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suppose that some other crude form or some longer affix is involved; thus we have 'Oμnpeios, "Homeric;" ȧveρúπeios, “human;” γυναικείος, “ feminine ;” σκοταῖος, “ dark ;” χερσαίος, “ terrestrial;" where we do not recognize the e or a in the crude form of the nouns, though the accentuation, as we shall see, shows that this must have been the case in the last three.
Obs. In the accentuation of these derivatives it is to be observed that, if there is a combination of a or ‹ with the of the affix, the adjective is properispome, otherwise proparoxytone; thus we have ȧyoραῖος from ἀγορά, ἀγελαῖος from ἀγέλη, σπουδαῖος from σπουδή, νομαῖος, "belonging to the pasture," from vou (to be thus distinguished from νόμαιος, “ customary,” from νόμος), νυμφεῖος from νύμφη, σπονδεῖος from OTоvon. The exceptions are (1) Of those in -alos; (a) proparoxytones like βέβαιος (from root βα), βίαιος (from βία), δίκαιος (from δίκη), μάταιος (from μάτην) ; (b) properispomes like σκοταῖος, σκοτιαῖος (probably from the dat. or loc. σκοτίᾳ, " in the darkness”), χερσαῖος (perhaps from χερσῇ or χερσία), and derivatives from the ordinals δευτέρα, τρίτῃ, &c., with ἡμέρᾳ implied, as δευτεραῖος, τριταῖος, &c.; (c) oxytones like σκαιός, γηραιός and γεραιός, παλαιός, αραιός, δηναιός, ἠβαιός, κραταιός, which probably result from an original consonantal ending, cf. the Latin scavus; to these may be added δεξιός, σκολιός, βαλιός and πολιός. (2) Of those in -elos, the properispomes ἀνδρεῖος, γυναικεῖος, παιδεῖος, παρθενεῖος, ἠθεῖος, ἑταιρεῖος, οἰκεῖος, ὀθνεῖος, μεγαλεῖος, Καδμεῖος, in which there seems to be an absorption of the ending -kós, cf. the case of the second perfect. Of the adjectives in -otos, oμolos and yéλotos are proparoxytone in the Attic dialect only.
(b) Adjectives denoting the material are formed in -eos and -wvos; thus we have xpúo-eos, "golden;" xáλ-cos, “made of bronze or copper;" ȧpyúp-eos, "of silver;" úλ-wos, “of wood;" λίθινος, “ of stone;” ἀληθινός, “ of genuine or true materials.” The former seem to be derived from the genitive, the latter from the old locative in -v. These formations in -vós or -wós, being in this secondary use oxytone like aλnowvós, are used also to denote not so much the materials as the time and the place; thus we have χθεσινός, Xocσivós, "belonging to yesterday;" Oepivós, "in the summer;" ὀπωρινός, “ in the autumn ;” χειμερινός, " in the winter;” φαεινός, Æolic paevvós, “in the light" (pá¤ɩ); opeɩvós, “in the mountain;' and even ταχινός, " with speed” (from τάχει).
(c) Adjectives denoting the complete possession of the quality, and often expressed in English by the affixes -ful or -able, are formed in -ρός (-ερός, -ηρός), -αλέος, -εις (-ίεις, -ήεις, όεις); as οἰκτρός, "full of oixтos," piti-ful, piti-able; AUTηpós, "sorrowful;" apσαλέος, “full of confidence;” φθονερός, “full of envy;” χαριείς, "graceful;" vλneis, "abounding in wood;" dσrepoeís, “full of stars."
(d) Adjectives in -ns derived from nouns in -os (-ovs) are generally compounds, as evteixns, "well-walled," &c. (above, 193), εὐτείχης, and to this class we must refer σαφής, “ clear,” from σα = σύν and φάος. There are a few, like ψεύδης, " false,” from ψεῦδος, πλήρης, "full," πpávns, "prone," which are either derived from simple nouns, or have lost their immediate primitives.
(2) Adjectives derived from Verbs.
(a) Adjectives in -opos or -μos express suitableness or capability for the action of the verb, and may be regarded as derived either directly from the verb itself or from some abstract noun in -σις, -ις or -η; thus we have χρήσιμος, “ useful” (cf. χρήσις); ἐδώδιμος, “eatable;” πότιμος, “drinkable;" θανάσιμος, “deadly" (cf. εὐθανασία) ; τρόφιμος, " nutritious” (cf. τροφή).
(b) Adjectives in -vós, -ós, -λós, -wλós, -pós and -ás express the meaning of the verb either transitively or intransitively; thus we have pa-vós, "shining" (cf. paei-vós); λoiπ-ós, "left, remaining;” στυγνός, “ odious ;” ποθεινός, “ longed for ;” δειλός, “ cowardly;" de-vós, "fearful;" aπarn-λós, "deceitful" or "deceiving;" δεινός, ἀπατη-λός, φειδωλός, “sparing, parsimonious;” χαλαρός, “ relaxed;” ἀνιαρός, distressing;" Spoμ-ás (gen. -ádos), "running;" pop-ás (gen. -ádos), "carrying."
(c) Adjectives in -μwv, like the nouns of agency in -μúv, make the action of the verb the prominent attribute of the person; thus we have αιδήμων, “bashful;” ἐλεήμων, “compassionate;” μνήμov, "mindful;" èπiλýσ-μwv, "forgetful." There are also many compounds of this form, as ἱππο-βά-μων, προβατο-γνώμων, ἀλλοτριο-πράγμων, &c.
(d) Regular verbals in -Tós and -Téos, which have been already exemplified (above, 302, D, (h)).
363 Verbs are derived (1) from nouns, (2) from other verbs. Verbs derived from Nouns.
(a) Verbs which imply to be or to have that which the name signifies are formed in -άω, -έω, -εύω, -ώσσω or -ώττω, -άζω and -w; thus from xoλn, "gall," we have xoλáw, “I have gall;" from kóμn, "long hair," kopáw, "I have long hair;" from Tóλun,
"daring," Toμáw, "I have daring;" from pixos, "a friend," piλéw, “I am a friend;" from coíρavos, “a ruler,” koɩpavéw, “I am a ruler;" from poveús, “a murderer," poveúw, “I am a murderer;" from aλnons, “true," àλŋleúw, “I am truthful;" from VπVOS, "sleep," vπvúσσw, "I am sleeping;" and verbs in -woow are generally intransitive, though we have vypooow, "I moisten :" from Δώριος, “ Doric,” δωριάζω or δωρίζω, “I am Doric in speech or action;" from "EXλŋv, “Greek," éλnviw, "I speak Greek or play the Greek;" from Midos, "a Mede or Persian," undicw, “I favour the Persians."
(b) Causative verbs, which express that we carry into act that which is proper to the noun, are formed in -ów, -íšw, -ółw, -úvw (-aivo); thus from douxos, "a slave," we have dovλów, "I make a (-αίνω); δοῦλος, slave;" from Tóλeμos, "war," Toλeμów, "I make hostile," and TоλEμiç, "I make war" (but Toλeμéw, "I am at war," according to (a)); from aiμa, "blood," aipariçw, “I make bloody;" from TλOÛTOS, "riches," Tλovτiw, "I make rich" (but πλoνтéw, “I am rich"); from ápuós, "a joining," appów, "I fit;" from dus, "sweet," dúvo, "I sweeten;" from oua, "a sign," onpaivo, σημαίνω, "I signify;" from coîλos, "hollow," Koiλaivw, "I make hollow."
Obs. There are some traces of verbs in -aw being causative by the side of verbs in -co, which retain their usual signification. Thus Tová seems to have signified "I effect by labour," while Tové always means "I suffer toil." (See Böckh ad Pind. Pyth. 1v. 236; Hermann, de dial. Pind. p. 15; Opusc. 1. p. 259). It seems that some verbs in -ew had a causative meaning; this at least is clear in Trotéw (above, p. 253). And verbs in -aww are often immediately connected with nouns in -ŋv; thus we have ποιμήν, ποιμαίνω, φρήν, εὐφραίνω, πε
(2) Verbs derived from other Verbs.
(a) Frequentatives are formed in -açw, -isw, -úçw and sometimes in -éw, -áw, with a change of the root vowel e or o into o or @ ; thus from στένω we have στενάζω; from ὠθέω, ὠθίζω; from ἕρπω, ἑρπύζω ; from φέρειν, φορεῖν ; from στρέφειν, στρωφᾶν.
(b) Inchoatives are formed in -σκω; thus we have ἡβά-σκω from ἡβάω ; μεθύσκω from μεθύω, and the like.
(c) Desideratives are either an old future in -σew, of which the corresponding aorist is found in the so-called Æolic optative in -σela, or we have forms in -σiáw, -iáw, -áw; thus we find from γελάω, γελασείω ; from πολεμέω, πολεμησείω ; from δράω, δρασείω ;
from ἀπαλλάσσω, ἀπαλλαξείω ; and from κλαίω, κλαύσομαι or the verbal κλαῦσις, κλαυσιάω; from στρατηγέω or the verbal στρατηγός, στρατηγιάω ; from the verbal θάνατος, θανατάω. These forms sometimes merely denote an affection, as iyiáw, "I have a dizziness,” from ἴλιγγος ; κελαινιάω, “I grow black,” from κελαινός.
§ V. (2) COMPOSITION.
364 A compound word is an union of two or more words, represented at least by their roots, and conveying their separate and combined signification, of which, however, the last only is inflected, the inflexions being entirely lost in the first part of the compound. From this definition it follows that composition, in the proper sense of the term, can only exist in an inflected language, and can only apply to combinations of inflected words. It may happen, however, that an uninflected word, especially an ordinary preposition, will assume the functions of a regular prefix. But if this prefix is separable, and if the two parts of the word may exist distinct from one another, it cannot be said that a new form has arisen; and if we wish to give the name of compound to such a combination, we must adopt some term which will imply at least that the process of fusion and derivation has not taken place, and that the elements of the new word may at any time return to their original functions. The Greek grammarians have fully perceived this, and while they call the real or organic compounds, involving a process of derivation, by the name synthetic, from ouvOeois, "composition," they designate the provisional or temporary compounds as parathetic, from πapáleσis, “juxtaposition.'
365 The Greek language, more perhaps than any other form of human speech, retained to the last a peculiar facility for the formation of compounds. For while it admits of every form and variety of juxtaposition, and allows the heaping together of a number of separable prefixes, it imposes no limit on the fabrication of new compounds by the fusion together of the longest series of inflected and intelligible words. Thus, while we have not only parathetic compounds of verbs with a single preposition, as πаρатíonμi, σvvTíonu, but two or more prepositions in the same combination, as προ-κατα-λαμβάνω, ἀντ-επι-βουλεύω, ὑπ-εκ-φεύγω, ὑπ-εκ-προ-φεύγω, ἀντι-παρ-εξ-άγω; the dithyrambic and comic writers were allowed to revel in the most ludicrous coacervations of independent
terms. Thus Philoxenus of Cyrene, among a host of similar compounds, ventured on the following adjective in twenty-five syllables (Athenæus, χιν. p. 643 B): πυροβρομολευκερεβινθοακανθονμικριτοαδυβρωματοπανταναμικτόν, meaning a compound of wheat (πυ pós), oats (ẞpóμos), white chick-peas (épéßiveos), and other matters (not easily distinguishable in the corrupt readings) mixed together in a porridge. And his contemporary Aristophanes, perhaps ridiculing this extravagance, has fabricated a word of seventy-seven syllables with a collective ending (Ecclesiaz. 1168-1178): Táɣa γὰρ ἔπεισι λεπαδο-τεμαχο-σελαχο-γαλεο-κρανιο-λειψανο-δριμ-υποτριμματο-σιλφιο -πρασο-μελιτο-κατακεχυμενο-κιχλ-επι - κοσσυφοφαττο - περιστερ-αλεκτρυον-οπτ-εγκεφαλο - κιγκλο - πελειο - λαγωο σιραιο-βαφη-τραγανο-πτερύγων, “ there will soon be placed on the table a fricassee consisting of shellfish-saltfish-skate-shark-remainders-of-heads-besprinkled-with-sharp-sauce-of-laserpitium-leek-andhoney-thrushes-besides - black birds-pigeons-doves-roasted-cocksbrains-wagtails-cushats-hares flesh-steeped-in-a-sauce-of-boiled-newwine-with-the-cartilages-and-wings."
366 In considering the different forms of compound words, it will be convenient to take first the parathetic compounds, because they exhibit the first process in the formation of these new words. And we shall then be able to pass on to the synthetic compounds, in which the elements or ingredients, originally independent and selfsufficing, have become inseparably united in a word which conveys their meaning in subordination generally to some one part of the compound.
§ VI. A. Parathetic Compounds.
367 The first step towards the parathesis, or regular juxtaposition, of two independent and separable words is when some oblique case of a substantive, generally a dative, which is the most adverbial of all the cases, is prefixed to an adjective which it qualifies. This sort of parathesis is naturally of rare occurrence, for it is the tendency of all such juxtapositions, in a language like the Greek, which so easily admits of synthesis, to pass on into the form of an inseparable compound. We have, however, some undoubted instances. According to the definition of a true compound in our own language, namely, that it exhibits a change of form or accent, we may call some of the juxtapositions now under