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of the Peloponnesian war, that he expected it to be acioλoyotaтov τῶν προγεγενημένων, we cannot render this “ most worthy of mention of all those that had gone before it," for the present and future do not, according to our view, admit of classification with the past: but we must either translate, "a war most worthy of mention of the long series of wars preceding and ending with it," or "worthy of mention in the highest degree, if compared with the previous wars," which is much the same as "more worthy of mention than its forerunners." Similarly when Eschylus makes Atossa say (Pers. 180) that the two visionary women, whom she saw in her dream, were μεγέθει τῶν νῦν εὐπρεπεστάτα πολύ, we cannot render this "most conspicuous in stature of those who now exist," for they obviously did not exist; but we must either translate it "conspicuous in stature in the highest degree, if compared with existing women," or "more conspicuous in stature than any living


The following usages of the Greek superlative are most deserving of notice:

(aa) The genitive, which follows the superlative, may denote not the class or series to which the subject belongs, but some other standard of comparison suggested by the sentence; thus Plat. Gorg. p. 461 Ε: τῆς Ἑλλάδος πλείστη ἐστὶν ἐξουσία τοῦ λέγειν 'Alývŋow, “there is a liberty of speech at Athens in the highest degree as compared with the rest of Greece." Dem. de Coron. § 78: σίτῳ πάντων ἀνθρώπων πλείστῳ οἱ ̓Αθηναῖοι χρῶνται ἐπεισάκτῳ, "the Athenians consume imported corn to the largest amount as compared with the rest of the world." Xen. Symp. VII. 40: owμa ἀξιοπρεπέστατον ἰδεῖν τῆς πόλεως ἔχεις, " you have a person stately in the highest degree as compared with (the other persons in) the city."


(bb) As in the comparative (415, (dd)), so in the superlative we may use the reflexive pronoun to indicate the standard of comparison, when we wish to contrast the highest with the usual condition of a person or thing; as Plat. Leg. p. 715 D: véos v πᾶς ἄνθρωπος τὰ τοιαῦτα ἀμβλύτατα αὐτὸς αὑτοῦ ὁρᾷ, “ when young, every man is at his dullest with regard to seeing such things.” Xen. Mem. I. 2, § 46: εἴθε σοι τότε συνεγενόμην ὅτε δεινότατος σαυτοῦ ταῦτα ἦσθα, “I wish I had enjoyed your society at the time when you were at your cleverest in these things."

(cc) Pre-eminence in a class may be expressed by prefixing ἐν τοῖς to the superlative without a change of gender, or by adding εἷς with some word indicating the subject; thus Thucyd. 1. 6: ἐν τοῖς πρῶτοι Αθηναῖοι τὸν σίδηρον κατέθεντο, “ the Athenians first among these (men) laid down iron weapons.” Id. III. 81 : ἔδοξε μᾶλλον (ὠμὴ εἶναι ἡ στάσις) δίοτι ἐν τοῖς πρώτη ἐγένετο, “ the sedition seemed to be more savage, because it happened the first among these (things)." The same rule applies to the superlative adverb μάλιστα, as Thucyd. vi. 90 : 'Αρίσταρχος, ἀνὴρ ἐν τοῖς μάλιστα καὶ ἐκ πλείστου ἐναντίος τῷ δήμῳ, " Aristarchus, a man among them in the highest degree and for the longest time opposed to democracy.” Asch. Pers. 325: Κιλίκων ἔπαρχος εἷς ἀνὴρ πλεῖστον πόνον ἐχθροῖς παρασχών, “ the governor of the Cilicians for one man (among all men) having caused most trouble to the enemy.” Thucyd. III. 39: ἀποφαίνω Μυτιληναίους μάλιστα δὴ μίαν πόλιν ἠδικηκότας ὑμᾶς, “I prove that the Mytilenæans for one state (among all states) have most wronged you."


(dd) With the negative où the superlative adjective or adverb assumes emphatically the opposite value; thus οὐχ ἥκιστα means “ especially,” οὐκ ἀδυνατώτατος means " most opulent or powerful.” Hence we have οὐχ ἥκιστα as a substitute for μέγιστα in co-ordi nate sentences, as Thucyd. 1. 68: προσήκει ἡμᾶς οὐχ ἥκιστα εἰπεῖν ὅσῳ καὶ μέγιστα ἐγκλήματα ἔχομεν.

(ee) The superlative may be used with relatives or relative particles to express the highest degree possible, so that we may supply δυνατός ἐστι oι δύναται γενέσθαι. Thus Plat. Symp. p. 220 Β: πάγου οἵου δεινοτάτου, “ in the sharpest possible frost (οἷος δύναται γενέσθαι δεινότατος). Similarly ὡς τάχιστα, “as quickly as possible" (Xen. Cyr. 1. 6, § 26); ὅπως ἄριστα, “ in the best way possible” (Esch. Agam. 611); ᾗ ἄριστον (Xen. Cyr. II. 4, § 32); ὅσον τάχιστα (Soph. Εl. 1457); ὅτι πλεῖστον χρόνον (Xen. Cyr. vi. 1, § 43); ὅποι προσωτάτω (Eurip. Androm. 924); οὕτως ὅπως ἥδιστα (Soph. Trach. 330); ὡς ἂν μάλιστα (Thucyd. VI. 57); ὅτι ἐπ' ἐλάχιστον (Id. III. 46); ὡς ἐν ἐχυρωτάτῳ (Xen. Cyr. I. 6, § 26). But the verb denoting possibility is often found, so that the sentence is complete; thus Thucyd. VII. 21: vaûs as δύναται πλείστας. Xen. Mem. III. 8, § 4: ὡς ἔνι ἀνομοιοτάτη. Id. Αnab. Ι. 3, § 15: ἡ δυνατὸν μάλιστα. Id. Mem. iv. 5, § 2: ὡς οἷόν τέ γε μάλιστα.



§ I. General Principles.

417 IN the categorical proposition there are, as has been already mentioned (above, 400, (y)), three kinds of predicates:

(A) Primary, when there is nothing between the subject and predicate, except the copula, either expressed or implied.

(B) Secondary, when the predicate is connected with the subject through a verb which already contains a primary predicate.

(C) Tertiary, when in the second case there is also a πρóλis or anticipation of a distinct predication of something additional. Accordingly,

(A) Primary predicates are the following: (a) Attributive nouns, whether substantives or adjectives. (b) Participles and other verbals. (c) Verbs of the indicative mood.

(B) Secondary predicates are the following: (a) Adverbs. (b) Cases of nouns and participles (1) without or (2) with prepositions.

(C) Tertiary predicates are oblique cases of substantives, adjectives, and participles.

§ II. A. Primary Predicates. (a) Nouns.

418 When a noun is predicated directly, the copula is either a verb expressing existence, subsistence, &c., such as eiuí, yiyvoμai, ἔφυν, κυρῶ, πέλω, ὑπάρχω, μένω, διαμένω ; or a verb expressing appellation, designation, nomination, appointment, &c., such as xaλοῦμαι, ἀκούω, κλύω, ὀνομάζομαι, προσαγορεύομαι, ποιοῦμαι, καθ ίσταμαι, ἀποδείκνυμαι, εὑρίσκομαι, νομίζομαι, πέμπομαι, αἱροῦμαι, χειροτονοῦμαι, λαγχάνω. Verbs of the former class are usually

added in the infinitive to verbs of appearing, seeming, &c., such as φαίνομαι, δοκώ, ἔοικα, which may also serve as copula without any such addition.

(α) ὁ Θεός ἐστιν ἀγαθός, “God is good."

(b) ỏ épŵv èρaσTǹ's Kaλeîτaι, “he who loves is called a lover." οἱ Πέρσαι ἐνομίζοντο ἀλκιμώτατοι, “the Persians were considered bravest."



(α) Αράσπας ἐπέμφθη κατάσκοπος, “ Araspas was sent as a spy."

(ε) Αλκιβιάδης ᾑρέθη στρατηγός, " Alcibiades was chosen general."

() οὔτ ̓ ἔλαχε τειχοποιός, οὔτ ̓ ἐχειροτονήθη, “ he was not
chosen to build the walls by lot or show of hands.”

(9) οἱ νόμοι διαμένουσιν ἀκίνητοι, " the laws remain unchanged.”
(h) χαλεπὸν δοκεῖ τοῦτο τὸ ἔργον, " this work seems difficult.”
() τὸ δέ τοι κῆρ φαίνεται εἶναι, " but this appears to thee to
be death."

(7) εὐδαίμων φαίνεται ὁ ἀνήρ, “ the man appears happy.”

Regularly, these primary predicates agree with their subjects in gender and number; and all verbs, whether they merely serve as copula or contain in themselves the primary predicate, agree with the subject of the sentence in number and person. But the following irregularities are not of unfrequent occurrence:

(a) The primary predicate does not agree with the subject in gender and number.

(aa) The predicate may stand in the neuter singular without regard to the gender and number of the subject, if we wish to indicate that the subject belongs to a particular class of things; as our ȧyaðòv Tоλνкоipavín (Il. 11. 204), "a multitude of rulers is not a good thing"-does not belong to the class of good things; ai μeraBoλai λvπnρóv (Eurip. Herc. F. 1263), "changes are a troublesome thing."

(bb) The predicate takes its gender from the meaning and not from the grammatical form of the subject; as τὸ μειράκιον ἐγένετο Kaλós, "the boy grew up handsome;" and this applies also to epithets (above, 414) and secondary predicates, as piλe Tékvov (Od.XV. 509) ; ὦ φίλη ψυχή, οἴχει δὴ ἀπολιπὼν ἡμᾶς (Xen. Cyr. VII. 3, § 8). (8) The verb does not agree with the subject in number.

(aa) When the subject is a neuter plural the verb is generally singular, as Tà toa тpéxe. The reason for this has been already given (381, (d)); and the same rule occasionally applies to the dual, as Пl. XXIII. 477: Séρкeтαι oσσe. But the plural may follow a neuter plural nominative (1) if it indicates a plural personality, as Plat. Lach. p. 180 E: Tà μeipánia èπaivoûow; (2) if the objects referred to are necessarily distributed and numerous, as Xen. Anab. 1. 7, § 17: φανερὰ ἦσαν καὶ ἵππων καὶ ἀνθρώπων ἴχνη πολλά; (3) if the objects are separated by locality or otherwise, as Xen. Cyr. II. 2, § 17: ταῦτα μὲν δὴ τοιαῦτα ἐλέγοντο, because the sayings of diverse parties are alluded to. In general this use of the plural verb with the neuter plural is more common in Xenophon, and in the Ionic and Doric poets, than in the majority of the prose writers.

(bb) With eσT and some other verbs the singular verb is used with the plural subject, even when the latter is masculine or feminine; as Plat. Euthyd. 302 c: čσti yàp ễμoiye kaì ßwμoí. Sympos. 188 Β: καὶ γὰρ πάχναι καὶ χάλαζαι καὶ ἐρυσίβαι γίγνεται: This idiom is called the schema Pindaricum, and Pindar uses a singular verb as a copula between a plural subject and a plural predicate, ΟΙ. Χ. 4: μελιγάρυες ὕμνοι ὑστέρων ἀρχαὶ λόγων τέλλεται.

(cc) If the subject, though singular, is a collective noun, the verb is plural; this applies not only to nouns of multitude, as duos, πλῆθος, στρατόπεδον, &c., but also to words or expressions like ἕκαστος, τις, ἄλλος ἄλλον, εἴ τις, ὅστις, ὃς ἂν, &c. Thus Alciphron, Ep. III. 10: ὁ δῆμος εἰς τὸ θέατρον προελθόντες ἐβόων. Plat. Resp. p. 550 E: ἄλλος ἄλλον ὁρῶν καὶ εἰς ζῆλον ἰὼν τὸ πλῆθος τοιοῦτον αὑτῶν ἀπειργάσαντο.

(dd) The plural verb stands beside a singular vocative, if the act refers to the companions also of the person addressed, as Soph. Phil. 466: ἤδη, τέκνον, στέλλεσθε;

(ee) When the plural of the first person is used royally and majestically, as it is called, for the singular, the proper number may be resumed even in the same sentence; as Eurip. Troad. 904: ws οὐ δικαίως, ἣν θάνω, θανούμεθα.

(ff) The dual, which is only an exceptional plural, may have a plural predicate or verb; as Plat. Resp. p. 478 a: dvváμeis àμpóτεραί ἐστον, δόξα τε καὶ ἐπιστήμη. Soph. Αntig. 55: ἀδελφὼ δύο κοινὸν μόρον κατειργάσαντο. And a feminine dual may agree with

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