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301); a verb or verbal governing a case, when the verbal either precedes, as in ἀρχέκακος from ἀρχὴ κακῶν; or follows, as in παιδάγωγος from παιδῶν ἀγωγή; or, finally, some uninfected particle, as in παλίγκοτος from πάλιν and κότος. In considering then the modifications of the former part of the compound, it will be most convenient (a) to class together all the cases in which an ordinary noun, whether substantive or adjective, precedes, and to distinguish those in which (b) the former part is of verbal origin, or (c) is an uninflected particle.
(a) When the former part is an ordinary Noun.
372 Here again we must distinguish (aa) when the first part is an adjective; (bb) when it is the dependent case of a substantive.
(aa) When the former part is an adjective, it is generally represented by its crude form; thus we have μeyaλó-dogos from μεγάλη δόξα; πολύπους from πολλοὶ πόδες; παντο-μίσης from Tavτòs μloovs, &c. But adjectives of which the crude form ends in -es for -07 (above, 193) generally substitue -o, as in ȧxpɩßó-λoyos from ἀκριβὴς λόγος ; ἀληθό-μυθος from ἀληθὴς μῦθος. And adjectives, in which a liquid precedes the termination, often accept this as the ending of the crude form ; thus we have μελάν-δρυον, μελαγ χολία, παν-δόκος, παμφάγος.
Obs. Exceptions to this rule may generally be referred to something in the construction included in the compound. Thus μeoai-TóλIOS, “ half-gray,” seems to involve μέσῃ sc. κεφαλῇ, and μεσαί-γεως is derived from μέση γῇ. With regard to μαλακαίποδες Ωραι, in Theocr. xv. 103, it has been proposed to read μαλακαὶ πόδας. In καλοκαγαθός we have only a slight modification of the parathesis kaλos kai ayalós. The numerous cases in which we have compounds beginning with ka- by the side of others beginning with καλο-, as καλλι-όπη, καλλίνικος, καλλί-παις, καλλι-γυναιξ, &c., point to another form of the adjective καλός = καδ-λός or καλλός, which we find in the compar. and superl. καλλίων, κάλλιστος, and in derivatives such as καλλύνω. Such forms as ἀκράχολος, διδυμάτοκος, νοθαγενής do not admit of easy explanation.
(bb) When the former part of the compound is a substantive, it is represented by the nearest approximation to the crude form which euphony allows, except in those instances in which the involved construction is still represented by some traces of the original parathesis. We distinguish therefore the following cases:
(α) Whenever the noun included exhibits o in its last syllable, the end of the crude form may be that vowel, and it is elided if the second part of the compound begins with a vowel; thus we have λογο-ποιός = λόγου ποιητής, νομοθέτης = νόμον τιθείς and νομ άρχης = νόμου ἄρχων, παιδο-τρίβης from παιδὸς τριβή and παιδ'αγωγός from παιδὸς ἀγωγή, φυσιο-λόγος = φύσιος λόγος and ταξί αρχος = τάξιος ἄρχων, σωματο-φύλαξ = σώματος φύλαξ, and σωματ' έμπορος = σώματος ἔμπορος.
Obs. 1 Nouns in -ματ not unfrequently drop their termination, and are treated as if the crude form ended in -aa-; thus we have αἱμοῤῥαγής, αἱμόρρυτος, as well as αἱματόῤῥυτος, κυμοδέγμων, σπερμοφάγος, αἱμοπότης, στομαλγία, χειμάρρους, &c. The r of the comparative is omitted in κρεισ σότεκνος (Æsch. Sept. 766, read κρεισσοτεχνών, and ef. ἀριστοτέχνης, Pind. Fr. 29). We have similarly the proper name Ελπινίκη for Ἐλπιδονίκη. But it is a mistake to suppose that Ελλάνικος is for Ελλανόνικος, as well for other reasons, as because this omission of the formative letter does not take place when the preceding vowel is long by nature.
Obs. 2 If the second word had originally an initial digamma, the -o is not elided; this applies to compounds in which the second part is the root of εἶδος, ἔπος, ἔργον, οι εἴκω; and ἔχω falls within the rule, with the exception of καχεξία. Thus we have μηνοειδής, θυμοειδής, δημιουργός, ὀρθοεπής, μενοεικής, ῥαβδούχος, and sometimes with crasis and the accent drawn back, as in αἰνιγματώδης, μυθώδης, ἰχθυώδης.
(β) When the noun included exhibits @ in its last syllable, that vowel is retained in the compound. This applies to the nouns declined in -w (above, 170), including y or yaîa under the form γεω-. Hence we have λεωφόρος, νεωκόρος, ὀρεω-κόμος, γεωμέτρης, γεω-γραφία, λαγω-βόλος.
(γ) Nouns of the 1 decl. in -a and -η retain this vowel in the compound; thus we have ἀγορᾶ-νόμος, γενεα-λογία, νικηφόρος, χοη-φόρος, σκια-γραφία.
Obs. 1 Some nouns exhibit a or η by the side of o; as βιβλια-γράφος and βιβλιο-γράφος, ζυγη-φόρος and ζυγο-φόρος, ξιφη-φόρος and ξιφοφόρος, σκευη-φόρος and σκευο-φόρος. In these cases it is possible that a plural is sometimes represented by the side of the singular.
Obs. 2 Such compounds as ελαφηβόλος, θανατηφόρος seem to refer to obsolete forms of the included noun. Compare, for the latter, the verb θανατάω.
Semi-consonantal nouns in - or -v sometimes terminate the first part of the compound with this characteristic. Thus we have πτολίπορθος, ὀρχί-πεδον, μαντί-πολος, λεξι-θηρέω by the
side of φυσιο-λόγος, &c., and ἀστυνόμος, πελεκυ-φόρος, δρυ-τόμος, δρυ-κολάπτης, δακρυῤῥοέω by the side of ἰχθυο-φάγος, μυοκτόνος, δρυο-κολάπτης, &c. The same is observable when the first word is βοῦς οι ναῦς; thus we have βουκόλος, βου-φορβός, ναυμαχία.
Obs. The numerous forms in αἰγι-, as αἰγι-βότης, the words ἀργί-πους, χαλκί-οικος, μυστί-πολος, seem to involve obsolete forms in -us or -tos.
(e) The oblique case of the parathesis is sometimes retained by the former word, although the whole has become synthetic. Some instances have been already mentioned (367). Less obvious cases are νεώσοικοι, ἀργειφόντης, ανδρειφόντης, in the last two of which the involved genitive is explained by the form of the possessive adjectives 'Αργεῖος, ἀνδρεῖος.
(6) When the former part is a Verb or Verbal Noun.
373 Here we distinguish the two classes: (aa) when the compound represents the parathesis of a verb governing its case; (bb) when the verb in the first part is reduced to the form of a verbal noun.
(αα) This class is comparatively small: we have λειπο-ταξία from λείπω τάξιν, φαινο-μηρίς from φαίνω μήρους, λάμπ-ουρος from λάμπει οὐρά, ἁμαρτο-επής and ἁμαρτό-λογος from ἥμαρτον ἔπεσι vel λόγοις, φιλέλλην from φιλεῖ Ἕλληνας, and the like.
(bb) More usually the verb included appears as a verbal in -σις or -η; thus we have λυσίπονος from λύσις πόνων, ῥίψασπις from ῥῖψις ἀσπίδος, πλήξ-ιππος from πλῆξις ἵππου, ἐγερσί-μαχος from ἔγερσις μάχης, παυσ-άνεμος from παῦσις ἀνέμου, ἀρχέ-κακος from ἀρχὴ κάκου, ἀρχι-θέωρος from ἀρχὴ θεωρίας, λαθι-κηδής from λήθη κήδους, φέρ-ασπις from φορὰ ἀσπίδος, φυγό-μαχος from φυγὴ μάχης, &c.
Obs. The verbal is often so disguised by the weight of the form that we cannot distinguish between the first and second of these classes. Thus φέρασπις, ἐχέμυθος, ἑλκεχίτων, τερπικέραυνος might seem to involve the verb with its case; but the longer forms φερέσβιος, ἑλκεσί-πεπλος, ταμεσί-χρως, &c. indicate a verbal in these cases. Again, o has taken the place of t in μιξο-βάρβαρος, μιξοπάρθενος, and other compounds involving μίξις, and the o is elided according to the rule in μιξ-άνθρωπος, nves, &c.
(c) When the former part is an uninflected Word.
374 (a) Prepositions are liable to the same changes in organic as in parathetic compounds, i.e. they are assimilated or elided, as the case may be. We have, however, ἐπιεικής and ἐπίορκος without elision, even in ordinary Greek.
(B) Adverbs and words used adverbially are treated in the same way as prepositions when they appear in synthetic compounds; but though they have not the power of forming a separable parathesis with verbs, some of them exist as separate words, and must therefore be distinguished from those which exist only in compounds.
(aa) Separable adverbs which enter into composition are ǎyav, ἄγχι, ἅμα, ἄρτι, εὖ, πάλαι, πάλιν, πᾶν, πλήν, τῆλε οι τηλοῦ, with the substantival words λág, "with the heels," and Tú, "with the fist," and the numeral adverbs. Of these ayx is generally elided, as in αγχώμαλος, though it retains its t in ἀγχίαλος; ἄγαν retains its before vowels and v, as in ȧyavakтéw, ȧyávvidos, assimilates it before p, as in ȧyáppoos, and loses it in other cases, as ἀγακλειτός, ̓Αγαμέμνων; πάλιν sometimes loses its v in poetry, as in Taλíonios, but in ordinary language generally retains it with the usual affections, as παλίγκοτος, παλίμβαμος, παλίλλογος, παλίῤῥοος, παλίσσυτος; λάξ and πύξ, as has been mentioned above (368), lose their σ and have x for in composition; the assumed form τῆλυ is found only in the proper names Τήλυς and Τηλυκράτης, and in τηλύγετος, for which some have proposed a diferent etymology (άταλός οι τέλος); but the common form τῆλε is found in a great number of words, as τηλέ-γονος, τηλέ-βολος, τηλέ μαχος, τηλέ-πυλος, &c., and the e is elided in τηλουρός. The numeral adverbs appear in the following compounds: dís in such forms as di-unTwp, "twice mothered," i. e. "twice born," Slo-epos, δίσ-εφθος, "twice boiled," Sí-σxaλμos, "with two row-locks," Sip-pūpos, "with two poles; " Tpís in such forms as тpio-ários, "thrice wretched,'" τρίγωνος, “ triangular,” τρίβ-ρυμος, “ with three poles;” τετράκις in such forms as τετράμετρος, “having four metres,” τετρα-σκελής, "having four legs," and so of the others.
(bb) Inseparable prefixes are the following:
α. ἡμι-, " half,” as ἡμί-ονος, “ half an ass,” i.e. a mule, ἡμιεφθος, “ half-boiled," ἡμι-ωβολιαίος, " worth half an obol."
b. Svo-, corresponding to our dis-, or mis-, or un-, or ill-; as δύστηνος, “dis-tressed,” δύσμορφος, " mis-shapen," δυστυχής, 'un-lucky," duo-opyos, "ill-natured."
c. d, the copulative or collective prefix, probably the residuum of d- or sa-, found in ἅμα and σαφής; this is found in ἄ-κοιτις and a-Xoxos, "a sharer of the same bed;" d-kóλovos, "a sharer of the same way;" a-deλpós, "sprung from the same womb;' ἀ-γαλάκτες, “sharers in the same milk;” ἀ-τάλαντος, “ of equal weight;" a-oos, "belonging to the same stem;" α-πτЄρоs, equally winged," &c.
d. d-, the intensive prefix, probably a residuum of ȧvá, in the sense of remoteness, distance, extent; this is found in a-TEVýs, exceedingly stretched" (the only instance of this prefix in ordinary Greek); ȧ-xavýs, "extremely gaping;" d-σTeрxés, “very eagerly;" ά-σkeλés and ả-σxeλéws, "very obstinately."
e. à-, ȧva-, àv-, the negative prefix, probably a residuum of ává, in its sense of negation, which flows from that of farness; this is found in a very great number of words, as ä-opwv, “without mind, far from mind, foolish;" ává-edvos, "without a dowry" (there are only four words, this, ανά-ελπτος, ἀνά-πνευστος and ἀνά-γνωστος, in which the full form of the negative prefix is found); au-paoin, "speechlessness;" dv-vépeλos, "without clouds;" and generally when the next word begins with a vowel, as åv-ápıðμos, "numberless," also ȧv-ýpiμos. In this latter case, i. e. when the vowel of the following word is euphonically lengthened, the initial vowel is often dropt in epic poetry; thus we find vovvuos for ἀνώνυμος, νηλέης for ἀνηλέης, νήποινος for ἀν-άποινος, and even when the following word begins with a consonant, as in vŋkepdýs.
f. άρι- (from the same root as ἄρης), έρι- (connected with eupus), da- and a- (corruptions of dia) are used as intensive prefixes; thus we have aρi-Tрeπns, "exceedingly conspicuous;" èptβρεμέτης, “ extremely noisy;” δά-σκιος, “ very shady;” ζά-θεος, "most divine," &c.
(2) Euphonic changes at the point of junction or in the latter part of the Compound.
375 When a synthetic compound is considered as an individual word, without reference to its origin, it is liable to euphonic