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"unfruitful plains," i. e. the sea; Ibid. 790: κôμos ȧvavλóTATOS, “a revel most entirely without flutes" (the flute being the regular accompaniment of the comus), i.e. war; Orest. 319: ȧßáKXEVTOS Oíaσos, a company not of Bacchanals" (the Oíacos being properly a troop of Bacchic revellers), i. e. the Furies; Æsch. Agam. 82: ŏvap ημepópavтov, "a dream appearing in day light," i. e. a feeble old man; Ibid. 1231: Sínovs λéawa, “a biped lioness," i. e. a cruel woman; Sept. 81: Kóvis avavdos ǎyyeλos, “dust, a voiceless messenger;" Suppl. 872: Simovs opis, "a biped serpent," i. e. a man; Eumen. 172: πτηvòs õpis, "a winged serpent," i. e. an arrow; lbid. 236: μηVUτηρ ඤεYктOS, "a voiceless informant," i. e. blood; Choëph. 486: Tédaι àɣáλKevтoι, "fetters not made of bronze,” i. e. the robe in which Agamemnon was enveloped.


(b) The Adjective as Subject.

We have already seen that the substantive is regularly omitted in certain cases, so that an adjective remains as the only expression of the subject (399, ()), and that all predicable words may become subjects (400, (a)). Besides these general exemplifications of the principle, there are certain adjectives which are regularly used as substantives. These are


(a) In the masculine, adjectives denoting a personal relation, with which we might supply ἄνθρωπος, ἄνθρωποι (399, (γ)), a3 φίλος, pinos, "a friend;" èx@pós, "a foe;" πоλéμos, "a national enemy;" Cévos, "a foreigner," especially one with whom we are on friendly ξένος, terms; ἐναντίος, “an opponent;” θνητός, βροτός, “ a mortal” or specially “a human being;” μπρος, “a fool;” ἔμφρονες, ἄφρονες, "the wise," "the foolish;" aya@oi, kakoí, "the good," "the bad," or "the noble," "the ignoble," &c. The neuter very rarely denotes an individual, as тò äppev, "the man;" тò Oñλʊ, “the woman."

(8) In the neuter, and almost always with the article,

(aa) Adjectives indicating space or locality, as μéσov, “the middle;" σxatov, "the extreme;" opaλóv, "the level;" and with prepositions, eis ev, “to one place or spot;” å v¥nλotépov, “from higher ground;" ẻπì πoλú, “to a considerable extent;” èπì ßpaɣú, " for a short distance;” τὰ ἐπιθαλάσσια, τὰ παράλια, " the coast;” τὰ καρτερά, “ the strong places;” τὰ ἄκρα, “the heights;” τὰ OTEVά, "the narrow passes;" opeivá, "woodland," &c.

(bb) Adjectives indicating time, as èπì Toλú, "for a long eiσTov, "for the longest time;" és átdiov, "for everéwwvoû, "from the dawn," &c.

time;" π lasting;"

(cc) Adjectives equivalent to collective nouns, as Tò äppev, "the males;" Tò Onλu, "the females;" Tò 'EXλnvikóv, "the Greeks in general, the Hellenic world, Greekdom;" iπTIкóv, “cavalry;" ÓTTλTIKÓν, "men-at-arms;" vaνTIKóv, "sailors" or "a fleet;" TÒ ὁπλιτικόν, νέον, “ the young men;” τὸ κράτιστον τοῦ στρατεύματος, “ the elite of the army."

(dd) Adjectives equivalent to nouns denoting qualities or states, as τὸ βασιλικόν, “ royalty;” τὸ φιλοχρήματον, “avarice;” τὸ ἀστ φαλές, ξυγγενές, paλés, "a state of security;" Tò guyyevés, "relationship;" Tò ξηρόν, τὸ ὑγρόν, “dryness,” “ moistness;” but τὰ ξηρά, τὰ ὑγρά, тà "dry, moist substances," &c.

As denoting particular objects the neuter adjective is rarely used as a substantive, but it seems that yepapá means presents or gifts (yépa) in two passages of Eschylus (Suppl. 672, Agam. 722), and it is clear that λυτήριον is equivalent to λύτρον in Pind. Pyth. v. 99 : τὸ καλλίVIKOV AVTÝρLOV Samavâv (see New Cratylus, §§ 297, 305).

§ IX. The Comparative Degree.

415 By its nature an adjective in the comparative degree is more likely to appear as a predicate than as an epithet. But as this form is used in both applications of the adjective, and as the construction is the same in both, it will be as well to consider it here once for all.

Whether as epithet or predicate the comparative adjective must express one of two things; (a) the degree in which the quality is possessed by the subject; (b) the relation between the quality possessed by one subject and that possessed by another. If in either of these applications a standard of comparison is introduced, it may be represented by a genitive case signifying, as we shall see, “in relation to, with regard to," the object mentioned, as ovτos σopŃTepós éotiv ékeívov, "this man is wiser, stands in a higher grade of wisdom, in relation to that man;" but we say in English, "this man is wiser than the other," where "than" is another and later mode of spelling "then," so that the phrase means "this man is wiser, then (comes) the other." Or the standard of comparison is

introduced by the conjunction (epic né, néπep), signifying “as," "in the manner or degree in which," like the Latin quam and the German als (a mutilated form of al-sô); thus, åpeíoσw ǹétep vμîv ἀνδράσιν ὡμίλησα, “I have kept company with men brave in a higher degree, as compared with the manner or degree in which you are brave," that is, as we say, "braver than you." The different applications of these two modes of expressing the standard of comparison will be seen in the following illustrations of the two significations of the comparative degree.

(a) The Comparative as referring to a single Subject.

(aa) When we wish to indicate merely the degree in which the quality is possessed by the subject, we may use the comparative degree by itself; as ἀγροικότερόν (γελοιότερόν ἐστιν εἰπεῖν, “ it is somewhat, in a certain degree, rude or ridiculous to say" (Plato, Apol. p. 30 E, 32 D; Gorg. 509 A): μŵv vσтéρai πáрeoμev (Aristoph. Lys. 69); "we have not come too late, have we?" àσoov ire (Hom. П. 1. 335), "approach nearer;" μeîs èkaσtéρw oikéoμev (Herod. vI. 108), "we live too far off;" vedreρóv TI, "something too new, something violent," whence vewτepiw, "I adopt harsh measures;" and this is very common in such phrases as ἄμεινον, βέλτιον, λῷον, κάλλιον, χεῖρον, κακιόν ἐστι, and the like.

(bb) The same force of the comparative may be expressed by a compound with ὑπο-, as ὑπόμαργος, “ somewhat crazy;” ὑπολευKóxpws, "whitish," "pale;" vrópaios, "somewhat gray;" Tóκόχρως, ὑπόφαιος, Xλapos, "greenish yellow;" but even these are used in the comparative degree, as Herod. III. 145 : ἦν οἱ ἀδελφὸς ὑπομαργότερος, "he had a brother rather mad than otherwise."

(cc) When two qualities are contrasted in the same subject, they may both be expressed by the comparative degree, as Hom. Οd. Ι. 164: πάντες κ ̓ ἀρησαίατ ̓ ἐλαφρότεροι πόδας εἶναι ἡ ἀφνειό Tepoɩ Xpvσoîo, “all would pray to be swift of foot in a high degree, as compared with being in a high degree rich in gold." Herod. III. 65: ἐποίησα ταχύτερα ἢ σοφώτερα, “I have acted in the manner distinguished by haste, as compared with the manner distinguished by wisdom," i. e. with more haste than wisdom. Plat. Resp. III. P. 410 D: μαλακώτεροι γίγνονται ἢ ὡς κάλλιον αὐτοῖς, " they prove themselves effeminate in a higher degree, as compared with the

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manner that would be more honourable for them' (for κάλλιον see (aa)).

(dd) When we wish to contrast the present with the previous or general possession of the quality by the subject, we use the reflexive pronoun to indicate the standard of comparison; as (Plat. Resp. p. 411 c): ἀνδρειότερος γίγνεται αὐτὸς ἑαυτοῦ, “he grows braver in relation to himself," i. e. than he was before, or than he generally is. Id. Lach. p. 182 c: πάντα ἄνδρα ἐν πολέμῳ καὶ θαῤῥαλεώτερον καὶ ἀνδρειότερον ἂν ποιήσειεν αὐτὸν ἑαυτοῦ αὐτὴ Ỷ TIσTýμn, "this science would make every man in war more confident and courageous than he would otherwise be."

(ee) The possession of a quality by a subject may be exaggerated by a reference of the capacity of the individual to the general case, or to the general conceptions and expectations of men, which thus serve as a standard of comparison; hence we have such phrases as μείζον φορτίον ἢ καθ ̓ αὑτὸν ἀράμενος (Dem. Epist. Philipp. p. 156, 5), "having taken on him a burden beyond his strength;" Xoyov μeilwv, крelσσwv (Herod. II. 148; Thucyd. II. 50), "transcending the powers of description;" μeîçov èxπídos or evxns (Esch. Agam. 257; Lucian, Herod. 1.), "too great to be hoped or prayed for;” ἐλπίσαντες μακρότερα μὲν τῆς δυνάμεως, Náσow de Tŷs Bouλnoews (Thucyd. III. 39), "forming hopes which exceeded their power, though they fell short of their wishes;" μεῖζον ἢ κατ ̓ ἄνθρωπον, ἢ κατ ̓ ἄνδρα, οι ἢ κατ ̓ ἀνθρώπων φύσιν (Plat. Resp. p. 359 D; Herod. VIII. 38; Soph. Ant. 768), “greater than in accordance with human power;” ἐπιθυμίαι μείζους ἢ κατὰ Tην vτáρxovσav ovoíav (Thucyd. vI. 15), "desires greater than in accordance with the property on which he had to rely."

(b) The Comparative as contrasting two Subjects.

(aa) The subject, which marks the contrast or serves as the standard of comparison, is subjoined in the genitive, or in the same case after ; as Plat. Resp. p. 360 D: Avoiteλeîv oleтai πâs ȧvýp πολὺ μᾶλλον τὴν ἀδικίαν τῆς δικαιοσύνης, " every man thinks that injustice is much more profitable than justice." Herod. VII. 10: μέλλοις ἐπ ̓ ἄνδρας στρατεύεσθαι πολὺ ἀμείνονας ἢ Σκύθας, “ you are going to march against men much braver than the Scythians."

(bb) If the case which should follow the is the dative, sometimes even if it is the genitive, the is omitted and the genitive substituted, or retained alone; as Thucyd. VII. 63: ταῦτα τοῖς ὁπλίταις οὐχ ἧσσον τῶν ναυτῶν παρακελεύομαι, “ I give these injunctions to the men-at-arms no less than to the sailors (ἢ τοῖς ναύταις).” Dem. Lept. § 135 : τὸ δοκεῖν ἐξηπατηκέναι τοὺς ἀγαθόν τι ποιήσαντας ὑμῖν αἴσχιον τῶν ἄλλων, “ to be thought to have deceived those who have done you good service is more disgraceful to you than to others (ἢ τοῖς ἄλλοις).” Eurip. Dic. fr. x. 4: κἂν ἀμείνονος πατρὸς Ζηνὸς πεφύκη, "even though he has sprung from a more noble father than Jove (ή Ζηνός).

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(cc) When the comparison is not with a single subject, but with a sentence involving a verb, the contrast is expressed either by with the nominative or with the simple genitive of the noun; thus on the one hand we find (Dem. de Coron. § 178), ἡμῶν ἄμεινον ἢ κεῖνοι προορωμένων (i. e. ἢ κεῖνοι προορῶνται), and on the other hand (Thuc. VIII. 52), οἱ Πελοποννήσιοι πλείοσι ναῦσι τῶν ̓Αθηναίων παρῆσαν (i. e. ἢ οἱ Αθηναῖοι οι ἢ αἷς οἱ ̓Αθηναῖοι παρῆσαν).

(dd) The standard of comparison is implied but not expressed in such phrases as οἱ νεώτεροι, οἱ πρεσβύτεροι, in speaking of classes of men; and in an antithesis like the following (Thucyd. ν. 111): οἵτινες τοῖς μὲν ἴσοις μὴ εἴκουσι, τοῖς δὲ κρείσσοσι καλῶς προσφέρονται, πρὸς δὲ τοὺς ἥσσους μέτριοί εἰσι, πλεῖστ ̓ ἂν ὀρθοῖντο.

(ee) In the contrast between two subjects there is sometimes an exaggeration of the comparative adjective by the addition of μᾶλλον ; as in Eurip. Hec. 377: θανών ἂν εἴη μᾶλλον εὐτυχέστερος ἢ ζῶν, to which we find parallels in old English, as in Shakspere (Timon, IV. 1): "He shall find the unkindest beast more kinder than mankind." From this case we must distinguish those in which the comparative is used with a presumed, but not expressed, reference (above, (dd)); as in Thucyd. III. 65 : ἐβούλοντο τοὺς ὑμῶν χείρους μηκέτι μᾶλλον γενέσθαι, “ they wish that the worse citizens among you should not grow worse still."

(ff) Conversely, the paλov is omitted with verbs which convey in themselves the idea of preference; as Hom. Il. I. 117: βούλομ ̓ ἐγὼ λαὸν σόον ἔμμεναι ἡ ἀπολέσθαι; Lys. Orat. Fun. § 62 : θάνατον μετ ̓ ἐλευθερίας αἱρούμενοι ἢ βίον μετὰ δουλείας.

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