolic optative in -σela, or we have forms in -σiáw, -iáw, -áw; thus we find from γελάω, γελασείω ; from πολεμέω, πολεμησείω ; from δράω, δρασείω ;