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of Themistocles is happily expressed, who made answer to the man of Seriphos,” &c.; τὰ φίλων οὐδέν, ἤν τις δυστυχῇ, “ if one is unfortunate, the doings (έργα) of one's friends are naught;” ἐὰν ἡ ἐμὴ νικᾷ (Plat. Resp. III. 397 D), “if my opinion (γνώμη) prevails;" κατά γε τὴν ἐμήν (Id. Phileb. p. 41 Β), “ according to my opinion at least;” δοκεῖς μοι τὸ τοῦ κυνὸς πεπονθέναι, “ you seem to me to have experienced what happened (πάθος) to the dog;” ἐπ ̓ ἴσῃ καὶ ὁμοία, “ on fair and equal terms (μοίρα),” and the like. Similarly we have τρέχειν τὸν περὶ ψυχῆς, " to run the race (δρόμον) for life, like Hector; τὴν ἐναντίαν τίθεσθαι (Plat. Lach. p. 184 D), " to give the opposite vote (ψήφος);” and in this last case even when there is a difficult metaphor, as in Soph. Αj. 798: τήνδε δ ̓ ἔξοδον ὀλεθρίαν Αἴαντος ἐλπίζει φέρειν, “ he fears that this going forth gives (pépet, Esch. Eumen. 680) the death-vote (oneθρίαν ψῆφον, cf. Asch. Sept. 180) of Ajax.”

(ε) The terms way" and day" (ὁδός, ἡμέρα) are constantly indicated only by the gender of the article or an adjective; thus, εὐθεῖα, “the straight (ὁδός) way;” with verbs of going, as ἰέναι τὴν ἐπὶ τὸ τεῖχος, ἄγειν τὴν ἐπὶ θανάτῳ; or in adverbial phrases, as τὴν ταχίστην, τὴν πρώτην (Xen. Mem. III. 6, § 10). Similarly ἡ τρίτη, “ the third day (ἡμέρα) of the month;” ἡ ἐπιοῦσα, ἡ ἑξῆς, ἡ ὑστεραία, “ the following day.” Το this class belongs the omission of χείρ with ἡ δεξιά, ἡ ἀριστερά.

(5) The word τέχνη, “art,” is regularly omitted with adjectives in -ική ; as ἡ ῥητορική, ἡ ποιητική, ἡ ἰατρική, ἡ χαλκευτική, &c. In citations and in the grammatical writers we have regular omissions in literary references ; as τῇ δευτέρᾳ τῶν Ἑλληνικῶν, “ in the second book (βίβλος) of the Hellenics;” τὸ περὶ τῆς ἀστρολογίας, “ the treatise (βιβλίον, σύγγραμμα) about astronomy;" ἡ ὀρθή, “the right case, casus rectus (πτῶσις);” ἡ παραλήγουσα, “ the penultimate syllable (συλλαβή);” ἡ ὀξεία, “the acute accent (προσωδία);” ἡ διὰ πασῶν, “ the accordant string (χορδή),” &c.

400 From these different idioms we may ascend to the following general rules respecting the use of the article:

(a) All predicable and hypothetical words or sentences may be turned into subjects, or their epithets, by prefixing the article to them; as

a. Adjectives:

oi ayaboì evdaμovovoi, "the good (men) are happy."

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TÒ Ev πρáσσεш, "the faring well," i. e. "success


d. Adverbs:

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oi máλai, "the (men) of olden time-the then men."

e. Cases of nouns without a preposition:

ó Auós, "the (son) of Zeus."

f. Cases of nouns with a preposition :


οἱ ξὺν τῷ βασιλεῖ, “ those with the king.”

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τὸ οὐχ ὁρᾷ οὐκ ἐπίσταταί ἐστιν, εἴπερ καὶ τὸ ὁρᾷ ἐπίσταται, "if he sees is (equivalent to) he knows, he sees not must be (equivalent to) he does not know."

h. A dependent sentence:

ἡ πρὶν ἄρξαι αὐτὸν ἀρετή, “ the virtue he showed before he came to the throne."

i. A conditional clause:

τὸ ἢν πείσωμεν ὑμᾶς, “ the alternative that we shall persuade you."

k. A relative sentence:

οὐδὲν τῶν ὅσα ἐς αἰσχύνην ἐστὶ φέροντα, “ none of all those things which tend to shame."

7. The oblique case of a personal pronoun:

Tòv čavтòv ẻɣkwμiálov, “praising the himself, i.e. his worthy self."

(B) Hence, we may place between a substantive and its article any words or words or phrases which may thus be converted into subjects or epithets, and that too, if necessary, by repeated insertions; as


τῶν τὰ τῆς πόλεως, πράγματα) πραττόντων))) ἀρετή, the virtue of those who manage ((the affairs of (the state."


(7) Consequently, whatever words or phrases have the article prefixed, or stand between the article and its substantive, describe and define, i.e. they are epithets; and conversely, if the article is prefixed to a substantive, and the adjectival word or phrase, which agrees with it, neither has the article prefixed nor stands between the article and substantive, that word or phrase is not an epithet, but a predicate. Thus, οἱ ψευδεῖς λόγοι οι οἱ λόγοι οἱ ψευδεῖς, means "the false words or sayings;" and similarly in the oblique cases.

But in the following passages evdeîs is a predicate:

Either (A) primary (below, 416), in oi Xóyoɩ feudeîs eioív,

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Or (B) secondary (below, 441), in oi λóyoi yeudeîs éxéxon-
σav, “the words were spoken and they were false" = "the
words which were spoken were false" (cf. Plat. Resp.
364 B: οἱ λόγοι θαυμασιώτατοι λέγονται, “the words
which are spoken are most wonderful ").

Or (C) tertiary (below, 489), in ó μávtis tovs Xóyous feudeîs
Aéye, "the prophet speaks words, and they are false"


"the words which the prophet speaks are false" (Soph. Ed. Tyr. 426).

Obs. The qualifications to these general rules, arising from special usages, have been given in the preceding articles; but it is important to remark generally, that when several words are connected together by copulative conjunctions, the domain of the article is extended to more than one of the words thus combined, although they do not fall within the same definition, but may even be opposed to one another; thus while ὁ καλὸς καὶ ἀγαθός or ὁ καλοκαγαθός is really equivalent to a single epithet, as the synthetic form of the final combination fully shows, we find the same appearance of one article prefixed in the most direct oppositions of epithets; thus Plato, Euthyphr. p. 7 c: Tepì тov μeížovos καὶ ἐλάττονος, περὶ τοῦ βαρυτέρου καὶ κουφοτέρου ; Ib. p. 6 D : τό τε δίκαιον καὶ τὸ ἄδικον, καὶ καλὸν καὶ αἰσχρόν, καὶ ἀγαθὸν καὶ κακόν ; Gorg. p. 459 D : ἆρα τυγχάνει περὶ τὸ δίκαιον καὶ τὸ ἄδικον, καὶ τὸ αἰσχρὸν καὶ τὸ καλόν, καὶ ἀγαθὸν καὶ κακόν, οὕτως ἔχων ὁ ῥητορικός ; where we find that the article is prefixed to the first of the two epithets, to both of them, or to neither. The same is observable in the enumeration of distinctive nouns; as Xon. Anab. 1. 7, § 2 : συγκαλέσας τοὺς στρατηγοὺς καὶ λοχαγούς. Thucyd.

1. 36 : τῆς τε Ἰταλίας καὶ Σικελίας καλῶς παράπλου κεῖται. Plat. Phæd. p. 111 ε: τόν γε ἥλιον καὶ σελήνην καὶ ἄστρα ὁρᾶσθαι λέγεται οἷα τυγχάνει ὄντα. And even when there is an opposition of two persons, as Eurip. Herc. F. 140 : τὸν Ἡράκλειον πατέρα καὶ ξυνάορον ἐρωτῶ, “I ask the father and wife of Hercules.” Or when two classes are opposed, as Xen. Anab. 1. 5, § 11: ἀμφιλεξάντων τι τῶν τε τοῦ Μένωνος στρατιωτῶν καὶ τοῦ Κλε άρχου, “ the soldiers of Menon and those of Clearchus having had a difference."

§ IV. The Relative and its Attraction.

401 The relative may be either in the nominative case, expressing the subject of the verb which follows it, or in some oblique case, expressing the object of the verb or the subordinate relation of some noun. But, as a general rule, it agrees with its antecedent in gender, number and person; as

οἵπερ τὸ πλέον τῆς αἰτίας ἕξομεν, οὗτοι καὶ καθ ̓ ἡσυχίαν τι

αὐτῶν προΐδωμεν (Thucyd. Ι. 83), “ let us, who will have the greater part of the blame, quietly consider beforehand somewhat of the results."

τί ποτ ̓ οὖν ἐστιν ὅτῳ πιστεύει το μειράκιον (Plat. Alcib. I. 123 E), "what is it that the boy trusts to?"

δεινόν γέ σ ̓ οὖσαν πατρός, οὗ σὺ παῖς ἔφυς
κείνου λελῆσθαι (Soph. Εl. 341),

"it is shameful that you, being from the father, whose born
child you are, should forget him.”

The relative may also be dependent on some participle, or may agree with the participle in the genitive absolute; as

πολλά σοι διηγήσομαι, ἃ σὺ ἀκούων ἐκπλαγήσει (Plat. Eu

thyphr. p. 6 c), "I will narrate to you many things, which hearing (i.e. on hearing which) you will be astonished." ἄμαχόν τε καὶ ἀνίκητον θυμός, οὗ παρόντος ψυχὴ πᾶσα ἄφοβός τε καὶ ἀήττητος (Plat. Resp. p. 375 B), “ the will is irresistible and invincible, which being present (and in the presence of this) every soul is fearless and not to be overcome." Or the relative may depend on some adjective; as οὐχ ἃ κρείσσων ᾔδει ὤν, ταῦτα προὐκαλεῖτο τοὺς συνόντας, ἀλλ ̓ ἅπερ εὖ ᾔδει ἑαυτὸν ἥττονα ὄντα (Xen. Cyr. Ι. 4, § 4), "he did not challenge his companions to those exercises

in regard to which he knew himself to be superior, but to those wherein he was conscious of his own inferiority."

Obs. In regard to the gender and number of the relative pronoun there are the following exceptions to the general rule that it agrees with its antecedent.

(a) If the antecedent, though neuter or feminine, refers to a male person, the relative may be masculine ; as Διὸς τέκος, ἥ τε παρίστασαι (of Minerva, Hom. Il. x. 278): Tékvwv, oûs nyaye (Eurip. Suppl. 12): & μελέα ψυχή, ὃς μηδ' ήσθη (of Philoctetes, Soph. Phil. 714).

(b) A collective noun, though neuter or feminine, serves as the antecedent to a masc. plur. relative, when men are referred to; as To VaνTIKÓν, où pμovv (Thucyd. III. 4). Or conversely, the sing. masc. relative, in the general form oσris or os av, may follow a masc. plur. antecedent; as ἀνθρώπους τίνονται, ὅτις κ ̓ ἐπίορκον ομόσση (Ιl. ΧΙΧ. 260), or with a plur. demonst. following; as ὅστις γὰρ αὐτὸς ἢ φρονεῖν μόνος δοκεῖ ἢ κ.τ.λ., οὗτοι διαπτυχθέντες ὤφθησαν κενοί (Soph. Ant. 707).

(c) A plural relative follows a singular antecedent, when the latter is supposed to indicate a class rather than an individual; as Onσavpoπolòs ἀνήρ, οὓς δὴ (that class of men whom) καὶ ἐπαινεῖ τὸ πλῆθος Plat. Resp. p. 554 A).

(d) The relative is neuter, without regard to the gender of its antecedent, when the latter is regarded as an object in general; as μerépa γῆ ἐγέννησεν ἄνθρωπον, ὃ (a creature or animal which) συνέσει ὑπερέχει Tov av (Plat. Menex. p. 237 D).

(e) With verbs of being, naming, believing, and the like, as the relative refers both to the antecedent and to the predicate in its own sentence, it may take its gender and number from the latter; as ʼn Toû ῥεύματος ἐκείνου πηγή, ὃν ἵμερον Ζεὺς ὠνόμασεν (Plat. Phaedr. p. 255 ) : τὸν οὐρανόν, οὓς δὴ πόλους καλοῦσιν (Id. Cratyl. p. 405 €).

(f) When the predicate of the antecedent is neuter, this gender is adopted by the relative; as δίκη ἐν ἀνθρώποις πῶς οὐ καλόν (a noble thing), (which thing) Távra péрwкe тà avoрúπiva (Plat. Legg. p. 937 D).

402 To mark the fact, that the connexion between the definite antecedent and the relative sentence is identical with that between the definite article and the clause to which it gives a fixed value, Greek syntax allows the relative to agree with its antecedent in case also, if the antecedent is in the genitive or dative, and the relative would otherwise appear in the accusative, thus making one objective relation suffice for both clauses; accordingly we find

μεταδίδως αὐτῷ τοῦ σίτου οὗπερ αὐτὸς ἔχεις, for ὅπερ.
εὖ προσφέρεται τοῖς φίλοις οἷς ἔχει, for οὕς.

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