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(a) The epic poets make the governing word fill the place of an epithet appropriated to the person; as μévos "Apnos, "the impetuous Ares;” ἱερὸν μένος ̓Αλκινόοιο, “ the divinely impetuous Alcinous;" iepnis Teλeμáxoio, "the divinely vigorous Telemachus;" σθένος Εκτορος, “ the strong Hector;” Πατροκλῆος λάσιον κῆρ, "the manly-hearted Patroclus."


(b) The tragic poets use a periphrasis with déuas, "body;" Kápa, "head or face;" oμμa, "eye;" to express characteristics or to strengthen endearments; thus, 'Ayaμéμvovos déμas, "the stately Agamemnon;” ὦ κοινὸν αὐτάδελφον Ισμήνης κάρα, “Ο my own dear sweet sister Ismene;” ὦ φίλτατ ̓ Αἴας, ὦ ξύναιμον ὄμμ ̓ ἐμοί, "O dearest Ajax, O sweet brother.”

(c) Both in the poets and the prose writers the word xpñμa is used periphrastically to denote conspicuous magnitude; as σvòs péya Xpĥμa (Herod. I. 36), "a great monster of a boar;" KλÉπтOV Tò Xpĥμa τávdpós (Aristoph. Vesp. 933), "the monster of a man is a thief."

(d) The poets combine two nearly synonymous words in a periphrase; thus, εὐνῆς λέκτρον, “the bed's lair;” νηὸς σκάφος, "the ship's hull;" ápμáтwv oxoi, “the chariot's carriage;" μáxns ayov, "the fight's struggle," meaning really the object mentioned in the genitive.

(e) In speaking of persons we have sometimes a periphrase with the genitive; as vies 'Axauv, "sons of the Achæans;” waîdes Ἑλλήνων, “ children of the Hellenes;” or the word ἄνδρες used with the apposition or adjective; as ἄνδρες Αθηναῖοι, “ men of Athens;" avopes Sixaoraí, "gentlemen of the jury."

§ VI. Apposition to the Subject.

407 It is a general rule of grammar that nouns which belong to the same regimen are placed side by side (apponuntur) in the same case. This apposition, as it is called, is found equally in the subjects and in the predicates of sentences; and as it need only be discussed once for all, it may find its proper place here, especially as it more generally agrees in its nature with the epithet as distinguished from the predicate.

(a) There can be little doubt that the use of the article, which is the instrument of Greek syntax as distinguishing the subject from the predicate, may be traced back to an apposition of the name of the thing to the pronoun of reference. This, as we have seen (above, 389), appears clearly from such a passage as the following (Hom. Π. Ι. 11): οἵνεκα τὸν Χρύσην ἠτίμησ ̓ ἀρητῆρα, "because Atreides dishonoured him, the well-known person, namely, Chryses, being a priest;" where the position of ȧρητñρa, without another article, makes it impossible to regard that word as the defining circumstance. The case is, in fact, the same as when we say in Attic Greek (Xen. Hier. VII. 3): TOÚTO diapépei ȧvýp тŵv ἄλλων ζῴων, τῷ τιμῆς ὀρέγεσθαι, “ man differs from other animals in this, namely, in aiming at honour."

(B) In ordinary Greek the words in apposition may always be regarded as containing some explanatory addition, and it often happens that the parallel terms may be transposed without affecting the meaning. Thus in the phrase Κροῖσος, Λυδῶν βασιλεύς, ἀπέβαλε τὴν ἀρχήν, it is a matter of indifference whether we render it, "the king of the Lydians, namely, Croesus," or "Croesus, being king of the Lydians."

(7) The intimate connexion between the apposition and the epithet is shown by the cases in which the former is inserted between the noun and its article, so as to become, in effect, an epithet (above, 400, (8)). Thus in Plat. Symp. p. 196 c, à âv ékáv τις ἑκόντι ὁμολογήσῃ, φασὶν οἱ πόλεως βασιλῆς νόμοι δίκαια εἶναι, we might write, vóμoi, Tóλews Baoiλns, "the laws, being the state's sovereigns," or construe it as it is, "the state's sovereigns, namely, the laws."

(8) Some difficulty is occasioned when this form of inserted apposition exhibits (a) an adjective, or (b) participle at the end. Thus,

(a) We have in Pind. Nem. VII. 53:

κόρον δ ̓ ἔχει

καὶ μέλι καὶ τὰ τέρπν ̓ ἄνθέ ̓ ἀφροδίσια.

Here it is clear that appodioia is not, like тeρπvά, an epithet of avea, and the omission of the article before μé shows that Tà тeρπvà äv¤ea constitute a parenthetical apposition to the last word:

"both honey and those sweet flowers, the joys of love, produce satiety." So also in Eurip. Bacch. 978,

ἀνοιστρήσατέ νιν

ἐπὶ τὸν ἐν γυναικομίμῳ στολᾷ

δόλιον Μαινάδων σκόπον λυσσώδη,

we must regard the last words as an explanatory apposition to the preceding line, "urge them against him in the counterfeit woman's robe, a deceitful spy of the Mænads in his own opinion, but really mad himself." And in the same play (995),

τὸν ἄθεον, ἄνομον, ἄδικον,

Εχίονος γόνον γηγενή

must be rendered "the godless, lawless, unrighteous one, namely, Echion's earth-born son."

(3) The participle at the end causes the greatest difficulty, and can hardly be explained without supposing that the noun which precedes the participle is not only an apposition, but affects, by a sort of attraction, the gender of the article. The following passages will show that this must be the case; Thucyd. 1. 11: δηλοῦται τοῖς ἔργοις ὑποδεέστερα ὄντα τῆς φήμης καὶ τοῦ νῦν περὶ αὐτῶν διὰ τοὺς ποιητὰς λόγου κατεσχηκότος, “they are proved by the facts to fall short of the tradition, and of that which is now established as the story about them, owing to the poets." Id. 1. 96, § 2: ἦν δ ̓ ὁ πρῶτος φόρος ταχθεὶς τετρακόσια τάλαντα καὶ ἑξήκοντα, “ that which was first fixed as the tribute was 460 talents.” Id. III. 56, § 1 : αὐτοὺς ἐτιμωρησάμεθα κατὰ τὸν πᾶσι νόμον καθεστώτα, “we have taken vengeance on them according to that which is established as the law by all men." Id. v. 11, § 1: TÒV Βρασίδαν οἱ ξύμμαχοι ἔθαψαν ἐν τῇ πόλει πρὸ τῆς νῦν ἀγορᾶς οὔσης, “the allies buried Brasidas in the city before what now serves as the forum.” Soph. Philoct. 1316:

ἀνθρώποισι τὰς μὲν ἐκ θεῶν

τύχας δοθείσας ἔστ' ἀναγκαῖον φέρειν,

"men must needs bear what is given to them as dispensations from the gods. Plat. Sophist. p. 231 Β: ἐν τῷ νῦν λόγῳ παραφανέντι, "in that which has now shown itself as our definition." In all these cases it will be seen that the participle really bears the stress of the sentence, and that the noun is an apposition or expla

nation added, to which the participle has been attracted. The most common example of this construction is furnished by the passive participle of Kaλ, which is almost regularly used in this way; thus Soph. Cd. Tyr. 8: ὁ πᾶσι κλεινὸς Οἰδίπους καλούμevos, "I, who am cited by all as the illustrious Edipus." Plat. Symp. 190 Ε: συνέλκων πανταχόθεν τὸ δέρμα ἐπὶ τὴν γαστέρα νῦν καλουμένην, " drawing together the skin from all sides to that which is now designated as the belly." On the other hand, we have this participle as the equivalent of a relative sentence in such phrases as (Plat. Phædr. 243 в): πoιýσas πâσav тηv kaλovμévηv Taλivædíav, “having composed all the so-called palinode,” i. e. that which is called the palinode.

Obs. It may be regarded as a difficulty by the young student to appreciate thoroughly the distinction between these two usages. Perhaps the simplest mode of explaining it is to suppose that in all cases where the verbum vocandi passivum seems to be used as merely a copula, the predicated name or designation is really a secondary predicate of manner, which may be rendered "as" or "by the name of," just as when we render σrpaτnyos ypéon, “he was chosen as general." This really amounts to an apposition, especially in the participial construction which we are considering. For example, in Thucydides, II. 15, we have at the end : καλεῖται δὲ διὰ τὴν παλαιὰν ταύτῃ κατοίκησιν καὶ ἡ ἀκρόπολις μέχρι τοῦδε ἔτι ὑπ ̓ ̓Αθηναίων πόλις, “ the acropolis too, on account of the old settlement there, is still designated as the city by the Athenians." And a little above we read in the same chapter: τῇ κρήνῃ τῇ νῦν μέν, τῶν τυράννων οὕτω σκευασάντων, Εννεακρούνῳ καλουμένῳ, τῷ δὲ πάλαι, φανερῶν τῶν πηγῶν οὐσῶν, Καλλιῤῥόῃ ώνομασμένῃ, which we must render in the same way, for the genitives absolute serve the same purpose as the sentence with diá in the direct predication, and explain the reason for the change of name : "the fountain, which is now, from the tyrants having so fashioned it, designated as the conduit of the nine pipes, but was formerly, because the sources were visible, known by the name of (named as) the fair stream.”

(e) An apposition is sometimes expressed by means of "σπЄр, καθάπερ, οἷον. Thus Hom. Od. IV. 160: τοῦ νωϊ, θεοῦ ὥς, τερπόμeľ avdy, "in whose voice, as [in the voice] of a goddess, we take delight.” Xen. Cyr. I. 4, § 15: Κύρῳ ἥδετο οὐ δυναμένῳ σιγᾶν, ἀλλ ̓, ὥσπερ σκύλακι γενναίῳ, ἀνακλάζοντι, “ he delighted in Cyrus, when he was unable to remain silent, but gave tongue, like a thorough-bred whelp." This rule of apposition applies also to cases where the comparison is incidental only; thus Thucyd. vI. 68: πρὸς ἄνδρας πανδημεί τε ἀμυνομένους καὶ οὐκ ἀπολέκτους, ὥσπερ ἡμᾶς, i.e. ὥσπερ ἡμεῖς ἐσμέν.

(5) In the apposition to a pronoun it matters not whether the pronoun is expressed or understood; thus, on the one hand we may say, ἐκείνου, τοῦ σοφιστοῦ, πάντες καταγελώσι, “ all laugh at that man, the sophist;" on the other hand we may say, oi μèv ̓Αλκμήνης καὶ Σεμέλης υἱοὶ εὐωχοῦνται ἀφρόντιδες· ὁ δὲ Μαίας τῆς ̓Ατλαντίδος διακονοῦμαι αὐτοῖς, “the sous of Alcmene and Semele feast without care, but I (èy understood) the son of Maia wait upon them."


(7) As the possessive adjective is derived from and represents the genitive of the personal pronoun or noun, we find an apposition of the genitive when the possessive pronoun or any possessive adjective is used; thus, διαρπάζουσι τὰ ἐμὰ τοῦ κακοδαίμονος, “ they plunder the goods of me the unhappy man" or "my goods, unhappy that I am ;” ἄπιτε ἐφ ̓ ὑμετέραν τῶν βαρβάρων χώραν, " go back to the land of yourselves the barbarians," i.e. "go back to your own land, ye barbarians ;” τὰ ὑμέτερ' αὐτῶν κομιεῖσθε, “ you shall get back the things of yourselves (ὑμῶν αὐτῶν),” i.e. “your own property.” And this is the true explanation of Eur. Hipp. 605: ναὶ πρός σε τῆς σῆς δεξιᾶς εὐωλένου, where it is a common error to translate εὐωλένου as an epithet of δεξιᾶς. Similarly when there is no pronoun, ἐν δέ τε Γοργείη κεφαλὴ δεινοῖο πελώρου, “ and on it the Gorgonian head of a terrible monster," i.e. "of that terrible monster the Gorgon;” παππῷον δὲ καὶ οὗτος ὄνομ ̓ ἔχει τοὐμοῦ πατρός, “he also has the name of his grandfather, who is my father;” Αθηναῖος ὢν πόλεως τῆς μεγίστης καὶ εὐδοκιμωτάτης, "being of Athens, the greatest and most famous of cities."

(0) It is not uncommon to have apposition in a partitive or distributive sense, namely, when the whole is not expressed in the genitive, but in the same case with its parts; thus Thucyd. II. 47: Πελοποννήσιοι καὶ οἱ ξύμμαχοι τὰ δύο μέρη ἐσέβαλον ἐς τὴν ̓Αττικήν, “ the Peloponnesians and their allies, that is to say, two thirds of them, invaded Attica,” instead of τῶν Π. τὰ δ. μ. Soph. Antig. 21: οὐ γὰρ τάφου νῷν τώ κασιγνήτω Κρέων τὸν μὲν προτίσας τὸν δ ̓ ἀτιμάσας ἔχει; “ has not Creon honoured one and dishonoured the other of our two brothers in regard to their sepulture?" Xen. Anab. II. 1, § 15: οὗτοι μὲν ἄλλος ἄλλα λέγει, “ of these one says one thing, one another." Id. Vectig. IV. § 4: καὶ νῦν δὲ οἱ κεκτημέ νοι ἐν τοῖς μετάλλοις ἀνδράποδα οὐδεὶς τοῦ πλήθους ἀφαιρεῖ, “ and


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