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from ἀπαλλάσσω, ἀπαλλαξείω ; and from κλαίω, κλαύσομαι or the verbal κλαῦσις, κλαυσιάω; from στρατηγέω or the verbal στρατηγός, στρατηγιάω ; from the verbal θάνατος, θανατάω. These forms sometimes merely denote an affection, as iyiáw, "I have a dizziness,” from ἴλιγγος ; κελαινιάω, “I grow black,” from κελαινός.
§ V. (2) COMPOSITION.
364 A compound word is an union of two or more words, represented at least by their roots, and conveying their separate and combined signification, of which, however, the last only is inflected, the inflexions being entirely lost in the first part of the compound. From this definition it follows that composition, in the proper sense of the term, can only exist in an inflected language, and can only apply to combinations of inflected words. It may happen, however, that an uninflected word, especially an ordinary preposition, will assume the functions of a regular prefix. But if this prefix is separable, and if the two parts of the word may exist distinct from one another, it cannot be said that a new form has arisen; and if we wish to give the name of compound to such a combination, we must adopt some term which will imply at least that the process of fusion and derivation has not taken place, and that the elements of the new word may at any time return to their original functions. The Greek grammarians have fully perceived this, and while they call the real or organic compounds, involving a process of derivation, by the name synthetic, from ouvOeois, "composition," they designate the provisional or temporary compounds as parathetic, from πapáleσis, “juxtaposition.'
365 The Greek language, more perhaps than any other form of human speech, retained to the last a peculiar facility for the formation of compounds. For while it admits of every form and variety of juxtaposition, and allows the heaping together of a number of separable prefixes, it imposes no limit on the fabrication of new compounds by the fusion together of the longest series of inflected and intelligible words. Thus, while we have not only parathetic compounds of verbs with a single preposition, as πаρатíonμi, σvvTíonu, but two or more prepositions in the same combination, as προ-κατα-λαμβάνω, ἀντ-επι-βουλεύω, ὑπ-εκ-φεύγω, ὑπ-εκ-προ-φεύγω, ἀντι-παρ-εξ-άγω; the dithyrambic and comic writers were allowed to revel in the most ludicrous coacervations of independent
terms. Thus Philoxenus of Cyrene, among a host of similar compounds, ventured on the following adjective in twenty-five syllables (Athenæus, χιν. p. 643 B): πυροβρομολευκερεβινθοακανθονμικριτοαδυβρωματοπανταναμικτόν, meaning a compound of wheat (πυ pós), oats (ẞpóμos), white chick-peas (épéßiveos), and other matters (not easily distinguishable in the corrupt readings) mixed together in a porridge. And his contemporary Aristophanes, perhaps ridiculing this extravagance, has fabricated a word of seventy-seven syllables with a collective ending (Ecclesiaz. 1168-1178): Táɣa γὰρ ἔπεισι λεπαδο-τεμαχο-σελαχο-γαλεο-κρανιο-λειψανο-δριμ-υποτριμματο-σιλφιο -πρασο-μελιτο-κατακεχυμενο-κιχλ-επι - κοσσυφοφαττο - περιστερ-αλεκτρυον-οπτ-εγκεφαλο - κιγκλο - πελειο - λαγωο σιραιο-βαφη-τραγανο-πτερύγων, “ there will soon be placed on the table a fricassee consisting of shellfish-saltfish-skate-shark-remainders-of-heads-besprinkled-with-sharp-sauce-of-laserpitium-leek-andhoney-thrushes-besides - black birds-pigeons-doves-roasted-cocksbrains-wagtails-cushats-hares flesh-steeped-in-a-sauce-of-boiled-newwine-with-the-cartilages-and-wings."
366 In considering the different forms of compound words, it will be convenient to take first the parathetic compounds, because they exhibit the first process in the formation of these new words. And we shall then be able to pass on to the synthetic compounds, in which the elements or ingredients, originally independent and selfsufficing, have become inseparably united in a word which conveys their meaning in subordination generally to some one part of the compound.
§ VI. A. Parathetic Compounds.
367 The first step towards the parathesis, or regular juxtaposition, of two independent and separable words is when some oblique case of a substantive, generally a dative, which is the most adverbial of all the cases, is prefixed to an adjective which it qualifies. This sort of parathesis is naturally of rare occurrence, for it is the tendency of all such juxtapositions, in a language like the Greek, which so easily admits of synthesis, to pass on into the form of an inseparable compound. We have, however, some undoubted instances. According to the definition of a true compound in our own language, namely, that it exhibits a change of form or accent, we may call some of the juxtapositions now under
consideration by the name of compounds; for although the two forms are complete and separable, they are written as one word, and are subordinated to a single accent. Thus we have ναυσικλυτός for ναυσὶ κλυτός, “ famous for ships;” γαστρίμαργος for γαστρὶ μάργος, “greedy in belly;” τειχεσιπλήτης for τειχεσὶ πελάτης, “ one who approaches or draws near to walls,” “ a besieger of cities” (though the common construction of πελάτης is with the genitive); κυνόσσημα, “ hound's tomb” (the name of several places) ; κυνόσουρα, “ dog's tail" (a constellation), &c. In some few cases this sort of parathesis has to be detected in the syntax, as in the case of λόγῳ παλαιός, “ old in story” (Æsch. Agam. 1198; Soph. d. Τyr. 1395), and χρόνῳ κλυτός, “ timehonoured" (Pind. Pyth. XI. 32; Esch. Choeph. 641); where the separate terms are as distinct and complete in themselves as those in the Latin pater familias. Some of these quasi-compounds pass by a regular series of changes into the synthetic combination; compare δικασ-πόλος = δίκας πολέων with οἰωνο-πόλος; νυκτι-πόρος = νυκτὶ πορευόμενος and ὁδοιπόρος = ἐν ὁδῷ πορευόμενος with ποντό-πορος; θεόσδοτος = θεοῖς δοτός with Θεόδωρος, θεόδοτος; ἐγχεσ-φόρος = ἔγχος φέρων; σακεσ-παλός = σάκος πάλλων; φωσφόρος = φάος φέρων with ξιφο-φόρος; ὀρεσ-βίος = ὄρεσι βιοτεύων, ὀρεσ-κῶος = ὄρεσι κείμενος, ὀρεσσι-βάτης = ὄρεσι βαίνων, &c. with ἀγρό-νομος and the like. A converse example is furnished by καλοκἀγαθός, which, though it has only one accent and has lost the fexion of its first adjective, is merely the three words καλὸς καὶ ἀγαθός melted roughly into one form.
368 From the use of the oblique case in the first part of the compound to that of the adverb, representing, in some corrupted form, the oblique case of a noun or pronoun, the transition is very easy. And we not only find separable juxtapositions in which one or both members are adverbs, as οὐκέτι for οὐκ ἔτι; οὐδείς οι οὐθείς for οὐδὲ εἷς; Οὗτις, “Mr Nobody,” Οὐκαλέγων, " Dreadnought” (as imaginary proper names); οὐδεμία for οὐδὲ μία; οὐδέ τερος for οὐδὲ ἕτερος; εὐάγγελος for εὖ ἄγγελος, &c.; or combinations of particles with the article, as τονῦν, τανῦν, το πολλάκις, τοπρώτον, &c.; but also adverbs like λάξ, “ with the heels,” or πύξ, “ with the fist, either in combination with words which might stand alone, as λακ-πατεῖν for λὰξ πατεῖν, or in words which have become synthetic compounds, viz. πύγ-μαχος, πυγμαχία,
πυγμαχεῖν from πὺξ μάχεσθαι. Cf. Pind. Οl. VII. 89: πὺξ ἀρετὰν εὑρόντα.
369 By far the most common of the uninflected words, which stand at the beginning of parathetic and separable compounds, are the eighteen ordinary prepositions; namely, ἀμφί, ἀνά, ἀντί, ἀπό, διά, εἰς οι ἐς, ἐκ οι ἐξ, ἐν, ἐπί, κατά, μετά, παρά, περί, πρό, πρός, σύν, ὑπέρ, ὑπό: and the student must bear in mind that these are the only prefixes with which a verb forms a parathetic compound, or in which a verb can appear without passing into a derivative form. The exceptions to this rule (see Lobeck ad Phrynichum, pp. 560-632) are not such as would affect the general analogy of the language. Some of them are obviously corruptions of genuine forms, others belong to a degraded period of the language, and in one case, that of νοῦν ἔχω with the adverb νοῦν ἐχόντως (264), we have a parathesis with the complete case of the noun, like those mentioned above (367), which has passed into a synthetic compound in vovvexýs. With regard, however, to parathetic compounds with the eighteen ordinary prepositions enumerated above, the following rules are general:
(1) Any verb, whether primitive or derived, may be combined unaltered with any one or more of these prepositions, as κalioтημi, περιπατέω, ἀντιπαῤῥησιάζομαι.
(2) The prepositions so prefixed are liable to elision before vowels, and to the usual affections before consonants; thus we have ἀνέχω, ὑφίστημι, ἐφοράω, προὔχω, and συμβάλλω, συῤῥέω, συλλαμβάνω, συσσιτέω, συσκευάζω, ἐμπίπτω, ἐλλείπω; but ἐνράπτω and ἐνσείω.
Exceptions are to be made (a) in the case of Tepi, which never elides its final, though the Eolians write Tep in compounds whether a vowel or consonant follows, as in περάπτω, πέροδος, TéрOW, Tерpeρées (see Böckh, Not. Crit. ad Pind. Ol. vI. 38, ad Fragm. p. 631; New Cratyl. § 178); (b) sometimes in the case of ἀμφί, for we have both ἀμφέπω and ἀμφιέπω ; (c) and in epic poetry, where there are traces of the digamma, as in aπоeîπe, diaείδεται, &c.
(3) A preposition in composition is liable to tmesis (above, 112), because the preposition is regarded as necessarily a separable adjunct.
(4) For the same reason the augment and reduplication are attached to the verb compounded with a preposition, just as though it had no prefix (above, 308).
Obs. Notwithstanding the distinct and separable nature of the constituent parts in a parathetic compound of preposition and verb, we find that in many of these combinations a new and single meaning has superseded those of the preposition and verb as taken by themselves; this is particularly observable, for instance, in the compounds of ytyvooкw, “I know," which have acquired specific meanings, as follows: dvayıуváσкw, “I καταγιγνώσκω, "I read;" κaтaуtyvσk, “I condemn;" уtyvσkw, "I discover or decide;” μεταγιγνώσκω, “I change my mind or repent;” συγγιγνώσκω, "I pardon." In some cases the construction follows the assumed meaning; thus oraμal, "I stand out of," in the sense "I avoid," governs the accusative and not the genitive (below, 430, (bb)).
§ VII. B. Synthetic Compounds.
370 It is the essential characteristic of a synthetic or organic compound, which represents two or more words under the form of one, that the inflexions of the earlier part of the combination should be more or less modified, so as to appear in a dependent, inseparable, and construct state. If this does not take place, there will be a mere parathesis, as in λόγῳ παλαιός, ναυσὶ κλυτός, and the like, unless the last part of the word is modified, so as to affect its independent use. It will also happen that the former or latter of the syllables in contact at the point of junction between the two parts of a compound, or even the latter part itself, will admit of euphonic changes, in the way of ectasis or otherwise. With a view then to the methodical discussion of synthetic compounds, we must consider in order, (1) the modifications of the former part of the compound; (2) the euphonic changes at the point of junction or in the latter part of the compound; (3) the formation or inflexions of the compound considered as one word.
(1) Modifications of the former part of the Compound.
371 Synthetic compounds are made up generally of the following clauses or constructions: a substantive preceded by its epithet, as μεγαλόπολις for μεγάλη πόλις, “the great city ; " ὀρθό-μαντις, ἀριστό-μαντις, σεμνό-μαντις of prophets (Pind. Nem. 1. 92; Soph. Phil. 1338; Ed. T. 556); a noun preceded by a dependent case, as σιδηρο-μήτωρ for σιδήρου μήτηρ (Asch. Prom.